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Hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] is often called the “perfect aquatic weed,” as it has numerous physiological adaptations that make it highly aggressive and competitive. Hydrilla verticillata has historically been managed effectively using fluridone; however, the overreliance on this single mechanism of action (MOA) resulted in evolved fluridone resistance in the late 1990s. Where fluridone-resistant H. verticillata populations evolved, endothall became widely used for H. verticillata control. In 2018, florpyrauxifen-benzyl, a highly active auxin-mimic herbicide, was registered for H. verticillata control, and its use has increased since its introduction. Endothall and florpyrauxifen-benzyl provide two effective MOAs for H. verticillata management, and combining these two MOAs would be an effective strategy to delay further resistance evolution. The objective of this research was to determine whether combining endothall and florpyrauxifen-benzyl would significantly impact the behavior of either herbicide in dioecious (DHV) or monoecious (MHV) H. verticillata compared with their behavior when applied alone. Endothall and florpyrauxifen-benzyl absorption and accumulation alone and in combination were measured over a 192-h time course. Translocation patterns were also determined. Herbicide accumulation in MHV and DHV was not impacted when these herbicides were applied in combination. Endothall translocation from shoots to roots in DHV was not impacted (alone = 18.7 ± 1.4%; combination = 23.2 ± 2.2%); however, endothall shoot-to-root translocation in MHV was reduced from 16.2 ± 1.3% applied alone to 2.2 ± 0.1% when applied in combination with florpyrauxifen-benzyl. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl shoot-to-root translocation was reduced in both MHV and DHV when applied in combination with endothall. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl translocation was reduced by 16- and 6-fold in DHV and MHV, respectively. These data do not suggest that there would be operational impacts from endothall and florpyrauxifen-benzyl mixtures. Still, there appear to be changes in herbicide behavior, primarily shoot-to-root translocation, when these two herbicides are applied in combination.
The invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) is a critical threat to the semiarid shrublands that characterize western North America. More abundant fine fuel after invasion typically increases fire frequency in plant communities adapted to relatively infrequent burning, reducing the likelihood of native plant persistence. Currently, imazapic is most often used to manage B. tectorum, but reinvasion from the seedbank after treatment is common. Indaziflam is a newer herbicide recently labeled for use in rangelands grazed by livestock, and many research trials have demonstrated its ability to deplete invasive annual grass seedbanks. We evaluated the effectiveness of indaziflam and imazapic for reducing B. tectorum density and cover over a period of approximately 5 yr (57 mo after treatment [MAT]) at two invaded sagebrush-grassland sites near Pinedale, WY. Treatments included three different indaziflam rates (51, 73, and 102 g ai ha−1) and one imazapic rate (123 g ai ha−1), and these treatments were reapplied to half of each plot at 45 MAT to evaluate the effects of two sequential applications. We also measured perennial grass cover, because positive perennial grass responses were observed after release from B. tectorum competition in other studies, and perennial grasses may provide resistance to B. tectorum reinvasion. Intermediate and high indaziflam rates (73 and 102 g ha−1, respectively) reduced B. tectorum cover and density at 45 MAT, and perennial grass cover responded positively to some treatments, mostly early in the study (≤33 MAT). Imazapic reduced B. tectorum initially, but did not affect density or cover at either site beyond 21 MAT. Reapplication did not substantially improve B. tectorum control at 57 MAT in plots treated with intermediate and high indaziflam rates, suggesting that long-term control with a single indaziflam treatment may be possible in some cases.
Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) is a highly invasive winter annual grass that can fill open niches in native plant communities. Prescribed burning is often used to control B. tectorum and can be combined with herbicide treatments to extend the duration of control and promote the native plant community. Several herbicides have been evaluated in conjunction with burning for B. tectorum control, although the herbicide indaziflam has not. In September 2017, two B. tectorum–infested sites were burned in Colorado foothill shrublands. In March 2018, indaziflam was applied alone or in combination with glyphosate, rimsulfuron, or imazapic. These treatments were compared with imazapic plus glyphosate as a standard. All treatments were made within burned and non-burned areas in a crossed-nested design. Bromus tectorum cover and the desirable plant community responses were evaluated 1 and 2 yr after treatment (YAT). In non-burned areas, all indaziflam treatments reduced B. tectorum cover compared with the control. In contrast, reductions from the imazapic treatments did not persist after the first year. Most post-burn treatments further decreased B. tectorum cover compared with the non-burned treatments. The most effective treatments (indaziflam 44 and 73 g ai ha−1 + imazapic 123 g ae ha−1) provided similar levels of control (<1% B. tectorum cover at 2 YAT), with or without burning. Desirable plant cover, richness, and diversity were not negatively impacted by burning or herbicide treatments. Plant diversity and species richness increased at Site 2 when burning was followed by indaziflam treatments. This study indicates that B. tectorum control using indaziflam can be enhanced when applied after burning, and the combinations with imazapic or rimsulfuron provide a wider application window compared with the combination with glyphosate.
Glyphosate’s efficacy is influenced by the amount absorbed and translocated throughout the plant to inhibit 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Glyphosate resistance can be due to target-site (TS) or non–target site (NTS) resistance mechanisms. TS resistance includes an altered target site and gene overexpression, while NTS resistance includes reduced absorption, reduced translocation, enhanced metabolism, and exclusion/sequestration. The goal of this research was to elucidate the mechanism(s) of glyphosate resistance in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) from Ontario, Canada. The resistance factor for this glyphosate-resistant (GR) A. artemisiifolia biotype is 5.1. No amino acid substitutions were found at positions 102 or 106 of the EPSPS enzyme in this A. artemisiifolia biotype. Based on [14C]glyphosate studies, there was no difference in glyphosate absorption or translocation between glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and GR A. artemisiifolia biotypes. Radio-labeled glyphosate metabolites were similar for GS and GR A. artemisiifolia 96 h after application. Glyphosate resistance in this A. artemisiifolia biotype is not due to an altered target site due to amino acid substitutions at positions 102 and 106 in the EPSPS and is not due to the NTS mechanisms of reduced absorption, reduced translocation, or enhanced metabolism.
Yellow-flag iris (Iris pseudacorus L.) is a nonnative, invasive wetland plant that disrupts riparian ecosystem processes and is widely distributed across the United States and Canada. Due to its physiological and morphological characteristics, I. pseudacorus has the capacity to exclude native vegetation and form extensive monocultures in both lotic and lentic wetland systems. Methods commonly used to manage I. pseudacorus include manual (e.g., hand pulling, digging) and mechanical (e.g., mowing) treatments for small populations and herbicide applications for larger populations; however, herbicide applications near water may be prohibited due to label restrictions. The objective of this research was to evaluate cattle trampling as a nonchemical method to reduce I. pseudacorus in riparian habitats. A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of inundation and two different timings of simulated trampling on I. pseudacorus density, height, and soluble sugar concentrations in the rhizomes. A complementary field demonstration was established on a ranch in northwestern Nebraska to evaluate cattle trampling effects on I. pseudacorus density and height after two consecutive years. Simulated cattle trampling in the greenhouse had no effect on I. pseudacorus density or height of non-inundated samples. However, combining trampling with inundation reduced I. pseudacorus density from a median of 10 I. pseudacorus per pot to 0 I. pseudacorus per pot and median height from 0.35 m to 0 m by the conclusion of the study. Additionally, the field demonstration resulted in reductions of both density and height of I. pseudacorus after two consecutive years (72% and 67% reduction, respectively). Soluble sugar concentrations were not impacted by any treatment.
