Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) worsens over pregnancy, and obstructive sleep apnea is associated with serious maternal complications. Intrauterine exposures that provoke insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, or oxidative stress may have long-term offspring health consequences. In obesity, worsening maternal SDB appears to be an exposure that increases the risk for both small- or large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA, respectively), suggesting distinct outcomes linked to a common maternal phenotype. The aim of this paper is to systematically review and link data from both mechanistic rodent models and descriptive human studies to characterize the impact of maternal SDB on fetal development. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL (01/2000–09/2019). Data from rodent (9 studies) and human models (48 studies, 5 meta-analyses) were included and reviewed using PRISMA guidelines. Evidence from rodent models suggests that intermittent maternal hypoxia results in mixed changes in birth weight (BW) followed by accelerated postnatal growth, while maternal sleep fragmentation results in normal BW followed by later metabolic derangement. Human studies support that maternal SDB is associated with both SGA and LGA, both of which may predispose offspring to later obesity. Evidence also suggests a link between SDB, inflammation, and oxidative stress that may impact maternal metabolism and/or placental function. SDB is common in pregnancy and affects fetal growth and development. Given that SDB has significant potential to adversely influence the intrauterine metabolic environment, larger, prospective studies in humans are urgently needed to fully elucidate the effects of this exposure on offspring metabolic risk.