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Antidepressant medication and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are both recommended interventions in depression treatment guidelines based on literature reviews and meta-analyses. However, ‘conventional’ meta-analyses comparing their efficacy are limited by their reliance on reported study-level information and a narrow focus on depression outcome measures assessed at treatment completion. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis, considered the gold standard in evidence synthesis, can improve the quality of the analyses when compared with conventional meta-analysis.
We describe the protocol for a systematic review and IPD meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of antidepressants and IPT for adult acute-phase depression across a range of outcome measures, including depressive symptom severity as well as functioning and well-being, at both post-treatment and follow-up (PROSPERO: CRD42020219891).
We will conduct a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and the Cochrane Library to identify randomised clinical trials comparing antidepressants and IPT in the acute-phase treatment of adults with depression. We will invite the authors of these studies to share the participant-level data of their trials. One-stage IPD meta-analyses will be conducted using mixed-effects models to assess treatment effects at post-treatment and follow-up for all outcome measures that are assessed in at least two studies.
This will be the first IPD meta-analysis examining antidepressants versus IPT efficacy. This study has the potential to enhance our knowledge of depression treatment by comparing the short- and long-term effects of two widely used interventions across a range of outcome measures using state-of-the-art statistical techniques.
We aimed at evaluating the association of maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status with offspring anthropometry and body composition. We also evaluated whether these associations were modified by gender, diet and physical activity and mediated by birth weight.
Birth cohort study.
Waist circumference was measured with an inextensible tape, and fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for possible confounders and allele score of BMI. We carried out mediation analysis using G-formula.
In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all maternity hospitals in Pelotas (South Brazil) were visited daily and all live births whose families lived in the urban area of the city were evaluated. These subjects have been followed up at different ages.
Offspring of obese mothers had on average higher BMI, waist circumference and fat mass index than those of normal weight mothers, and these differences were higher among daughters. The magnitudes of the association were similar in the cohorts, except for height, where the association pattern was not clear. In the 1982 cohort, further adjustment for a BMI allele score had no material influence on the magnitude of the associations. Mediation analyses showed that birth weight captured part of this association.
Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status is positively associated with offspring BMI and adiposity in offspring. And this association is higher among daughters whose mother was overweight or obese and, birth weight explains part of this association.
This article emerged as the human species collectively have been experiencing the worst global pandemic in a century. With a long view of the ecological, economic, social, and political factors that promote the emergence and spread of infectious disease, archaeologists are well positioned to examine the antecedents of the present crisis. In this article, we bring together a variety of perspectives on the issues surrounding the emergence, spread, and effects of disease in both the Americas and Afro-Eurasian contexts. Recognizing that human populations most severely impacted by COVID-19 are typically descendants of marginalized groups, we investigate pre- and postcontact disease vectors among Indigenous and Black communities in North America, outlining the systemic impacts of diseases and the conditions that exacerbate their spread. We look at how material culture both reflects and changes as a result of social transformations brought about by disease, the insights that paleopathology provides about the ancient human condition, and the impacts of ancient globalization on the spread of disease worldwide. By understanding the differential effects of past epidemics on diverse communities and contributing to more equitable sociopolitical agendas, archaeology can play a key role in helping to pursue a more just future.
Bodenhorn et al. (2017) have sparked considerable controversy by arguing that the fall in adult stature observed in military samples in the United States and Britain during industrialization was a figment of selection on unobservables in the samples. While subsequent papers have questioned the extent of the bias (Komlos and A’Hearn 2019; Zimran 2019), there is renewed concern about selection bias in historical anthropometric datasets. Therefore, this article extends Bodenhorn et al.’s discussion of selection bias on unobservables to sources of children’s growth, specifically focusing on biases that could distort the age pattern of growth. Understanding how the growth pattern of children has changed is important because these changes underpinned the secular increase in adult stature and are related to child stunting observed in developing countries today. However, there are significant sources of unobserved selection in historical datasets containing children’s and adolescents’ height and weight. This article highlights, among others, three common sources of bias: (1) positive selection of children into secondary school in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; (2) distorted height by age profiles created by age thresholds for enlistment in the military; and (3) changing institutional ecology that determines to which institutions children are sent. Accounting for these biases adjusts the literature in two ways: evidence of a strong pubertal growth spurt in the nineteenth century is weaker than formerly acknowledged and some long-run analyses of changes in children’s growth are too biased to be informative, especially for Japan.
