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An outbreak of serotype 19A Streptococcus pneumoniae occurred among the residents of a relief facility. Pneumonia developed in 5 of 99 residents (attack rate, 5.1%). We obtained pharyngeal specimens from non-onset residents, and S. pneumoniae was isolated from 6 individuals (6.4%), 5 of whom had serotype 19A.
Very metal-poor (VMP) stars preserve chemical signatures of early generations of stars, and are crutial to understand the early nucleosynthesis and first stars. Millions of stellar spectra obtained by LAMOST provide an unprecedented chance to enlarge the currently limited VMP star sample. Since 2014, a joint project on searching for VMP stars has been conducted based on the LAMOST survey and Subaru follow-up observations. So far, the project has obtained chemical abundances for about 250 VMP stars and a number of chemically interesting objects, e.g., three ultra metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ~ − 4.0, a dozen Li-rich VMP stars distributed in a wide range of evolutionary stages. Statistics of the large homogeneous sample of VMP stars will be of great interest and importance to probe the chemical enrichment in the early Galaxy and low-mass star evolution.
We report progresses of a joint project on searching for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars based on LAMOST survey and Subaru follow-up observation. Follow-up high-resolution snapshot spectra have been obtained for 70 objects, resulting in 42 EMP stars. A number of chemically interesting objects have already been identified, including (1) Two UMP (ultra metal-poor) stars with [Fe/H] ~ −4.0. One of them is the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection. (2) A super Li-rich (A(Li) ~ 3.1) EMP giant. This is the most metal-poor and extreme example of Li enhancement in giants known to date, and will shed light on Li production during the evolution of red giants. (3) A few EMP stars showing extreme overabundance in heavy elements. Detailed abundances of these extreme objects and statistics obtained by the large sample of EMP stars will provide important constraints on the Galactic halo formation.
Large surveys and follow-up spectroscopic studies in the past few decades have been providing chemical abundance data for a growing number of very metal-poor ([Fe/H] <−2) stars. Most of them are red giants or main-sequence turn-off stars having masses near 0.8 solar masses. Lower mass stars with extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H] <−3) are yet to be explored. Our high-resolution spectroscopic study for very metal-poor stars found with SDSS has identified four cool main-sequence stars with [Fe/H] <−2.5 among 137 objects (Aoki et al. 2013). The effective temperatures of these stars are 4500–5000 K, corresponding to a mass of around 0.5 solar masses. Our standard analysis of the high-resolution spectra based on 1D-LTE model atmospheres has obtained self-consistent chemical abundances for these objects, assuming small values of micro-turbulent velocities compared with giants and turn-off stars. The low temperature of the atmospheres of these objects enables us to measure their detailed chemical abundances. Interestingly, two of the four stars have extreme chemical-abundance patterns: one has the largest excesses of heavy neutron-capture elements associated with the r-process abundance pattern known to date (Aoki et al. 2010), and the other exhibits low abundances of the α-elements and odd-Z elements, suggested to be signatures of the yields of very massive stars (> 100 solar masses; Aoki et al. 2014). Although the sample size is still small, these results indicate the potential of very low-mass stars as probes to study the early stages of the Milky Way's halo formation.
To study the glaciological processes controlling the mass budget of Greenland’s peripheral glaciers and ice caps, field measurements were carried out on Qaanaaq ice cap, a 20 km long ice cap in northwestern Greenland. In the summer of 2012, we measured surface melt rate, ice flow velocity and ice thickness along a survey route spanning the ice margin (200m a.s.l.) to the ice-cap summit (1110m a.s.l.). Melt rates in the ablation area were clearly influenced by dark materials covering the ice surface, where degree-day factors varied from 5.44 mm w.e. K–1 d–1 on a clean surface to 8.26 mm w.e. K–1 d–1 in the dark regions. Ice velocity showed diurnal variations, indicating the presence of surface-meltwater induced basal sliding. Mean ice thickness along the survey route was 120 m, with a maximum thickness of 165 m. Ice velocity and temperature fields were computed using a thermomechanically coupled numerical glacier model. Modelled ice temperature, obtained by imposing estimated annual mean air temperature as the surface boundary condition, was substantially lower than implied by the observed ice velocity. This result suggests that the ice dynamics and thermodynamics of the ice cap are significantly influenced by heat transfer from meltwater and changing ice geometry.
We are carrying out near-infrared spectroscopy of Cepheids in the Galactic nuclear disk. The H-band spectra taken with SUBARU/IRCS indicate that their kinematics are consistent with the rotation of the nuclear disk.
A rarefied gas flow thermally induced around a heated (or cooled) flat plate, contained in a vessel, is considered in two different situations: (i) both sides of the plate are simultaneously and uniformly heated (or cooled); and (ii) only one side of the plate is uniformly heated. The former is known as the thermal edge flow and the latter, typically observed in the Crookes radiometer, may be called the radiometric flow. The steady behaviour of the gas induced in the container is investigated on the basis of the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) model of the Boltzmann equation and the diffuse reflection boundary condition by means of an accurate finite-difference method. The flow features are clarified for a wide range of the Knudsen number, with a particular emphasis placed on the structural similarity between the two flows. The limiting behaviour of the flow as the Knudsen number tends to zero (and thus the system approaches the continuum limit) is investigated for both flows. The detailed structure of the normal stress on the plate as well as the cause of the radiometric force (the force acting on the plate from the hotter to the colder side) is also clarified for the present infinitely thin plate.
