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Excess sleep is associated with higher risk of stroke, but whether the risk is modified by age and if it remains elevated after accounting for the competing risk of death is not well understood.
We used nine years of the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2000 to 2016 to obtain self-reported sleep duration and created a cohort of individuals without prior stroke, heart disease, or cancer. We linked to hospital records to determine subsequent admissions or emergency department visits for acute stroke until December 31, 2017. We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine the association between sleep duration and risk of stroke, assessing for modification by age and sex and adjusting for demographic, vascular, and social factors. We obtained cumulative incidence of stroke accounting for the competing risk of death.
There were 82,795 individuals in our cohort who met inclusion criteria and had self-reported sleep duration, with 1705 stroke events in follow-up. There was an association between excess sleep (≥10 h/night) and risk of stroke in those <70 years (fully adjusted hazard ratio 2.29, 95% CI 1.04–5.06), but not ≥70 years of age, with a similar association after accounting for the competing risk of death.
Sleep duration ≥10 h/night is associated with increased risk of stroke in those <70 years of age. The findings support current guidelines for 7–9 h of sleep per night. Further research is needed to elucidate the relationship between sleep and cerebrovascular disease.
Health utility instruments are increasingly being used to measure impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after stroke. Population-based studies of HRQoL after stroke and assessment of differences by age and functional domain are needed.
We used the Canadian Community Health Survey linked with administrative databases to determine HRQoL using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) among those with prior hospitalization or emergency department visit for stroke and compared to controls without stroke. We used multivariable linear regression to determine the difference in HUI3 between those with stroke and controls for the global index and individual attributes, with assessment for modification by age (<60, 60–74, and 75+ years) and sex, and we combined estimates across survey years using random effects meta-analysis.
Our cohort contained 1240 stroke survivors and 123,765 controls and was weighted to be representative of the Canadian household population. Mean health utility was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58, 0.68) for those with stroke and 0.83 (95% CI 0.82, 0.84) for controls. There was significant modification by age, but not sex, with the greatest adjusted reduction in HUI3 among stroke respondents aged 60–74 years. Individual HUI3 attributes with the largest reductions in utility among stroke survivors compared to controls were mobility, cognition, emotion, and pain.
In this population-based study, the reduction in HUI3 among stroke survivors compared to controls was greatest among respondents aged 60–74, and in attributes of mobility, cognition, emotion, and pain. These results highlight the persistent impairment of HRQoL in the chronic phase of stroke and potential targets for community support.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Objective: To develop a detailed profile of individuals living with migraine in Canada. Such a profile is important for planning and administration of services. Methods: The 2011–2012 Survey of Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada (SLNCC), a cross-sectional community-based survey, was used to examine a representative sample of migraineurs (N = 949) aged 15 years and older. Several health-related variables were examined (e.g., general health, health utility index (HUI) [a measure of health status and health-related quality of life, where dead = 0.00 and perfect health = 1.00], stigma, depression, and social support). Respondents were further stratified by sex, age, and age of migraine onset. Weighted overall and stratified prevalence estimates and odds ratios, both with 95% CIs, were used to estimate associations. Results: Overall, males had poorer health status compared with females (e.g., mean HUI was 0.67 in males vs. 0.82 in females; men had over two times the odds of their migraine limiting educational and job opportunities compared with females). Poorer health-related variables were seen in the older age groups (35–64 years/≥65 years) compared with the 15–34-year age group. There were no differences between those whose migraine symptoms began before versus after the age of 20 years. Conclusions: In this Canadian sample, migraine was associated with worse health-related variables in men compared with women. However, both men and women were significantly affected by migraine across various health-related variables. Thus, it is important to improve clinical and public health interventions addressing the impact of migraine across individuals of all ages, sexes, and sociodemographic backgrounds.
Use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) has increased in recent years; however, their use and effect on metabolic outcomes has been poorly characterised in population-level studies.
This study aimed to determine the associations between SGA use and metabolic indicators in a general population.
