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After nearly two decades of rising wages for those in the unskilled sectors of China's economy, in the mid-2010s employment and wages in China began to experience new polarizing trends. Using data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, this paper examines trends in multiple sectors and subeconomies of China, revealing the substantial rise of employment in informal, low-skilled services as well as the steady decline of wage growth in the informal subeconomy. At the same time, we find that although employment growth in the formal subeconomy is relatively moderate, wage growth in high-skilled services is steadily rising. These two trends pose a challenge for China, presenting a new and uncertain period of economic change.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Identifying differential COVID-19 progression across the disease continuum may help policymakers and service providers better identify or predict gaps in services and resources and develop precision strategies to support COVID-19 patients where the need is mostly needed. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Single institution studies have documented COVID-19 disproportionally affected US racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. However, few population-wide data studied severity and death in multiracial populations. We aim to examine the current disparity in the COVID-19 continuum, including hospitalizations, severity, and death. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data on 67,094 laboratory documented COVID-19 cases nested from the state-wide ‘OneFlorida’ research consortium through August 3, 2020, were assessed to decide differences and disparities in COVID-19 outcomes. A COVID-19 outcome continuum outlining the proportions of cases transitioning from diagnosis to death was constructed (Figure 1). OneFlorida partners provide health care to more than 40% of Floridians in the nation’s third-largest and very diverse state. OneFlorida partners encompass hospitals, practice/clinic settings, and physicians, which provide care for 15 million patients across all of Florida’s 67 counties. It is part of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among cases, 25,443 (37.9%) were non-Hispanic Whites, 11,709 (17.5%) were non-Hispanic Blacks, and 16,119 (24.0%) were Hispanics. Among COVID-19 patients, Blacks and Hispanics had a higher frequency of emergency department (ED) visits (45.7% and 46.0%, respectively), whereas admission rates were higher in Blacks (15.6%) and Whites (15.9%) than in Hispanics (11.5%). Blacks had the highest rates of intubation (3.6%) and in-hospital deaths (2.7%) compared to Whites (2.5% and 2.3%, respectively) and Hispanics (1.3% and 1.4%, respectively), Figure 1. When rates were indexed to the state census data, Blacks had the worst rates across the disease continuum (infection to death). In comparison, Hispanics had higher rates of ED visits but lower rates of intubation and death, Table 1. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Outcomes continuum is a useful tool at an individual-level to assess care outcomes and at population-level as a framework to analyze the proportion of population with COVID-19 that progress to each successive disease stage. This will help policymakers to better identify gaps in services and develop precision strategies to support COVID-19 patients.
The emotion of pride appears to be a neurocognitive guidance system to capitalize on opportunities to become more highly valued and respected by others. Whereas the inputs and the outputs of pride are relatively well understood, little is known about how the pride system matches inputs to outputs. How does pride work? Here we evaluate the hypothesis that pride magnitude matches the various outputs it controls to the present activating conditions – the precise degree to which others would value the focal individual if the individual achieved a particular achievement. Operating in this manner would allow the pride system to balance the competing demands of effectiveness and economy, to avoid the dual costs of under-deploying and over-deploying its outputs. To test this hypothesis, we measured people's responses regarding each of 25 socially valued traits. We observed the predicted magnitude matchings. The intensities of the pride feeling and of various motivations of pride (communicating the achievement, demanding better treatment, investing in the valued trait and pursuing new challenges) vary in proportion: (a) to one another; and (b) to the degree to which audiences value each achievement. These patterns of magnitude matching were observed both within and between the USA and India. These findings suggest that pride works cost-effectively, promoting the pursuit of achievements and facilitating the gains from others’ valuations that make those achievements worth pursuing.
Amongst patients with CHD, the time of transition to adulthood is associated with lapses in care leading to significant morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in perceptions between parents and teens in regard to transition readiness.
Responses were collected from 175 teen–parent pairs via the validated CHD Transition Readiness survey and an information request checklist. The survey was distributed via an electronic tablet at a routine clinic visit.