The preference for two shell species, Monodonta labio form confusa and Thais clavigera, was compared between two populations of the hermit crab Pagurus filholi from Oura Bay, Shimoda, central Japan and from Hakodate Bay, Hakodate, northern Japan. Hermit crabs from Oura Bay preferred T. clavigera to M. labio form confusa, whereas crabs from Hakodate Bay preferred M. labio form confusa. The shell of T. clavigera was more effective against desiccation and high temperature stress but heavier than M. labio form confusa. The preference of P. filholi from Oura Bay for T. clavigera may be attributable to the greater requirement for protection against higher physical stresses, even though a higher energetic cost related to the shell weight is incurred.
We evaluate the probe forming capability of a JEOL 2200FS transmission electron microscope equipped with a spherical aberration (Cs) probe corrector. The achievement of a real space sub-Angstrom (0.1 nm) probe for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is demonstrated by acquisition and modeling of high-angle annular dark-field STEM images. We show that by optimizing the illumination system, large probe currents and large collection angles for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be combined to yield EELS fine structure data spatially resolved to the atomic scale. We demonstrate the probe forming flexibility provided by the additional lenses in the probe corrector in several ways, including the formation of nanometer-sized parallel beams for nanoarea electron diffraction, and the formation of focused probes for convergent beam electron diffraction with a range of convergence angles. The different probes that can be formed using the probe corrected STEM opens up new applications for electron microscopy and diffraction.
We performed a 1D LTE chemical abundance analysis of an extremely metal-poor star BD+44°493 ([Fe/H]= −3.7), and set a very low upper limit for its Be abundance: A(Be) < −2.0. It may indicate that the decreasing trend of Be abundances with lower [Fe/H] still holds at [Fe/H] < −3.5, and demonstrate that high C and O abundances do not necessarily imply high Be abundances. However, since the star is a subgiant with Teff ~ 5500K, Be may be depleted.
We performed a chemical abundance analysis of the very bright (V = 9.1) carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star BD+44°493, which is the first star found with metallicity [Fe/H] < −3.5 and an apparent magnitude V < 12. The star is classified as a CEMP-no” subgiant, and its abundance pattern implies that a first-generation faint supernova is the most likely origin of its carbon excess. We set an very low upper limit on this star's beryllium abundance, which demonstrates that high C and O abundances do not necessarily imply high Be abundances.
We have been determining abundances of Th, Pb and other neutron-capture elements in metal-deficient cool giant stars to constrain the enrichment of heavy elements by the r- and s-processes. Our current sample covers the metallicity range between [Fe/H] = −2.5 and −1.0. (1) The abundance ratios of Pb/Fe and Pb/Eu of most of our stars are approximately constant, and no increase of these ratios with increasing metallicity is found. This result suggests that the Pb abundances of our sample are determined by the r-process with no or little contribution of the s-process. (2) The Th/Eu abundance ratios of our sample show no significant scatter, and the average is lower by 0.2 dex in the logarithmic scale than the solar-system value. This result indicates that the actinides production by the r-process does not show large dispersion, even though r-process models suggest high sensitivity of the actinides production to the nucleosynthesis environment.
Ar cluster ions in the size range 1000�16000 atoms/cluster were irradiated onto Si substrates at incident energies of 10 and 20 keV and the sputtering yields were measured. Incident cluster ions were size-selected by using the time-of-flight (TOF) method. The sputtering yield was calculated from the sputtered Si volume and irradiation dose. It was found that the sputtering yields decreased with increasing incident cluster size under the same incident energy conditions. The integrated sputtering yields calculated from the sputtering yields measured for each size of Ar cluster ions, as well as the cluster size distributions, were in good agreement with experimental results obtained with nonselected Ar cluster ion beams.
We have observed seven giants in the metal-poor globular cluster M15 using Subaru/HDS. We confirmed that there are significant star-to-star variations in the neutron-capture elemental abundances. This abundance variation means there were primordial chemical inhomogeneities in the proto-globular cluster cloud of M15. This result implies that there was insufficient time for complete mixing after r-process nucleosynthesis. It suggests that the main r-process occurs probably in supernovae which explode in later stages of globular cluster formation.
ZnSe/GaAs (001) heterovalent heteгostructures are fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. During the growth, both GaAs and ZnSe surfaces are kept atomically flat to achieve precise control of the interface formation. Interface composition, Ga/As, are controlled by means of either Zn or Se treatment of a GaAs surface, and then ZnSe growth follows. Consequently, it is revealed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) that artificial control of Ga/As from 1.0 to 2.8 leads to the variation of valence band offsets from 0.6 to 1.1 eV. Based on the electron counting model and layer-attenuation model, it is proposed that the As plane just below the interface consists of As, anti-site Ga and As vacancy.
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