Indaziflam, a PRE herbicide option for weed management on rangeland and natural areas, provides long-term control of invasive winter annual grasses (IWAGs). Because indaziflam only provides PRE control of IWAGs, POST herbicides such as glyphosate can be mixed with indaziflam to control germinated IWAG seedlings. Field trials were conducted at three sites on the Colorado Front Range to evaluate glyphosate dose required to provide adequate POST IWAG control and compare long-term downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), Japanese brome (Bromus arvensis L.), and feral rye (Secale cereale L.) control with indaziflam and imazapic. Two of the three sites were void of desirable species, so species establishment through drill seeding was assessed, while the remnant native plant response was assessed at the third site. Herbicide applications were made March 2014 through April 2015, and two sites were drill seeded with native species 9 mo after herbicide application. Yearly visual control evaluations, biomass of all plant species, and drilled species stand counts were collected. Glyphosate at 474 g ae ha−1 reduced B. tectorum biomass to zero, while glyphosate at 631 g ae ha−1 was needed to reduce biomass to near zero at the S. cereale site. At all three sites, only indaziflam treatments had significant reductions in IWAG biomass compared with the nontreated check at 3 yr after treatment (YAT). By 3 YAT in the drill-seeded sites, cool-season grass frequency ranged from 37% to 69% within indaziflam treatments (73 and 102 g ai ha−1), while imazapic treatments ranged from 0% to 26% cool-season grass frequency. In the site with a remnant native plant community, indaziflam treatments resulted in a 3- to 4-fold increase in native grass biomass. These results indicate that the multiyear IWAG control provided by indaziflam can aid in desirable species reestablishment through drill seeding or response of the remnant plant community.
Downy brome, feral rye, and jointed goatgrass are problematic winter annual grasses in central Great Plains winter wheat production. Integrated control strategies are needed to manage winter annual grasses and reduce selection pressure exerted on these weed populations by the limited herbicide options currently available. Harvest weed-seed control (HWSC) methods aim to remove or destroy weed seeds, thereby reducing seed-bank enrichment at crop harvest. An added advantage is the potential to reduce herbicide-resistant weed seeds that are more likely to be present at harvest, thereby providing a nonchemical resistance-management strategy. Our objective was to assess the potential for HWSC of winter annual grass weeds in winter wheat by measuring seed retention at harvest and destruction percentage in an impact mill. During 2015 and 2016, 40 wheat fields in eastern Colorado were sampled. Seed retention was quantified and compared per weed species by counting seed retained above the harvested fraction of the wheat upper canopy (15 cm and above), seed retained below 15 cm, and shattered seed on the soil surface at wheat harvest. A stand-mounted impact mill device was used to determine the percent seed destruction of grass weed species in processed wheat chaff. Averaged across both years, seed retention (±SE) was 75% ± 2.9%, 90% ± 1.7%, and 76% ± 4.3% for downy brome, feral rye, and jointed goatgrass, respectively. Seed retention was most variable for downy brome, because 59% of the samples had at least 75% seed retention, whereas the proportions for feral rye and jointed goatgrass samples with at least 75% seed retention were 93% and 70%, respectively. Weed seed destruction percentages were at least 98% for all three species. These results suggest HWSC could be implemented as an integrated strategy for winter annual grass management in central Great Plains winter wheat cropping systems.