We used data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Canadian households. Participants were Canadians aged 3–79 years, living in one of the ten provinces. Several metabolic indicators were examined, including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, diabetes and two definitions of metabolic syndrome.
The proportion of Canadians taking an SGA tripled over the study period. SGA use was significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.07–3.55) and abdominal obesity in adults, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Panel III (odds ratio 2.62, 95% CI 1.45–4.71).
Evidence of metabolic dysfunction with SGAs is seen in the Canadian population, along with a rapid increase in prevalence of use since 2007.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Background: This study is part of the Innovations in Data, Evidence and Applications for Persons with Neurological Conditions project to understand the strengths, preferences, and needs of persons with neurological conditions living in Canada. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of persons with multiple sclerosis in Canadian home care, nursing home, Complex Continuing Care hospitals, and inpatient mental health care settings. Methods: Cross-sectional study of adults aged 18 years and older with multiple sclerosis (MS; n=11,250) across Canada from 1996 through 2011 using interRAI Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) comprehensive health assessments (RAI Minimum Data Set 2.0, RAI-Home Care, RAI-Mental Health). Comparisons were made to adults with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (n=260,910), other neurological conditions (n=163,578) and non-neurological conditions (n=571,567). Results: The prevalence of MS was highest in Complex Continuing Care hospitals (4125 cases per 100,000 patients), followed by home care (2020 cases per 100,000 patients), nursing homes (1424 cases per 100,000 patients), and mental health settings (138 cases per 100,000 patients). Persons with MS experienced greater impairment in the completion of activities of daily living, pain, pressure ulcers, swallowing difficulty, depression, and anxiety compared with peers within care settings. There were also significant differences between settings, particularly the degree of physical and cognitive impairment experienced by persons with MS. Conclusions: Except for mental health care settings, the prevalence of MS in community, institutional and hospital-based care settings exceeded that of the general population. These data describing the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of persons with MS may be used to inform clinical practice and policy decisions for persons with MS across the continuum of care.
Community-based studies can describe health status and related variables in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) while avoiding biases introduced by help-seeking in specific clinical settings.
To describe general health status, stress perceptions and life satisfaction in people with MS, in comparison to those with other types of disabilities.
Materials & Methods:
The Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) was a post-censual survey conducted by Statistics Canada in association with the 2006 Canadian Census. PALS collected data from a random sample of n = 22,513 respondents identified as having health-related impairments. Frequencies and quartiles as well as mean values, along with associated 95% confidence intervals, were calculated in the analysis.
PALS identified 245 individuals with MS. Health status, both perceived and when weighted for societal preference, was markedly lower than that of other disabled groups. No differences in self-perceived stress were seen. People with MS reported lower levels of satisfaction with their health but slightly higher levels of satisfaction with their family and friends.
People with MS report lower levels of general health status and more impairment than those with other disabling conditions. Higher levels of satisfaction with friends and family may reflect psychological adaptation to the illness.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is reported to be uncommon among North American aboriginals despite frequent intermarriage with people of European ancestry, but few population-based studies have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS among First Nations aboriginal people in Alberta, Canada compared to the general population.
All hospital in-patient and physician fee-for-service records between 1994 and 2002 where a diagnosis of MS was mentioned were extracted from government health databases in the province of Alberta. First Nations people can be identified since the federal government (Health Canada) pays health care insurance premiums on their behalf. Multiple Sclerosis prevalence per 100,000 population for both First Nations people and the general population of Alberta were calculated for each year during this time span.
Among First Nations in Alberta, MS prevalence was 56.3 per 100,000 in 1994 and 99.9 per 100,000 in 2002, an increase of 43.6%. In 2002 prevalence was 158.1 and 38.0 for females and males respectively, a female to male ratio of 4.2:1. Multiple Sclerosis prevalence among the general population of Alberta was 262.6 per 100,000 in 1994 and 335.0 per 100,000 in 2002, an increase of 21.6%. In 2002 prevalence was 481.5 and 187.5 for females and males respectively, a female to male ratio of 2.6:1. Peak prevalence for both First Nations and general population females in 2002 was age 50-59, also 50-59 for both First Nations and general population males.