Attempts to reduce high utilisation of psychiatric inpatient care by targeting the critical time of hospital discharge have been rare. In Germany, until now no such intervention has been implemented, let alone subjected to a clinical trial.
“Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Needs-Oriented Discharge Planning and Monitoring for High Utilisers of Psychiatric Services” (NODPAM) is a multicentre RCT conducted in five psychiatric hospitals in Germany (Günzburg, Düsseldorf, Regensburg, Greifswald, and Ravensburg). Subjects asked to provide informed consent to participate have to be of adult age with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective disorder, and a defined high utilisation of psychiatric care during two years prior to the current admission. Subjects are asked to provide detailed outcome data at four measurement points during a period of 18 months. Recruitment (which started in April 06) is still ongoing. Thus, baseline data of about 350 participants will be presented.
Recruitment has been quite successful and the study has been generally well accepted by participating patients and their clinicians in in- and outpatient treatment settings. Subjects showed substantial initial impairment on outcome measures (e.g. needs, psychopathology, quality of life, and level of functioning) and high utilisation of mental health care. Further results on conduct and feasibility of the trial will be presented.
The first phase of this mulicentre trial was promising. The potential of this study to strengthen the integration of mental health care provision in Germany will be discussed.
Family and twin studies point towards a partial heritability of suicidal behavior. We investigated the role of a comprehensive set of genes in this behavior. Their selection was driven by results from post mortem and genetic studies. 250 suicide attempters with various psychiatric disorders were compared with 2200 volunteers which were randomly selected from the general population. All subjects were administered standard psychiatric interviews including SCID as well as self-report questionnaires for anger-related traits. Especially, aggressive-impulsive behavior has been studied and associations with these intermediate phenotypes will be presented.
Additionally a large-scale gene expression analysis using cDNA-microarrays to identify new candidate-genes for suicide was conducted. We found several genes to be differentially expressed in the orbitofrontal cortex of suicide completers. Cross-validation experiments using quantitative RT-PCR validated a few genes so far. These genes have been genotyped in our patients and controls and associations with suicidal behavior and intermediate phenotypes, like aggression and impulsivity will be presented.
The SNAP-25 gene is an integral part of the vesicle docking and fusion machinery that controls the neurotransmitter release from the vesicles of the presynaptic neuron into the synaptic cleft. Several post mortem studies revealed a reduction of SNAP-25 protein in the hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
38 patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in left hippocampus was performed in each individual. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the SNAP-25 gene were genotyped.
Individuals with the homozygous CC genotype of the DdeI SNP presented a significantly higher ratio of NAA/Cho in the left hippocampus compared to the group of individuals with the homozygous TT genotype.
The present findings are consistent with the view that the SNAP-25 genotype may modulate synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis in the left hippocampus, and that an altered NAA/Cho ratio may be an indicator for this genetic modulation of neuronal function in the hippocampus.
Khat consumption is widespread in Yemeni society and causes problems both in economic development and public health. The gender-specific motives for khat use and abstinence were studied to create a toe-hold for more specific interventions.
In a sample with equal numbers of males, females, abstainers and consumers, 320 subjects were interviewed on their specific opinions about khat and its impact on subjective and public health, and on social and community functioning. Strata were compared in their acceptance and denial of opinions. Notions that could predict abstinence status or gender were identified with multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Male khat users had a strong identification with khat use, while females were more ambivalent. The notion that khat consumption is a bad habit (odds ratio (OR) 3.4) and consumers are malnuorished (OR 2.2) were associated with female gender among khat users. Among the females worries about health impact (OR 3.2) and loss of esteem in the family (OR 3.1) when using khat predicted abstinence. Male abstainers opposed khat users in the belief that khat is the cause of social problems (OR 5.1).
Distinct beliefs allow a differentiation between males, females, khat users and abstainers when targeting preventive measures. In accordance to their specific values female khat users are most ambivalent towards their habit. Positive opinions scored lower than expected in the consumers. Public opinion towards khat may have become slightl more negative in recent years. This finding creates a strong toe-hold for gender-specific public health interventions.