Parents reported a perceived knowledge gap of 29.2% (the percentage of survey items in which a parent believes their teen does not know), compared to teens self-reporting an average of 25.9% of survey items in which they feel deficient (p = 0.01). Agreement was lowest for long-term medical needs, physical activities allowed, insurance, and education. In regard to self-management behaviours, agreement between parent and teen was slight to moderate (weighted κ statistic = 0.18 to 0.51). For self-efficacy, agreement ranged from slight to fair (weighted κ = 0.16 to 0.28). Teens were more likely to request information than their parents (79% versus 65% requesting at least one item) particularly in regard to pregnancy/contraception and insurance.
Parents and teens differ in several key perceptions regarding knowledge, behaviours, and feelings related to the management of heart disease. Specifically, parents perceive a higher knowledge deficit, teens perceive higher self-efficacy, and parents and teens agree that self-management is low.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Research on social determinants of health (SDHs) in type 2 diabetes have largely examined disease etiology rather than severity. To find factors associated with complications, we investigated socio-demographics, healthcare access, and healthcare utilization in individuals with type 2 diabetes with respect to related comorbidity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Community health workers assessed 8494 participants for type 2 diabetes (n=939; 11%) through HealthStreet, a community-engagement model implemented in North Central Florida. Comorbidities were defined as neuropathy, retinopathy, high cholesterol, hypertension, and kidney failure. We conducted multivariate analyses to test the association of socio-demographic factors and comorbidity status. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 939 members with type 2 diabetes, 164 (17%), 272 (29%), 370 (39%), and 133 (14%) reported having 0, 1, 2, and 3+ comorbidities, respectively. There is a smaller proportion of African-Americans reporting 3+ comorbidities compared with other comorbidity groups (p=0.003). Those with more comorbidity are less employed (p<0.0001) and are more likely to have Medicare/Medicaid (p=0.03) than those without comorbidity. Those with no comorbidity are more likely to be uninsured compared to those with comorbidity (p=0.0297). Adjusting for age, race, gender, and BMI, those that have at least 1 comorbidity are 1.4 times more likely to be food insecure (p=0.004) and are 1.9 times more likely to have seen a doctor in the past 12 months (p=0.002) compared to those without comorbidity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Although there is complexity among the relationships between SDHs and diabetic comorbidity, results suggest significant sociodemographic and healthcare-related disparities among individuals living with type 2 diabetes. Members with more comorbidity utilize healthcare, but are more likely to be food insecure among other factors. Those with no comorbidity are least likely to see a physician, which could imply a gap in the care continuum. This analysis gives insight into the importance of efficient diabetes management, focused on disparities in economic stability and healthcare access and utilization.
Sildenafil is frequently prescribed to children with single ventricle heart defects. These children have unique hepatic physiology with elevated hepatic pressures, which may alter drug pharmacokinetics. We sought to determine the impact of hepatic pressure on sildenafil pharmacokinetics in children with single ventricle heart defects.
A population pharmacokinetic model was developed using data from 20 single ventricle children receiving single-dose intravenous sildenafil during cardiac catheterisation. Non-linear mixed effect modelling was used for model development, and covariate effects were evaluated based on estimated precision and clinical significance.
The analysis included a median (range) of 4 (2–5) pharmacokinetic samples per child. The final structural model was a two-compartment model for sildenafil with a one-compartment model for des-methyl-sildenafil (active metabolite), with assumed 100% sildenafil to des-methyl-sildenafil conversion. Sildenafil clearance was unaffected by hepatic pressure (clearance=0.62 L/hour/kg); however, clearance of des-methyl-sildenafil (1.94×(hepatic pressure/9)−1.33 L/hour/kg) was predicted to decrease ~7-fold as hepatic pressure increased from 4 to 18 mmHg. Predicted drug exposure was increased by ~1.5-fold in subjects with hepatic pressures ⩾10 versus <10 mmHg (median area under the curve=533 versus 792 µg*h/L).
