To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The invasive vine black swallowwort [Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench = Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi, Apocynaceae] is difficult to control, and herbicide studies are lacking. This long-lived perennial species is primarily found in high-light environments in natural areas and perennial cropping systems in northeastern North America. We conducted a 3-yr herbicide efficacy study, with or without mowing, in an old-field site infested with V. nigrum in Dutchess County, NY, USA. Experimental plots were either herbicide treated in early July or mowed in early July and subsequently herbicide treated in late August for 2 yr with the potassium salt of glyphosate (2.02 kg ae ha−1), the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate (1.35 kg ae ha−1), or the butoxyethyl ester of triclopyr (1.79 kg ae ha−1). Both glyphosate formulations were effective in reducing V. nigrum aboveground biomass, although they were somewhat less effective in reducing cover or stem densities of V. nigrum plants >10-cm tall after 2 yr compared with untreated plots. Mowing did not always enhance the efficacy of foliar glyphosate applications. Triclopyr, with or without mowing, was generally not effective against V. nigrum in our study. The only significant effect of triclopyr was to increase the cover of grasses in the plots. While annual applications of glyphosate can be useful for management of V. nigrum infestations, higher rates and more frequent applications of triclopyr need to be investigated to determine its usefulness for V. nigrum control.
Pay inequality remains a pervasive problem within the workforce. However, it can be challenging for even well-meaning and responsible organizations to effectively assess which jobs should be considered equivalent and paid the same based on both legal criteria (which have shifted over time and differ across specific statutes and jurisdictions) and scientific evidence (which continues to amass). This paper intends to initiate a solution-focused discussion on how organizations can proactively categorize jobs so that pay decisions that are made about men and women are both legally defensible and fair. We propose that integrating the job analysis/job classification literature and the pay discrimination literature (e.g., legal opinions given by courts) will inform this discussion. We first review federal and state legislation and court opinions that have set legal standards for identifying pay discrimination. We then review the relevance of job analysis/job classification for systematically defining and categorizing jobs, highlighting the legal issues that should be but (to the best of our knowledge) have not been considered when undertaking such processes. Our intention is for this article to spark dialogue among researchers and practitioners regarding the identification of methods with which organizations can strive to meet equal pay standards and goals, applying both legal and scientific perspectives.
Drought stress and weed competition are two of the most important threats to corn production in the northeastern United States. Both pressures have the potential to worsen under climate change. In a 2-yr field study in Ithaca, NY, we tested the effects of drought and burcucumber, an increasingly problematic annual vine, on silage corn. Burcucumber seedlings were transplanted into corn rows at densities of 0, 0.5, 2, and 3 plants m−2 and a drought treatment was later imposed with rainout shelters constructed from steel frames and high-clarity plastic. Available soil moisture was lower in drought plots (47% ± 1% in 2018 and 52% ± 2% in 2019) than no-drought plots (69% ± 1% in 2018 and 68% ± 1% in 2019). Burcucumber planting density (P = 0.008) reduced fresh silage yield. Drought also reduced fresh silage yield (P < 0.001) with a drought-by-year interaction (P = 0.007): drought reduced fresh weight by 29% in 2018 (48,000 ± 2,000 kg ha−1 to 34,000 ± 3,000 kg ha−1) and by 9% in 2019 (38,000 ± 3,000 kg ha−1 to 34,000 ± 3,000 kg ha−1). Burcucumber planting density and drought did not interact. Overall, our findings indicate that drought and competition from burcucumber may have additive effects on silage corn in New York State. Regardless of water availability, active weed management is required to prevent yield losses due to burcucumber. Yield losses may be similar or greater in grain corn and might increase under climate change.
Scimitar syndrome is a rare CHD composed of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection from the right lung, via a scimitar vein, to the inferior vena cava rather than the left atrium. Genetic conditions associated with scimitar syndrome have not been well investigated at present.
Our study included patients with scimitar syndrome diagnosed at Texas Children’s Hospital from January 1987 to July 2020. Medical records were evaluated to determine if genetic testing was performed, including chromosomal microarray analysis or whole-exome sequencing. Copy number variants identified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic and variants of unknown significance were collected. Analyses of cardiac and extracardiac findings were performed via chart review.
Ninety-eight patients were identified with scimitar syndrome, 89 of which met inclusion criteria. A chromosome analysis or chromosomal microarray analysis was performed in 18 patients (20%). Whole-exome sequencing was performed in six patients following negative chromosomal microarray analysis testing. A molecular genetic diagnosis was made in 7 of 18 cases (39% of those tested). Ninety-six per cent of the cohort had some type of extracardiac finding, with 43% having asthma and 20% having a gastrointestinal pathology. Of the seven patients with positive genetic testing, all had extracardiac anomalies with all but one having gastrointestinal findings and 30% having congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Genetic testing revealed an underlying diagnosis in roughly 40% of those tested. Given the relatively high prevalence of pathogenic variants, we recommend chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing for patients with scimitar syndrome and extracardiac defects.