Objective. It is widely known that the risk of suicide is higher in cases of major depressive disorders in comparison to the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine which psychopathologic symptoms during the index episode are predictors for an increased risk of suicide in the further course of major depression. Method. Mortality data were determined from a prospective study of 280 patients with major depression (DSM-III-R, single episode or recurrent) during a follow-up period of 5 years. The predictive power of different depressive symptoms including psychotic symptoms for suicide risk was investigated. Results. Patients who committed suicide (N = 16) during the follow-up period had reported significantly more often hypochondriacal preoccupations or delusions (but not delusions or preoccupations of impoverishment, guilt or sin), suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts as well as feelings of severe hopelessness during the index episode than still living patients or patients who had died from natural causes. Conclusion. These symptoms seem to be helpful early predictors for the risk of suicide during the further course of illness. This should be taken into account for suicide prevention in the course of major depression.
Negative computer attitude has been shown to be a possible co-variable in computerized examinations of psychiatric patients, affecting patient-computer interaction as well as reliability and validity of assessment (Weber et al. 2002, Acta Psychiatr.Scand., 105, 126-130).
It remains still uncertain if the psychological construct of computer attitude can be dependably measured in acute psychiatric inpatients or whether it is impeded by the effects of mental illness. For that reason a German translation of the Groningen Computer Attitude Scale (GCAS) was evaluated in 160 acute psychiatric inpatients under naturalistic conditions.
General test criteria (internal structure, item analysis, internal consistency, split half reliability) to a large extent corresponded to those formerly found in healthy subjects and psychiatric outpatients. The mean GCAS score was calculated as 56.2 ± 10.8 points and a significantly better computer attitude was found in male, better educated and younger patients. Some diverging correlation patterns were found in diagnostic subgroups, indicating a possible minor impact of mental disorder on computer attitude.
Overall, the GCAS was found to be a suitable instrument for measuring computer attitude in acute psychiatric inpatients. It should be used in identifying patients with a negative attitude to computers in order to ensure reliability and validity of computerized assessment.
Suicide and smoking are immense, growing, associated global problems. Recent general population suicide rates and ratios by smoking status are unknown though in past reports, smokers had near three-fold hazard ratios of suicide among health professionals. So we assessed recent suicide rates and rate ratios in the general population of the United States (US) and Frankfurt, Germany.
US National Health Interview Survey interviewees from 1987, 1988, and 1990-94 with near complete follow up through 2002 (representing the US adult non-institutionalized population) and all suicides in 1999-2000 among adult residents of Frankfurt, their proxy respondents, control subjects, and census data were studied using survival time methods. Age was categorized in both samples as 18-30, 31-60 and 61+ years.
The respective US versus Frankfurt crude suicide rates per 100,000 were 13.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.4-15.5) versus 17.7 (CI 15.0-20.5) overall, 7.9 (CI 6.4-9.9) versus 12.0 (CI 9.2-14.7) in never smokers, and 22.9 (CI 19.5-27.0) versus 32.0 (CI 24.5-39.6) in current smokers. Smoker suicide rate ratios relative to never smokers ranged from 2.1 (males) to 4.2 (females) in US groups and 1.5 (ages 61+ years) to 3.7 (ages 31-60 years) in Frankfurt groups (each p< 0.05).
In both the US and Frankfurt, Germany, large absolute and relative excesses of suicide are seen in smokers. Reducing the prevalence of smoking might greatly reduce suicide rates, especially in young and middle-aged adults and US females.
The aim of this study was to detect longitudinal differences in white matter brain structures in adults with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls.
Twenty adult patients with multi-episode schizophrenia under stable antipsychotic medication and twenty-two age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was applied at baseline (t1), after 6weeks (t2) and after 3months (t3) and data processing was done with tract-based spatial statistics (p<0.05, corrected). Two subjects in the schizophrenic sample dropped out at t2 and one healthy subject at t3. Clinical and neuropsychological variables were measured and correlated with the most significant DTI findings.
Compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls schizophrenic patients showed widespread decreases in mean fractional anisotropy values (p<0.05, corrected). The most obvious FA decrease in the long-term was found in the anterior part of the corpus callosum (p<0.005, corrected), the left temporal lobe (p<0.004, corr.) and the mid-cingulate gyrus bilateral (p<0.004, corr.). Correlations to demographic variables, clinical rating scales (PANSS, CGI and GAF), verbal learning and memory and working memory will be presented.
Magnetic resonance imaging was able to detect altered structural connectivity in patients with multi-episode schizophrenia in a longitudinal design.