Total vegetation control (TVC) is an essential management practice to eliminate all vegetation for the purpose of protecting infrastructure, people, or natural resources on sites where vegetation poses major fire, visibility, and infrastructure risks. TVC is implemented on sites such as railroads, power substations, airports, roadsides, and oil and gas facilities. Current research has identified that tank-mixing two effective mechanisms of action is a superior resistance management strategy compared to rotating mechanisms of action; however, effective tank mixes for TVC have not been thoroughly evaluated. A field experiment was conducted from 2013 to 2014 at five sites in Colorado to compare 32 treatment combinations to two industry standards for TVC. Research objectives were (1) to identify herbicide tank-mix combinations for TVC with multiple effective mechanisms of action for resistance management, (2) to evaluate lower use rate alternatives to minimize nontarget impacts, and (3) to determine the efficacy of fall versus spring application timings. Seven treatments were identified as top-ranking treatments, averaging 96% bare-ground (BG) across five sites and two application timings. Four out of the seven top-ranked treatments included aminocyclopyrachlor, chlorsulfuron, and indaziflam. The industry standard diuron plus imazapyr was in the top ranking, whereas the other industry standard bromacil plus diuron performed inconsistently across sites. Probability modeling was used to predict the probability of achieving 97% or 100% BG with various treatment combinations. The combination of aminocyclopyrachlor, chlorsulfuron, indaziflam, and imazapyr had the highest predicted BG probability, with 88% predicted probability of achieving 100% BG, compared to 67% and 52% predicted probabilities for the industry standards diuron plus imazapyr and bromacil plus diuron, respectively. In three of the five sites, fall applications outperformed the same treatments applied in the spring. Several top-ranking treatments represent newer, lower use rate herbicide combinations that provide multiple mechanisms of action to manage herbicide-resistant weeds and minimize nontarget impacts.
Invasive winter annual grass infestations on rangeland accumulate large quantities of litter on the soil surface, as plants senesce yearly and decompose slowly. It has been speculated that winter annual grass litter can adsorb soil-active herbicides and reduce overall performance. Three experiments were conducted from 2017 to 2018 at the Colorado State University Weed Research Laboratory to evaluate interception and subsequent desorption of herbicides applied to litter from three invasive winter annual grass species with simulated rainfall. Imazapic, rimsulfuron, and indaziflam were applied to medusahead [Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski], ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.], and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) litter at two amounts (equivalent to 1,300 and 2,600 kg ha−1). Rainfall was simulated at 3, 6, 12, and 24 mm at 0, 1, and 7 d after herbicide application. Herbicide concentration from the collected rainfall was measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. At 2,600 kg ha−1, B. tectorum herbicide interception was 84.3%, while V. dubia and T. caput-medusae averaged 76% herbicide interception. There were no differences in desorption among the three litter types. Simulated rainfall at 0 d after application recovered 100% of the intercepted rimsulfuron and imazapic from B. tectorum litter, while recovery decreased to 65% with rainfall at 1 or 7 d after application. Only 54% of indaziflam could be recovered at 0 d, and recovery decreased to 33% when rainfall was applied at 1 or 7 d after application. Applying soil-active herbicides before forecasted rain or tank mixing with a POST herbicide to provide initial control could potentially increase the amount of herbicide reaching the soil and provide more consistent invasive winter annual grass control.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) kochia has been reported across the western and midwestern United States. From 2011 to 2014, kochia seed was collected from agronomic regions across Colorado to evaluate the frequency and distribution of glyphosate-, dicamba-, and fluroxypyr-resistant kochia, and to assess the frequency of multiple resistance. Here we report resistance frequency as percent resistance within a population, and resistance distribution as the percentage and locations of accessions classified as resistant to a discriminating herbicide dose. In 2011, kochia accessions were screened with glyphosate only, whereas from 2012 to 2014 kochia accessions were screened with glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr. From 2011 to 2014, the percentages of GR kochia accessions were 60%, 45%, 39%, and 52%, respectively. The percentages of dicamba-resistant kochia accessions from 2012 to 2014 were 33%, 45%, and 28%, respectively. No fluroxypyr-resistant accessions were identified. Multiple-resistant accessions (low resistance or resistant to both glyphosate and dicamba) from 2012 to 2014 were identified in 14%, 15%, and 20% of total sampled accessions, respectively. This confirmation of multiple glyphosate and dicamba resistance in kochia accessions emphasizes the importance of diversity in herbicide site of action as critical to extend the usefulness of remaining effective herbicides such as fluroxypyr for management of this weed.