The analysis presented here was motivated by an objective of describing the interactions between the physical and biological processes governing the responses of tidal wetlands to rising sea level and the ensuing equilibrium elevation. We define equilibrium here as meaning that the elevation of the vegetated surface relative to mean sea level (MSL) remains within the vertical range of tolerance of the vegetation on decadal time scales or longer. The equilibrium is dynamic, and constantly responding to short-term changes in hydrodynamics, sediment supply, and primary productivity. For equilibrium to occur, the magnitude of vertical accretion must be great enough to compensate for change in the rate of sea-level rise (SLR). SLR is defined here as meaning the local rate relative to a benchmark, typically a gauge. Equilibrium is not a given, and SLR can exceed the capacity of a wetland to accrete vertically.
The introduced meadow knapweed (Centaurea × moncktonii C.E. Britton), a hybrid of black (Centaurea nigra L.) and brown (Centaurea jacea L.) knapweeds, is increasingly common in pastures, meadows, and waste areas across many U.S. states, including New York. We evaluated the effects of temperature, light, seed stratification, scarification, and population on percent germination in four experiments over 2 yr. Percent germination ranged from 3% to 100% across treatment combinations. Higher temperatures (30:20, 25:15, and sometimes 20:10 C day:night regimes compared with 15:5 C) promoted germination, especially when combined with the stimulatory effect of light (14:10 h L:D compared with continuous darkness). Under the three lowest temperature treatments, light increased percent germination by 15% to 86%. Cold-wet seed stratification also increased germination rates, especially at lower germination temperatures, but was not a prerequisite for germination. Scarification did not increase percent germination. Differences between C. × moncktonii populations were generally less significant than differences between temperature, light, and stratification treatments. Taken together, these results indicate that C. × moncktonii is capable of germinating under a broad range of environments, which may have facilitated this species’ range expansion in recent decades. However, C. × moncktonii also shows evidence of germination polymorphism: some seeds will germinate under suboptimal conditions, while others may remain dormant until the abiotic environment improves. Subtle differences in dormancy mechanisms and their relative frequencies may affect phenological traits like the timing of seedling emergence and ultimately shape the sizes and ranges of C. × moncktonii populations.
Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) TL1 trainees and KL2 scholars were surveyed to determine the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on training and career development. The most negative impact was lack of access to research facilities, clinics, and human subjects, plus for KL2 scholars lack of access to team members and need for homeschooling. TL1 trainees reported having more time to think and write. Common strategies to maintain research productivity involved time management, virtual connections with colleagues, and shifting to research activities not requiring laboratory/clinic settings. Strategies for mitigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on training and career development are described.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery (CRS) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Reduction in colorectal SSI rates is an important goal for surgical quality improvement.
To examine rates of SSI in patients with and without cancer and to identify potential predictors of SSI risk following CRS
American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data files for 2011–2013 from a sample of 12 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) member institutions were combined. Pooled SSI rates for colorectal procedures were calculated and risk was evaluated. The independent importance of potential risk factors was assessed using logistic regression.
Of 22 invited NCCN centers, 11 participated (50%). Colorectal procedures were selected by principal procedure current procedural technology (CPT) code. Cancer was defined by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes.
The primary outcome of interest was 30-day SSI rate.
A total of 652 SSIs (11.06%) were reported among 5,893 CRSs. Risk of SSI was similar for patients with and without cancer. Among CRS patients with underlying cancer, disseminated cancer (SSI rate, 17.5%; odds ratio [OR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23–2.26; P=.001), ASA score ≥3 (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09–1.83; P=.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.06–2.53; P=.02), and longer duration of procedure were associated with development of SSI.
Patients with disseminated cancer are at a higher risk for developing SSI. ASA score >3, COPD, and longer duration of surgery predict SSI risk. Disseminated cancer should be further evaluated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in generating risk-adjusted outcomes.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Tett, Hundley, and Christiansen (2017) raise an important issue related to meta-analysis and our frequent overinterpretation of point estimates to the diminishment of variability of the estimate. We view this as analogous to the situation in which weather forecasters communicate the likely track of hurricanes. Such predictions involve point estimates of where the center of the storm is likely to be at some future time. These point estimates can be connected to identify the most likely path of the storm. In addition to these point estimates, however, forecasters caution that we should also attend to the “cone of uncertainty.” That is, we should not focus exclusively on the point estimate to the exclusion of the errors of prediction.
Tett, Hundley, and Christiansen (2017) argue that the concept of validity generalization in meta-analysis is a myth, as the variability of the effect size appears to decrease with increasing moderator specificity such that the level of precision needed to deem an estimate “generalizable” is actually reached at levels of situational specificity that are so high as to (paradoxically) refute an inference of generalizability. This notion highlights the need to move away from claiming that effects are either “generalizable” or “situationally specific” and instead look more critically and less dichotomously at degrees of generalizability, or effect size variability.
