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This chapter is shorter than the others and takes the form of a postscript devoted to the state and organisation of music in Wales at the time of the book’s publication. It is shaped around the coincidental but simultaneous occurrence of two key historical moments: the devolution of many segments of administrative authority from the UK government to Wales and the establishment of a Welsh Parliament (Y Senedd), and the ubiquitous adoption of digitisation in the service of cultural communication and creativity. This latter development was not, of course, a uniquely Welsh phenomenon, but in Wales, because of the country’s geography and bilingualism, it had an especially important impact. Digitisation facilitated the ambition of Wales’s devolved governments to express the country’s cultural distinctiveness within the UK and globally. Devolution had the ancillary effect of elevating the importance of the creative industries, including those devoted to or including music. Additionally, the legal framework that underlined devolution led to an increased protection of the Welsh language and consequently the music cultures which had flourished within it. The chapter deals with the consequences for Welsh music of two decades of devolution and its impact on traditional and the modern agencies and institutions concerned with Welsh music: music education, performance, the curation of Welsh historical materials and the associated scholarship.
There was a general belief that while death rates for children and young adults would fall as we learnt to conquer infectious diseases, death rates for the over 65s would never slow. Yet by the end of the twentieth century, the decline in human mortality rates was fastest for those in old age. It was argued that life expectancy would never reach beyond 90 years. Latest figures suggest that this will be breached within 20 years, and that half of those born today in Europe will reach over 100. At what year will a human live longer than Jeanne Louise Calment – who died at 122 years old in 1997? Or will this be the maximum life span of any human being? With life expectancy gains reaching over 2 years with every decade this chapter focuses on how long humans can expect to survive, and asks: why is there a search for extreme longevity and what will be the societal consequences?
In this study we report on an instrumental analysis of /spstsk/ clusters in south-central Peninsular Spanish, documenting a three-way system of /s/ realization: speakers tend to produce alveolar fricatives in /st/ clusters, velar fricatives in /sk/ clusters, and glottal fricatives or deletions in /sp/ clusters. An analysis based on the discrete classification of /s/ variants shows that a combination of linguistic factors (following consonant and stress) influences /s/ realization. An analysis based on the phonetic coding of /s/ variants (using measures of fricative duration, relative voicing, and center of gravity) reveals the extent to which velar fricatives display an intermediate status along the phonetic continuum of /s/ lenition variations. Taken together, these analyses shed light on the nature of coda /s/ in Spanish and on the extent to which the attested allophony constitutes a lenition process.
Locally abundant and diverse brachiopod faunas, associated with unstable outer shelf and slope environments, occur throughout the Barr and Ardmillan groups (middle Llanvirn–upper Ashgill) in the Girvan district of SW Scotland. A dataset of 350 brachiopod species from 30 horizons through the Middle–Upper Ordovician succession forms the basis for a description of brachiopod diversity through the succession and comparison with global patterns and trends through this time interval. The Middle Ordovician Barr Group incorporates shallow water carbonate and clastic facies, characterised by Valcourea confinis, with deeper-water facies. The trilobite-dominated Albany Group preserves outer shelf biofacies. Deep-water facies occur in the Balclatchie Formation of the lower Ardmillan Group, including an early occurrence of a Foliomena-type species. High diversity brachiopod faunas occur in clastic facies, though many of the biofacies have a transported component to them. Representatives of the deep-water Foliomena fauna occur intermittently throughout the Upper Ardmillan Group, appearing in both the Whitehouse and Drummuck subgroups. This distinctive assemblage of small, thin-shelled brachiopods, including Dedzetina, Christiania, Cyclospira and Foliomena itself, is interbedded with a variety of other less cosmopolitan deep-water assemblages, including the Onniella–Skenidioides and Lingulella–Trimurellina associations. Shallower-water environments in the middle Ashgill Lower Drummuck Subgroup hosted the Fardenia–Eopholidostrophia association in sands, and the Christiania–Leptaena association in muds and silts. The remarkable Lady Burn Starfish Beds in the upper part of the group contain a variety of brachiopod-dominated assemblages, including the Eochonetes and Plaesiomys–Schizophorella associations, transported from various shelf locations, within a very diverse mid Ashgill biota. The upper Ashgill High Mains Formation contains abundant elements of the terminal Ordovician Hirnantia fauna, including Eostropheodonta, Hindella and Hirnantia itself, but also some taxa more typical of the Laurentian Edgewood Province. As a whole, the changing brachiopod biodiversity biofacies reflect environmental fluctuations, on this part of the Laurentian margin, driven by mainly eustatic and tectonic events against a background of global biotic radiation.