Minimizing the negative ecological impacts of exotic plant invasions is one goal of land management. Using selective herbicides is one strategy to achieve this goal; however, the unintended consequences of this strategy are not always fully understood. The recently introduced herbicide indaziflam has a mode of action not previously used in non-crop weed management. Thus, there is limited information about the impacts of this active ingredient when applied alone or in combination with other non-crop herbicides. The objective of this research was to evaluate native species tolerance to indaziflam and imazapic applied alone and with other broadleaf herbicides. Replicated field plots were established at two locations in Colorado with a diverse mix of native forbs and grasses. Species richness and abundance were compared between the nontreated control plots and plots where indaziflam and imazapic were applied alone and in combination with picloram and aminocyclopyrachlor. Species richness and abundance did not decrease when indaziflam or imazapic were applied alone; however, species abundance was reduced by treatments containing picloram and aminocyclopyrachlor. Species richness was only impacted at one site 1 yr after treatment (YAT) by these broadleaf herbicides. Decreases in abundance were mainly due to reductions in forbs that resulted in a corresponding increase in grass cover. Our data suggest that indaziflam will control downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) for multiple years without reduction in perennial species richness or abundance. If B. tectorum is present with perennial broadleaf weeds requiring the addition of herbicides like picloram or aminocyclopyrachlor, forb abundance could be reduced, and in some cases there could be a temporary reduction in perennial species richness.
Imazapyr, imazaquin, and imazethapyr were evaluated for control of leafy spurge. Herbicides were applied at 70, 140, and 280 g ae/ha in Fall 1989, 1990, or 1991 on a sub-irrigated meadow near Ainsworth, NE and a tallgrass prairie near Columbus, NE. Imazapyr, imazaquin, imazethapyr at 280 g/ha controlled leafy spurge 58, 82 and 73%, respectively, 9 mo after treatment (MAT) at Ainsworth. Leafy spurge control averaged 49% 9 MAT at Columbus where 280 g/ha of the imidazolinone herbicides were applied. Leafy spurge yields were reduced at Ainsworth by 29 and 78% where the imidazolinones were applied at 140 and 280 g/ha. By 11 MAT, leafy spurge control on areas treated with 280 g/ha declined to less than 60% at Ainsworth and 10% at Columbus. Perennial forage grass yields at both sites were generally unaffected by imazaquin or imazethapyr, but imazapyr at 280 g/ha reduced yields by 69 and 44% at Ainsworth and Columbus, respectively. Imidazolinone herbicides applied in the fall partially controlled leafy spurge, but did not increase perennial forage grass yields.
Greenhouse cage studies were conducted to determine the influence of shoot morphology and genetic variation on establishment of Spurgia esulae gall midge on seven leafy spurge genotypes. The genotypes were collected from South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, Montana, Wyoming, Manitoba, and Austria. Genotypes from South Dakota and Nebraska were most susceptible to gall formation and had the highest larvae survival, while the genotypes from Montana and Manitoba were most resistant. Morphological characteristics of the leafy spurge stem tips, such as stem diameter, leaf length, width, and area did not correlate with gall formation or larvae survival. Chloroplast DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the genotypes identified six chloroplast types among the seven leafy spurge genotypes. The two genotypes most resistant to galling by S. esulae, Manitoba and Montana, had the same chloroplast genotype, but also were closely related to the two most susceptible genotypes. Because eggs were laid on all genotypes, it appears that adult females were not preferentially selecting appropriate host genotypes, but that egg and larvae survival was strongly influenced by genotype.