While MS prevalence in First Nations people is lower than in the general population of Alberta, it is not rare by worldwide standards.
Medical and mental health comorbidity in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias presents difficult challenges for health service delivery. However, existing studies have been conducted in clinical samples and may not be informative for planning community services. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) provides an opportunity to characterize associations between dementias and mental and physical comorbidity in a household population aged 55 and over.
Data were obtained from the 2005 CCHS-cycle 3.1. Weighted estimates for mood and anxiety disorders and other characteristics in Canadian population with dementia were calculated and were compared to those in people without the condition.
According to the CCHS, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other dementia increases with age, more or less doubling every decade. The increase among women is monotonic, whereas among men in the household population the rate of dementia peaks at age 85-89 and falls thereafter. Mood and anxiety disorders were found to be substantially more frequent among people with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia compared to those without the disease (mood disorders: 19.5% vs. 5.3% and anxiety disorders: 16.3% vs. 4.0%). Heart disease, stroke and obesity were associated with dementia as was a lower level of education. Furthermore, people with dementia were more likely than those without the disease to report activity restrictions.
The high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in household population with Alzheimer's disease and other dementia demonstrates the burden of disease that is likely to worsen quality of life over time.
Background: Affective disorders present an important clinical challenge in multiple sclerosis (MS). Due to prohibitive sample size requirements, population-based studies have not yet provided an adequate description of the underlying epidemiology of this association.
Objective: To describe the epidemiology of affective disorders in MS in a general population sample.
Methods: The study presented here accessed administrative data from a universal healthcare insurance plan in the Canadian province of Alberta. Physician billing data recorded in the Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan was used to identify members of the population ≥15 years of age with and without MS. Crude and stratified estimates of the association between affective disorders and MS were made. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate statistical interactions and to provide adjusted estimates of the association.
Results: The estimated prevalence of MS in the population within the targeted age range (2.3 million individuals) was 386/100,000 and that of affective disorders was 7.7%. As expected, an association between MS and affective disorders was identified (crude relative prevalence: 2.2). The association varied in strength over age-sex categories. Although the prevalence of affective disorder was higher in women with MS than men with MS, the association of MS with affective disorders was stronger in men. The strength of association declined with age in both men and women. Affective disorder prevalence in people with MS becomes similar to that of the general population in older age groups.
Conclusion: Affective disorders occur with an increased frequency in MS. This is true in men and women and across all relevant age groups, although the association gets weaker with advancing age. Higher frequencies of affective disorder occur in women with MS than in men with MS. The frequency of affective disorder in people with MS is highest in the 25–44 age group, and declines in older age categories.
Antidepressants are currently the treatment of choice for major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, a high percentage of patients do not respond to a first-line antidepressant drug, and combination treatments and augmentation strategies increase the risk of side effects. Moreover, a significant proportion of patients are treatment-resistant. In the last 30 years, a number of studies have sought to establish whether exercise could be regarded as an alternative to antidepressants, but so far no specific analysis has examined the efficacy of exercise as an adjunctive treatment in combination with antidepressants. We carried out a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise as an adjunctive treatment with antidepressants on depression.
A search of relevant papers was carried out in PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and Scopus with the following keywords: “exercise,” “physical activity,” “physical fitness,” “depressive disorder,” “depression,” “depressive symptoms,” “add-on,” “augmentation,” “adjunction,” and “combined therapy.” Twenty-two full-text articles were retrieved by the search. Among the 13 papers that fulfilled our inclusion criteria, we found methodological weaknesses in the majority. However, the included studies showed a strong effectiveness of exercise combined with antidepressants.
Further analyses and higher quality studies are needed; nevertheless, as we have focused on a particular intervention (exercise in adjunction to antidepressants) that better reflects clinical practice, we can hypothesize that this strategy could be appropriately and safely translated into real-world practice.