Pale swallowwort and black swallowwort are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. A multiyear seedbank study was initiated in fall 2011 to assess annual emergence of seedlings and longevity of seeds of pale swallowwort and black swallowwort at four different burial depths (0, 1, 5, and 10 cm) over 4 yr. One hundred swallowwort seeds were sown in seed pans buried in individual pots, and emerged seedlings were counted and removed from May through September each year. A subset of seed pans was retrieved annually in October, and recovered seeds were counted and tested for viability. The majority of seedling emergence occurred during the first year (92% in 2012), and no new seedlings emerged in the third (2014) or fourth (2015) years. Pale swallowwort had relatively poor emergence at sowing depths of 0 cm (11%), 5 cm (6%), and 10 cm (0.05%—only one seedling), while 37% of pale swallowwort seeds emerged at 1 cm. The larger-seeded black swallowwort was more successful, with two-thirds of all sown seeds emerging at depths of 1 cm (71%) and 5 cm (66%), and 26% emerging at 10 cm. Only 16% of the surface-sown black swallowwort emerged. A large portion of the seeds that germinated at 10 cm, as well as at 5 cm for pale swallowwort, died before reaching the soil surface. Of filled seeds that were recovered in 2012 (black swallowwort at the 0-cm depth), 66% were viable. No viable seeds were recovered after the second growing season. Seeds recovered following the third year had become too deteriorated to accurately assess. Swallowwort seeds do not appear to survive more than 2 yr in the soil, at least in our experiment, suggesting that the elimination of seed production over 3 yr will exhaust the local seedbank. Seeds would need to be buried at least 10 cm for pale swallowwort but more than 10 cm for black swallowwort to prevent seedling emergence. Burial of swallowwort seeds as a management strategy may, however, only be practical in natural areas where high swallowwort densities occur.
The European vines pale swallowwort and black swallowwort are invading various habitats in northeastern North America. It is unclear how these plants might respond to potential biological control agents, as they experience little herbivore damage in North America, or longer durations of mowing given the reported lack of efficacy of mechanical control. We evaluated the effect of six seasons of artificial defoliation (50 or 100% defoliation once or twice per season) and clipping (once, twice, or four times at 8 cm above the soil level) on the survival, growth, and reproduction of mature plants of the two species grown in a common garden field experiment. No plants died from damage after 6 yr. Black swallowwort produced more aboveground biomass, whereas pale swallowwort produced more root biomass and root crown buds, compared with its congener species. For most damage treatments, root biomass and the number of crown buds and stems increased over time, whereas aboveground biomass and viable seeds per plant generally did not change. Substantial overlap in plant size and seed production occurred among damage treatments and species. The most severe defoliation treatment did not substantially limit growth and reproduction compared with undamaged plants. While two clippings per season sometimes prevented seed production, four clippings per season was the only type of damage that consistently prevented plant growth and eliminated seed production. Pale and black swallowwort display a high tolerance to aboveground tissue loss in high-light environments without plant competition. The annual increase in plant size calls into question the potential efficacy of a defoliating insect against field populations of swallowworts, and it seems likely the only benefits of a long-term mowing regime will be to eliminate seed production.
Pale swallow-wort is a nonnative vine, invading natural areas across much of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Control of this clump-forming herbaceous perennial has been difficult. We conducted a 2-yr study (2005–2006) in a heavily infested site in Chaumont, NY to assess the response of swallow-wort to triclopyr applied once as a foliar treatment (1.9 kg ae/ha) (2005 only) alone or in combination with clipping 4 wk later, followed by a single clipping in 2006. We also evaluated the response of swallow-wort to one or two clippings during each of the 2 yr. Two yr after treatments began, swallow-wort cover was lower in plots treated with triclopyr (20 ± 5%) compared with plots subjected to clipping-only (56 ± 6%) or unmanaged controls (76 ± 6%). Stem densities were also lower in triclopyr-treated plots (25 ± 5 stems/m2) than in clipping-only (188 ± 9 stems/m2) and control (178 ± 10 stems/m2) plots across three different sample dates. Seedling densities were lower in triclopyr-treated plots (160 ± 50 seedlings/m2) relative to clipping-only (1,120 ± 180 seedlings/m2) and control (960 ± 50 seedlings/m2) plots after the 2005 growing season. The cover of other plant species was negatively correlated with swallow-wort cover and was higher in triclopyr-treated plots (75 ± 3%) than in clipping-only (5 ± 1%) and control (7 ± 4%) plots in 2006. Across both years, swallow-wort in control and clipped plots produced follicles, but not in triclopyr-treated plots. Regardless of clipping frequency, clipping in June or July was not effective in reducing swallow-wort stem density, cover, or follicle production. Although a single application of triclopyr provided considerable suppression of swallow-wort after two growing seasons, application of triclopyr in subsequent years is likely required to achieve long-term control.