Elevated hepatic pressure delays clearance of the sildenafil metabolite – des-methyl-sildenafil – and increases drug exposure. We speculate that this results from impaired biliary clearance. Hepatic pressure should be considered when prescribing sildenafil to children. These data demonstrate the importance of pharmacokinetic assessments in patients with unique cardiovascular physiology that may affect drug metabolism.
The commentaries to our focal article were both interesting and stimulating. As we generally agreed with the major points raised in the commentaries, we use this response to frame an on-going tension point or challenge regarding team definitions, highlight a few unifying themes that weave through our initial article and the commentaries, and discuss the transition from research to informed practice. The past few decades have been exciting times for team researchers and practitioners, and the time is ripe for new energies and approaches.
In the past, there was a fairly strong alignment between what teams experienced, the topics that team researchers were studying, and the practices that organizations used to manage their teams. However, the nature of teams and the environment in which they operate has changed, and as a result, new needs have emerged. Although there have been some innovative advancements, research and practice have not always adjusted to remain aligned with emerging needs. We highlight 3 significant change themes that are affecting teams: (a) dynamic composition, (b) technology and distance, and (c) empowerment and delayering. For each theme, we share our observations, review the related science and identify future research needs, and specify challenges and recommendations for employing effective team-based practices in applied settings. We conclude with thoughts about the future and suggest that new theories, research methods, and analyses may be needed to study the new team dynamics.
Arrhythmias are common in patients admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit. We sought to identify the rates of occurrence and types of arrhythmias, and determine whether an arrhythmia was associated with illness severity and paediatric intensive care unit length of stay.
This is a prospective, observational study of all patients admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit at the Children’s Hospital at Montefiore from March to June 2012. Patients with cardiac disease or admitted for the treatment of primary arrhythmias were excluded. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and telemetry was reviewed daily. Tachyarrhythmias were identified as supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, and arrhythmias causing haemodynamic compromise or for which an intervention was performed.
A total of 278 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. There were 97 incidences of arrhythmia in 53 patients (19%) and six tachyarrhythmias (2%). The most common types of arrhythmias were junctional rhythm (38%), premature atrial contractions (24%), and premature ventricular contractions (22%). Tachyarrhythmias included three supraventricular tachycardia (50%) and three ventricular tachycardia (50%). Of the six tachyarrhythmias, four were related to placement or migration of central venous lines and two occurred during aminophylline infusion. Patients with an arrhythmia had longer duration of mechanical ventilation and paediatric intensive care unit stay (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, central venous lines (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.3–7.2, p=0.009) and aminophylline use (odds ratio 5.1; 95% confidence interval 1.7–14.9, p=0.003) were independent predictors for arrhythmias.
Arrhythmias were common in paediatric intensive care unit patients (19%), although tachyarrhythmias occurred rarely (2%). Central venous lines and use of aminophylline were identified as two clinical factors that may be associated with development of an arrhythmia.
In Canada and elsewhere, research policies require researchers to secure consent from a legally authorized representative (LAR) for prospective participants unable to consent. Few jurisdictions, however, offer a clear legislative basis for LAR identification. We investigated Canadian researchers’ practices regarding the involvement of decisionally incapacitated participants and tested whether reported practices were associated with (1) researchers’ understanding of the law on third-party authorization of research and (2) their comfort with allowing a family member to consent on behalf of an incapacitated relative.
We surveyed researchers in aging from four Canadian provinces about their practices with prospective participants deemed incapable of consent, their understanding of relevant law, and comfort with family consent for research purposes. Understanding and comfort were measured with research vignettes that briefly described hypothetical studies in which an adult who lacks the capacity to consent was invited to participate.
Many respondents reported soliciting consent from a family member (45.7% for low-risk studies and 10.7% for serious risks studies), even in jurisdictions where such authority is uncertain at law. Researchers’ tendency to solicit family consent was associated with their comfort in doing so, but not with their understanding of the law on substitute consent for research.
Findings underscore the need to clarify who may authorize an incapacitated adult's participation in research. Meanwhile, people should inform their relatives of their desire to participate or not in research in the event of incapacity, given researchers’ tendency to turn to family for consent, even where not supported by law.