Cycloid psychoses (CP) as described by Leonhard comprise the subtypes anxiety-happiness, confusion and motility psychoses. CP presents with an acute onset and have a favourable prognosis. The operational criteria by Perris and Brockington (P&B, 1981) are partly incorporated in ICD-10 as acute polymorphic psychosis (APP). The DSM-IV category Brief Psychotic Disorder (BPD) includes all psychoses with short duration.
Establishing concordance of Leonhard's CP with DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories.
This study was aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of CP and to determine the prevalence of CP in patients with psychotic disorders.
80 patients with psychotic disorders were assessed by means of CASH, PANSS and CGI at baseline and after six weeks of treatment. CP's were identified according to Leonhard's descriptions. Furthermore, patients were classified using DSM-IV, ICD-10 and P&B criteria.
A diagnosis of Leonhard's CP was present in 12 patients. Overlap between Leonhard's and P&B-CP was modest. ICD-10 and DSM-IV classification showed considerable heterogeneity. Diagnoses of ICD-APP and DSM-BPD were mostly assigned to CP patients. Concordance between Leonhard's CP and these categorical diagnoses was small. Leonhard CP patients showed, compared to non-CP patients, more atypical symptoms like perplexity, pananxiety and psychomotor disturbances.
The estimated prevalence of CP in patients with psychotic disorders is 15 percent. Although identification of CP is of heuristic value, this is not warranted by current classification systems or operational criteria. Thorough clinical evaluation of psychotic disorders is required, especially in patients presenting with perplexity, psychomotor disturbances or severe anxieties.
Patients with schizophrenia might benefit from exercise via multiple ways. It can be assumed that positive effects observed in healthy people counteract different pathological dimensions of schizophrenia or add to a better compensation. E.g. exercise may serve as a coping strategy, produces changes in brain structure and function and is already known to improve mood and cardiovascular health. First studies have shown beneficial effects of exercise in schizophrenia. These studies feature a multitude of exercise types and diagnostic tests and also lay emphasis on different research questions.
From the diverse information of the studies, heterogenic character conclusions for future therapy and research can be derived. From the point of view of sports science, feasibility and effectiveness of endurance training will be discussed on the basis of current literature and results from our own research. In a controlled trial 22 patients with schizophrenia participated in 12 weeks of endurance training using bicycle ergometers resulting, e. g., in improvements of endurance capacity and functioning. A special focus was laid on analyzing the differences between the adaptations of patients and healthy controls to test the transferability of methods and effects of endurance training. The exercise intervention was feasible and effective for both healthy controls and patients but some interesting differences could be found.
Additionally, ideas and special circumstances regarding the implementation of endurance training in clinical settings or for outpatients will be considered. From the current knowledge it can be concluded, that the implementation of endurance training in multimodal therapy strategies can be recommended to promote recovery.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Post-operative severe vascular stenosis and proliferating endothelial tissue lead to severe circulatory disorders and impair organ perfusion. Bioabsorbable magnesium scaffolds may help to overcome these obstructions without leaving obstructing stent material. We analyse their role in the treatment of vascular stenosis in infants.
Since 2016, 15 magnesium scaffolds with a diameter of 3.5 mm were implanted in 9 patients aged 15 days to 7.6 years. Eight scaffolds were implanted in pulmonary venous restenoses, five in pulmonary arterial stenosis including one in-stent stenosis, one into a stenotic brachiocephalic artery, and one in a recurrent innominate vein thrombosis.
All patients clinically improved after the implantation of a scaffold. The magnesium scaffolds lost integrity after 30–48 days (mean 42 days). The innominate vein thrombosed early, while all other vessels remained open. Two patients died after 1.3 and 14 weeks not related to the scaffolds. Five patients needed further balloon dilations or stent implantations after the scaffold had fractured. At first recatheterisation after in mean 2.5 months, the mean minimum/maximum diameter in relation to the scaffold’s original diameter was 89%/99% in the arterial implantations (n = 6) and 66%/77% in the pulmonary venous implantations.
The magnesium scaffolds can be used as a bridging solution to treat severe vascular stenosis in different locations. Restenosis can occur after degradation and make further interventions necessary, but neither vessel growth nor further interventions are hindered by stent material. Larger diameters may improve therapeutic options.
B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r –0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r –0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r –0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r –0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r –0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r –0·14), SAA (r –0·14) and TNFα (r –0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.