Laboratory experiments were conducted to identify adjuvants that improve absorption of imazethapyr, 2,4-D amine, and picloram by leafy spurge. Adjuvants (0.25% v/v) included crop oil concentrate (COC), methylated seed oil (MSO), nonionic surfactant (NIS), organosilicones (Silwet L-77®, Sylgard® 309, Silwet® 408), 3:1 mixtures of acetylinic diol ethoxylates (ADE40, ADE65, ADE85) with Silwet L-77, ammonium sulfate (2.5 kg ha−1), and 28% urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, 2.5% v/v). Adjuvants were combined with 14C-herbicide and commercially formulated herbicide product. Leaves were harvested 2 DAT, rinsed with 10% aqueous methanol to remove surface deposits of herbicide, and dipped in 9:1 hexane:acetone to solubilize cuticular waxes. Imazethapyr absorption increased by 38 to 68% when UAN was combined with COC, NIS, or MSO. Total absorption of imazethapyr plus COC, MSO, or NIS exceeded 86% 2 DAT when UAN was added. Urea ammonium nitrate reduced the amount of imazethapyr associated with the cuticular wax by 2.0%. Imazethapyr absorption was similar on both the abaxial and adaxial leaf surface when UAN was not added; however, 12% more imazethapyr was absorbed from the abaxial leaf surface than from the adaxial leaf surface when UAN was combined with Sylgard 309. Uptake of 2,4-D ranged from 54 to 78% and was greatest with Silwet 408 and 3:1 mixture of ADE40: Silwet L-77. Picloram absorption ranged from 3 to 19%. Buffering picloram treatment solutions to pH 7 and including 2.5 kg ha-1 ammonium sulfate increased picloram absorption to 37%.
Terbufos and primisulfuron interactions were evaluated under growth chamber conditions using a sand culture system. Terbufos was applied to transplanted corn seedlings, followed in 5 d by foliar applications of primisulfuron plus nonionic surfactant. Primisulfuron and terbufos alone did not cause corn injury; however, shoot dry weight and shoot length were reduced 28 and 36% in terbufos treatments 96 h after primisulfuron application. Primisulfuron absorption and translocation were not affected by terbufos, but the half-life of primisulfuron increased from 2 to 3.5 h in terbufos treatments. Terbufos did not affect primisulfuron metabolite profiles. The basis for increased primisulfuron phytotoxicity in terbufos treatments appeared to result from reduced primisulfuron metabolism.
Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicides applied alone or in combination to control leafy spurge. Imazapyr (840 g ai/ha), imazethapyr (140 g/ha), sulfometuron (100 g/ha), and chlorsulfuron (20 g/ha) were applied in the fall on rangeland sites near Ainsworth and Columbus, NE. Imidazolinone and sulfonylurea herbicide combinations did not improve leafy spurge control nor affect forage grass yields when compared with herbicides applied alone. Imazapyr and sulfometuron were the most efficacious, providing greater than 80% leafy spurge control 9 mo after treatment (MAT). Imazethapyr provided 80% control of leafy spurge 9 MAT when applied to a coarse textured, low organic matter soil. In contrast, leafy spurge control was only 15% when imazethapyr was applied to a fine textured soil. Chlorsulfuron did not control leafy spurge, regardless of site characteristics. Imazapyr reduced perennial grass yields by more than 60%.
Levels of inter- and intrapopulation genetic variation were determined in five North American populations of leafy spurge using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) RFLPs and RAPD markers. Thirteen plastome types were identified among 123 individuals collected from five geographically separated populations. Number of plastomes within a population ranged from one to seven, with four of the populations having a predominate type plus one or more rarer types. Some plastome types were shared by populations, but plastome distribution among populations was nonrandom. RAPD markers indicated greatest relatedness among individuals within a population. Relatedness among populations as established through RAPDs was greater for geographically closer populations; this relationship was not observed for cpDNA markers. Differences in the range of movement for pollen and seed may account for differences between results of the cpDNA and RAPD analyses. The high degree of genetic variability among North American leafy spurge suggests possible multiple introductions or a high degree of variability within leafy spurge populations in its native range.