The UK's national population structure, in line with most Western societies, is ageing rapidly. The combination of falling fertility and increasing longevity is having an impact on family structures and resultant relationships, with the emergence of long vertical multi-generational families replacing the former laterally extended family forms. This is occurring at a time when UK government policy is placing increasing reliance on families to provide health and social care and support for the growing number of frail older people. While there has been extensive research on family care within the majority white population, there is less understanding of the elder family care provision for the UK's growing older ethnic population. This paper discusses the changing demographics, new government policy on promoting independent living and its implications for family care provision, and reviews our current understanding of family care and support for older people within the UK’s varied ethnic minority families.
The trends towards falling fertility and mortality and increasing longevity, which have led to the demographic ageing of all Western industrialized societies, have not occurred in isolation. More specifically, we are also seeing a combination of forces which are resulting in the ageing of some life-transitions. While public and legal institutions may be lowering the age threshold into full legal adulthood, individuals themselves are choosing to delay many of those transitions which demonstrate a commitment to full adulthood. This shift from a high-mortality/high-fertility society to a low-mortality/low-fertility society and the ageing of family transitions within these societies have significant implications for both family structure and kinship roles. Drawing on recent demographic figures for the European Union, this paper highlights the impact of these main trends on individuals and families.
‘Ageing of the population is … one of the most important socioeconomic
challenges … for the 21st Century’ Andrej Wojrczak, Director, WHO
Centre Health Development, Japan.
This statement (WHO 1998: 5), reflects the growing awareness among
politicians, policy makers and the general public of issues which have
been recognised by gerontologists for the past 30 years or so. In both
developed and less developed countries, demographic transition and
the shift in the age structure of the population is now being publicly
recognised as having fundamental implications for everyone in society.
As British gerontology enters a new century, the time appears ripe to
reflect on past achievements and highlight some future questions. In
the following discussion I consider ageing and later life, discussing both
societal and individual ageing, and the experiences, needs and
contributions of those in later life. The paper focuses on social
gerontology, defined as social, behavioural, historical, demographic
and economic aspects of the study of ageing and later life, including the
interface of these with health and health services. It thus touches upon
medical and biological aspects only when they are of appropriate
China is a rapidly ageing nation. With nearly 10 % of its population over sixty, forecasts predict that this proportion will double by 2025. Such ageing is particularly acute in some of the large cities, where the impact of population policies has combined with lengthening life expectancies, to increase rapidly the percentages of elderly residents. Following a brief review of health and welfare policies directed towards elderly people, the paper draws on documentary and field research, carried out in Shanghai, to assess the current development and administration of residential homes in that city. Using a variety of case- study material the paper discusses the current situation of residents in relation to their former life experiences. It appears that in communist China, as in western democracies, former positions and allegiances in younger life help construct the experience of old age.
Analysis of the kin support networks of rural elderly, resident in Staffordshire and Hampshire, indicated that the most important factor affecting both the patterns and relationships of the kin network is the residential mobility of the nuclear family and its members. The study revealed the importance of recognising three broad groupings of elderly: the indigenous aged, who typically possess an extended local kin network; the retired inmigrants who had relocated their households to be near kin; and the retired inmigrants without nearby kin. When these groupings are introduced the importance of the dichotomy between local/non-local kin and between former kin-separation/non-kin-separation becomes apparent. These dichotomies hold important implications for the family relationships of the rural elderly, for their use of the kin network and of the formal support system, and for their interaction with the wider community.
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