Aims – The substantial impact of major depression on population health is widely acknowledged. To date, health system responses to this condition have been largely shaped by observational findings. In the future, health policy decisions will benefit from an increasingly integrated and dynamic understanding of the epidemiology of this condition. Policy decisions can also be supported by the development of decision-support tools that can simulate the impact of alternative policy decisions on population health. Markov models are useful both in epidemiological modelling and in decision analysis. Methods – In this project, a Markov model describing major depression epidemiology was developed. The model employed a Markov Tunnel in order to depict the dependence of recovery probabilities on episode duration. Transition probabilities, including incidence, recovery and mortality were estimated from Canadian national survey data. Results – Episode incidence was approximately 3% per year. Recovery rates declined exponentially over time. The model predicted point prevalence at slightly less than 1%, agreeing closely with observed prevalence data. Conclusions – Epidemiological models describing the dynamic relationships between major depression incidence, prevalence, recovery and mortality can help to integrate available epidemiological data. Such models offer an attractive option for support of health policy decisions.
Declaration of Interest
Acknowledgement: Both authors are Research Fellows with the Institute of Health Economics (www.ihe.ab.ca). This study was supported by an operating grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (www.cihr.ca).
Aims – The term “presenteeism” is used to describe workers who are present in the workforce, but who are not functioning at full capacity. The objective of the study was to describe the impact of mood and anxiety disorders on presenteeism in a population sample. Methods – Random digit dialing was used to select a sample of n= 3345 subjects between the ages of 18 and 64. A computer assisted telephone interview that included the Mini Neuropsychiatric Diagnostic Interview (MINI), the Stanford Presenteeism Scale 6 (SPS-6) and a pharmacoepidemiology module was administered. Results – Among subjects with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders 75.0% reported interference with their work compared with only 13.3% of subjects without mood or anxiety disorders. Mood and anxiety disorders were associated with lower presenteeism ratings. Regression analysis uncovered a significant gender by anxiety disorder interaction, indicating that the effect of anxiety disorders was greater in men than women. Conclusions – This is the first study to report the impact of mental disorders on presenteeism in a general population sample. The results confirm that the problem of presenteeism is not restricted to specific occupational groups, but is instead a widespread problem in the general population.
Declaration of Interest: This study was funded by the Alberta Depression Initiative through the Institute of Health Economics (www.ihe.ab.ca). Dr. Esposito was supported by an International Resident Fellowship from the University of Calgary. Dr. Patten is a Health Scholar with the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and a Fellow with the Institute of Health Economics. Dr. Wang is a New Investigator with the Canadian Institutes for Health Research.
Aim – The objective of this study was to identify clinical and demographic factors that may be associated with benzodiazepine treatment, to describe the reported reasons for use of these medications and to appraise the pattern of use in relation to standard guidelines in a general population sample. Methods – Telephone survey methods were employed to select a sample of 3345 people between the ages of 18 and 64. A computer assisted telephone interview, including the Mini Neuropsychiatric Diagnostic Interview (MINI), was administered. Estimates were weighted for design features and population demographics. Results – The overall prevalence of benzodiazepines use was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6 to 4.1%). There was a higher frequency of medication use in women than men, among respondents who were widowed, separated or divorced, and those with lower levels of education. In relation to MINI diagnosis, diagnoses of Panic Disorder and Major Depression increased the probability of taking benzodiazepines. The reported main reason for use was “Sleep disorders” (68.9%), “Anxiety” (35.8%), “Depression” (27.8%) and “Pain management” (21.2%). More than 80% of subjects were taking benzodiazepines for more than one year. Conclusions – When compared to previous estimates, the lower frequency of benzodiazepines use suggests that there has been improvement in their evidence-based use at a population level. However our results once more confirm the difficulty stopping the use of these medications once they have been started. Further randomized control studies may help clinicians in having a better practical approach to rational benzodiazepine use.