Degradation of Great Plains rangelands can be linked to past management practices that reduced native species diversity and accelerated establishment and expansion of exotic weeds and less desirable native species. Leafy spurge is an exotic perennial weed that infests more than 1 million ha in the northern Great Plains and reduces rangeland carrying capacity by competing with desirable forages and causing infested areas to be undesirable to cattle and wildlife. Research was conducted to determine the feasibility of using herbicides to suppress leafy spurge and other resident vegetation, which facilitated planting and establishment of native tallgrasses. Four experiments were conducted where 0.28, 0.56, and 0.84 kg ai/ha imazapyr and 0.1 kg ai/ha sulfometuron were applied alone and in combination and 0.84 kg ai/ha glyphosate was applied to leafy spurge-infested range sites in fall 1991 near Ainsworth, NE, and in fall 1991, 1992, and 1993 near Ansley, NE. Research areas were burned about 200 d after herbicide application to reduce plant residue. Monoculture stands of big bluestem and switchgrass were then no-till planted in each experiment and indiangrass was no-till planted in experiments initiated at Ansley in 1992 and 1993. Yields of the planted grasses, leafy spurge, and other vegetation were measured in August at each location starting the year after planting. Imazapyr was an essential component of treatments applied before planting to facilitate establishment of highly productive stands of the tallgrasses. Generally, yields were maximized by fall treatments of 0.28 kg/ha imazapyr + 0.1 kg/ha sulfometuron for big bluestem, 0.84 kg/ha imazapyr for indiangrass, and 0.84 kg/ha imazapyr + 0.1 kg/ha sulfometuron for switchgrass. Yields of the planted grasses were frequently four times greater where these herbicides were applied compared to where glyphosate or no herbicide were applied. Leafy spurge yields were usually reduced in areas where tallgrass yields were greatest. The sequential combination of suppressing vegetation with fall-applied herbicides, burning standing dead plant residue, then no-till planting desirable native tallgrasses in the spring increased productivity of these leafy spurge-infested range sites.
Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the influence of surfactants applied with or without nitrogen on MON 37500 foliar absorption by Bromus tectorum, Bromus japonicus, Aegilops cylindrica, Triticum aestivum, Chorispora tenella, and Lactuca serriola. MON 37500 absorption in B. tectorum and B. japonicus increased from 40% 24 h after treatment (HAT) to 48% 48 HAT, averaged across surfactants with no added nitrogen. Averaged across nitrogen source and species, nonionic surfactant, ethylated seed oil, and organosilicate provided comparable enhancement of MON 37500 absorption (56 to 68%), whereas crop oil concentrate provided only 27 to 29% absorption under the same conditions. Averaged across species and surfactant class, urea ammonium nitrate had the greatest effect on MON 37500 absorption (68%), compared to ammonium sulfate (59%) or no nitrogen (40%). Nitrogen, regardless of the type, significantly improved foliar absorption of MON 37500. MON 37500 absorption by species was 71, 63, 57, 57, 49, and 38% in C. tenella, B. japonicus, T. aestivum, A. cylindrica, B. tectorum, and L. serriola, respectively, when averaged across surfactants and nitrogen. Densely pubescent B. japonicus leaves did not retain significant amounts of MON 37500 following a primary leaf wash.
DNA-based molecular markers may provide information about introduced weedy species that would be useful in biological weed control efforts. Chloroplast DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (cpDNA RFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis are two DNA-based marker techniques that can provide estimates of genetic variation in native and introduced populations of weedy species. Profiles provided by these techniques could furnish the necessary information to determine the geographic origins of introduced species and provide evidence for multiple introductions. Although DNA-based markers would not necessarily identify the genetic basis for host-pest compatibility, they would enable identification of specific host genotypes. Current criteria for selecting a weedy species as a target for biological control are primarily political and economic. The importance of genetic diversity and population structure in determining the vulnerability of plant populations to insects or diseases has not been fully appreciated. Estimates of genetic diversity based on DNA marker analysis could be used as one criteria for determining which plants are targeted for biological control. The success of biological weed control efforts has been limited by the high levels of genetic diversity occurring in target weed specks and the lack of biocontrol agent and target weed compatibilities. DNA-based markers may be used to increase our understanding of these factors and contribute to the success of biological weed control by helping to target the most vulnerable species and provide more realistic expectations of the potential for success given available resources.