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Although Nematodirus battus is a serious threat to the health and survival of young lambs, there are few options to control this parasite. Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain modelling with a zero-inflated Poisson distribution was used to estimate the heritability of egg counts in both June and July for each of five consecutive cohorts of 200 Scottish Blackface lambs. In one of the 10 analyses, the results failed the diagnostic tests. In seven of the analyses, there was no convincing evidence that the variation in egg counts was heritable. In the 2 years of high infection, the heritability was approximately 0.4 in June but the estimates lacked precision and the 95% highest posterior density credible intervals ranged from just above zero to 0.7. Selective breeding for resistance to N. battus will be difficult because genetically resistant or susceptible lambs cannot be consistently identified by phenotypic markers.
The inheritance of resistance to the auxinic herbicide dicamba was examined in a kochia population from Nebraska. An inbred, resistant line was developed by selection and selfing over seven generations to ensure any resistance alleles would be homozygous in the parents. An inbred, susceptible line was similarly developed, but without selection. Dose–response experiments with dicamba determined a glyphosate-resistant concentration required to inhibit dry weight accumulation by 50% (GR50) of 45 and 1,331 g ae ha−1 for the susceptible and resistant populations, respectively. F1 crosses were made between resistant and susceptible inbred individuals by hand-pollination, and the F1 plants were selfed to produce F2 plants. The F2 population was screened with 280 g ha−1 dicamba, a rate that could discriminate between susceptible and resistant plants. A total of eight F2 families were screened twice. In the first screen, seven F2 families segregated in a 3:1 ratio, consistent with a single dominant allele controlling resistance, and in the second screen six F2 families segregated in a 3:1 ratio. F2 individuals were selfed, the F3 progeny were tested with 280 g ha−1 dicamba, and the genotype of each F2 parent was determined based on F3 progeny segregation. F3 family segregation was consistent with the F2 parents having a 1:2:1 homozygous-susceptible:heterozygote:homozygous-resistant pattern, confirming that resistance to dicamba in kochia is likely conferred by a single allele with a high degree of dominance.
In response to global economic duress and heightened consumer awareness of nutrition and health, sustainable and natural ingredients are in demand. Identification of alternative sources of nitrogen and amino acids, including taurine, may help meet dietary requirements while fostering sustainability and natural feeding approaches. Twenty plants, eighteen marine algae and five insect species were analysed. All samples were freeze-dried, hydrolysed and filtered prior to amino acid analysis. Samples for amino acids were analysed in duplicate and averaged. Nitrogen was analysed and crude protein (CP) determined by calculation. With the exception of taurine concentration in soldier fly larvae, all insects exceeded both the National Research Council's canine and feline minimal requirements (MR) for growth of all essential amino acids (EAA) and CP. Although some plants and marine algal species exceeded the canine and feline MR for growth for EAA and CP, only very low concentrations of taurine were found in plants. Taurine concentration in insects was variable but high, with the greatest concentration found in ants (6·42 mg/g DM) and adult flesh flies (3·33 mg/g DM). Taurine was also high in some macroalgae, especially the red algal species: Mazaella spp. (4·11 mg/g DM), Porphyra spp. (1·22 mg/g DM) and Chondracanthus spp. (6·28 mg/g DM). Preliminary results suggest that insects and some marine algal species may be practical alternatives to traditional protein and supplemental taurine sources in pet foods. Safety, bioavailability, palatability and source variability of alternative items as food ingredients should be investigated prior to incorporation into canine and feline diets.
Individual placement and support (IPS) is effective in helping patients return to work but is poorly implemented because of clinical ambivalence and fears of relapse.
To assess whether a motivational intervention (motivational interviewing) directed at clinical staff to address ambivalence about employment improved patients' occupational outcomes.
Two of four early intervention teams that already provided IPS were randomised to receive motivational interviewing training for clinicians, focused on attitudinal barriers to employment. The trial was registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register (ISRCTN71943786).
Of 300 eligible participants, 159 consented to the research. Occupational outcomes were obtained for 134 patients (85%) at 12-month follow-up. More patients in the intervention teams than in the IPS-only teams achieved employment by 12 months (29/68 v. 12/66). A random effects logistic regression accounting for clustering by care coordinator, and adjusted for participants' gender, ethnicity, educational and employment history and clinical status scores, confirmed superiority of the intervention (odds ratio = 4.3, 95% CI 1.5–16.6).
Employment outcomes were enhanced by addressing clinicians' ambivalence about their patients returning to work.
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