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The aim of this study is to reveal the characteristics and outcomes of patients injured in a major earthquake and who were transported to a hospital by ambulance.
This study was a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study including all patients who were injured after a major earthquake struck Osaka Prefecture on June 18, 2018, and were transported to a hospital by ambulance. The main outcome was the prognosis at each hospital’s emergency department.
In total, 214 patients were included in the analysis. Their median age was 74 years (IQR, 54-82); 53 (24.8%) were men and 161 (75.2%) were women. The median time from ambulance call to arrival at the scene was 10 min (IQR, 7-15), and the median time from ambulance call to the hospital arrival was 37 min (IQR, 30-51). Ninety-seven patients (45.3%) were admitted to a hospital, 114 patients (53.3%) were discharged home to and from the emergency department, and 3 patients (1.4%) died. Among the patients discharged to home from the emergency department, the most common pathological condition was head bruising in 16 patients.
This study revealed the profile of injured patients transported by ambulances after an earthquake that struck an aging society.
A crucial target in the printed electronics technologies is to realize all-printed thin-film transistors (TFTs), as being applicable to the industry. Here, the authors report printed polymer TFTs through the integration of the SuPR-NaP technique, a promising way for manufacturing ultrafine printed silver electrodes, with printed polymer semiconductor layers. The authors used a class of donor–acceptor-type copolymer, PDVT-10, and found that the devices exhibit excellent TFT characteristics. The devices allow the transfer length method measurements with high accuracy, where the estimated contact resistance is considerably small (4.7 kΩ cm) among the bottom-contact TFTs using printed silver electrodes, with also showing short-channel effects.
Indentation deformation of glass under a sharp diamond indenter causes cracking during and after a loading–unloading cycle. To get a deeper insight into the indentation cracking in glass, it is critical to understand the elastic and inelastic deformation behavior of glass under the indenter. In this study, in situ observations during Vickers indentations are carried out for silica, soda-lime, and lead–silicate glasses. It is found that the true contact area during indentation is different from the area estimated from the contact depth and the indenter geometry, and that the ridges of a Vickers indenter affect the contact shape during indentation. The contact region of silicate glasses under a Vickers indenter is not a regular square but a concave square. This results in edge cracking during indentation. It is concluded that the contact shape and the deformation mechanism of glass under the indenter are closely related to its cracking behaviors.
MAXI started its operation in 2009 August. Owing to its unprecedentedly high sensitivity as an all-sky X-ray monitor and to its capability of real-time data transfer, we have detected 56 strong flares from twenty-one active stars (eleven RS CVn systems, one Algol system, seven dMe stars, one dKe star and one Young Stellar Object). These flares have large X-ray luminosity of 6 × 1030 –5 × 1033 ergs s−1 in the 2–20 keV band. The flares can be thought to be high ends among their own categories. During the flare from AT Mic on 2012 April 18th, one of the largest X-ray luminosities was recorded as a dMe star, 6 × 1032 ergs s−1 in the 2–20 keV band. It is larger than its bolometric luminosity by 4 times. The total energy emitted during the flare is 1036 ergs in the same band. Such total energy can be obtained on large flares from RS CVn system, but not on any other flares from dMe stars. In this proceeding, we report on the present situation in characteristics of hyper X-ray flares on each stellar categories.
In this paper we propose a novel approach for analysing proof nets of Multiplicative Linear Logic (MLL) using coding theory. We define families of proof structures called PS-families and introduce a metric space for each family. In each family:
(1) an MLL proof net is a true code element; and
(2) a proof structure that is not an MLL proof net is a false (or corrupted) code element.
The definition of our metrics elegantly reflects the duality of the multiplicative connectives. We show that in our framework one-error-detection is always possible but one-error-correction is always impossible. We also demonstrate the importance of our main result by presenting two proof-net enumeration algorithms for a given PS-family: the first searches proof nets naively and exhaustively without help from our main result, while the second uses our main result to carry out an intelligent search. In some cases, the first algorithm visits proof structures exponentially, while the second does so only polynomially.
Hardness of glass is known to be related to the resistance to permanent deformation. However, the mechanism of permanent deformation of glass under a sharp diamond indenter is not clear yet. One of the deformation modes of oxide glass at room temperature is permanent densification. In this study, the indentation-induced densification of soda-lime glass under diamond indenters was evaluated from the volume recovery of indentation imprint by thermal annealing. The volume change of the indentation imprint by annealing corresponds to the densified volume under the indenter. Using some kinds of diamond indenters, which have different inclined face angles, the ratios of densified volume to the total “lost” volume under the indenters were determined. With an increase in the inclined face angle, the densification contribution decreased and the shear-flow contribution increased. This indenter-shape dependence of densification in glass is discussed in terms of the stress dependence of the deformation mechanisms in glass.
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