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Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome for people with dementia living in care homes but usually needs to be rated by a proxy. We do not know if relative or paid carer proxy reports differ. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis of data investigating whether and how these proxy reports of QoL differ.
We searched four databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in October 2015 with the terms: dementia, QoL, proxy, and care home. Included studies either compared proxy QoL ratings or investigated the factors associated with them. We meta-analyzed data comparing staff and family proxy rated QoL.
We included 17/105 papers identified. We found no difference between global proxy ratings of QoL (n = 1,290; pooled effect size 0.06 (95% CI = −0.08 to 0.19)). Studies investigating factors associated with ratings (n = 3,537) found family and staff ratings correlated with the resident's physical and mental health. Staff who were more distressed rated resident QoL lower. Relatives rated it lower when the resident had lived in the care home for longer, when they observed more restraint, or contributed more to fees.
Relatives and staff proxy QoL ratings share a clear relationship to resident health and overall ratings were similar. Rater-specific factors were, however, also associated with scores. Understanding why different raters consider the QoL of the same person differently is an important consideration when evaluating the meaning of proxy rated QoL. Proxy raters’ backgrounds may affect their rating of QoL.
There is increasing emphasis on the need for effective ways of sharing knowledge to enhance environmental management and sustainability. Knowledge exchange (KE) are processes that generate, share and/or use knowledge through various methods appropriate to the context, purpose, and participants involved. KE includes concepts such as sharing, generation, coproduction, comanagement, and brokerage of knowledge. This paper elicits the expert knowledge of academics involved in research and practice of KE from different disciplines and backgrounds to review research themes, identify gaps and questions, and develop a research agenda for furthering understanding about KE. Results include 80 research questions prefaced by a review of research themes. Key conclusions are: (1) there is a diverse range of questions relating to KE that require attention; (2) there is a particular need for research on understanding the process of KE and how KE can be evaluated; and (3) given the strong interdependency of research questions, an integrated approach to understanding KE is required. To improve understanding of KE, action research methodologies and embedding evaluation as a normal part of KE research and practice need to be encouraged. This will foster more adaptive approaches to learning about KE and enhance effectiveness of environmental management.
The use of biomolecules in the creation of inorganic materials offers an alternative to conventional synthetic methods. Biomolecules are currently used to control nucleation and growth of inorganic nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate the formation of silver nanoparticles in the presence of silver-binding peptides. Examination of the silver nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy revealed a variety of crystal morphologies such as hexagons, triangles and spheres. The peptides serve to reduce the silver ions in the aqueous solution to metallic silver as well as control crystal growth. The nucleation property of peptides can be used as tool for bottom-up fabrication.
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