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Through a case-study of one significant courtyard house owned by the Drapers’ Company and known as ‘The Erber’, this article argues that mercantile livery companies supported London's growing centrality within an expanding network of trade through the use and development of corporate properties. The micro-history at the heart of this article reveals that the ‘everyday’ built environment of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century London was shaped not just by the city elite. Also relevant to that process were the different sorts of tenants of the Drapers’ Company, who benefited from the expansion at all levels of London's mercantile activity. The trickle-down effects of global mercantilism affected spaces small and large. The investigation of the Erber highlights the domestic implications of global commercial expansion.
The idea of direct payments for biodiversity conservation in developing countries has generated much debate. Despite substantial experience with related economic instruments in high-income countries such approaches are rare in tropical developing countries, where conservation action is most urgently needed. We explore current experience with the application of direct payments in developing countries through an extensive review and subsequent analysis of the efforts of Conservation International. Our review identifies a broad spectrum of possible direct payment contracts. However, we focus on those involving international conservation interests. Firstly, we develop a framework for the design of direct payment applications, addressing four major aspects: contractual arrangements, definition of conservation services, performance payments, and monitoring and enforcement systems. Secondly, we discuss implementation issues, highlighting the need to consider social factors such as participatory processes, property rights, local institutions and contract legitimacy. Finally, we discuss important considerations for future payment schemes. These include the need for social responsibility, as well as rigorous assessments of effectiveness. We conclude that direct payments show potential as an innovative tool for engaging local communities or resource users in conservation and as a mechanism for channelling global investments in biodiversity conservation services to site-based initiatives.
Befriending (BF) has received attention as a beneficial part of mental health care. For example, when compared with cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia, BF was found to be as effective as CBT in terms of initial symptom improvement (Sensky et al., 2000). Why was the BF apparently so effective? Was the BF really a discrete and powerful intervention? Or was it simply an unrecognized aspect of regular CBT? We addressed these questions by first observing BF's convergence with “social support” (a plausibly discrete treatment) and, second, by examining its divergence from CBT, drawing on archival data. For the convergence prediction we correlated the speech content of therapists' in 10 BF sessions from the Sensky et al. study with previously published social support data from stylists working with people with severe mental health problems in a psychiatric hospital (Milne and Netherwood, 1997). For the second prediction the same 10 BF sessions were compared with a sample of 10 CBT sessions, also from the Sensky et al. study. The results indicated that BF was indeed significantly correlated (converged) with social support (r=0.7; p<.05), and also that it did differ (diverged) significantly from CBT (p<.05). As a treatment fidelity check, therefore, these findings indicate tentatively that the two treatments in the Sensky et al. (2000) study were appropriately implemented. As an analysis of effective interventions for schizophrenia, it cautiously suggests that “social support” merits serious attention, and is perhaps no mere placebo.
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