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Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with increased stroke risk, but little is known about how SMI relates to stroke prognosis and receipt of acute care.
To determine the association between SMI and stroke outcomes and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators (such as timely admission to stroke unit).
We conducted a cohort study using routinely collected linked data-sets, including adults with a first hospital admission for stroke in Scotland during 1991–2014, with process-of-care quality indicator data available from 2010. We identified pre-existing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression from hospital records. We used logistic regression to evaluate 30-day, 1-year and 5-year mortality and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators by pre-existing SMI, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. We used Cox regression to evaluate further stroke and vascular events (stroke and myocardial infarction).
Among 228 699 patients who had had a stroke, 1186 (0.5%), 859 (0.4%), 7308 (3.2%) had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, respectively. Overall, median follow-up was 2.6 years. Compared with adults without a record of mental illness, 30-day mortality was higher for schizophrenia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.33, 95% CI 1.16–1.52), bipolar disorder (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.18–1.60) and major depression (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.18). Each disorder was also associated with marked increased risk of 1-year and 5-year mortality and further stroke and vascular events. There were no clear differences in receipt of process-of-care quality indicators.
Pre-existing SMI was associated with higher risks of mortality and further vascular events. Urgent action is needed to better understand and address the reasons for these disparities.
The longitudinal relationship between depression and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is uncertain. We examined: (a) the association between depressive symptoms and incident hepatic steatosis (HS), both with and without liver fibrosis; and (b) the influence of obesity on this association.
A cohort of 142 005 Korean adults with neither HS nor excessive alcohol consumption at baseline were followed for up to 8.9 years. The validated Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression score (CES-D) was assessed at baseline, and subjects were categorised as non-depressed (a CES-D < 8, reference) or depression (CES-D ⩾ 16). HS was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Liver fibrosis was assessed by the fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4). Parametric proportional hazards models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 27 810 people with incident HS and 134 with incident HS plus high FIB-4 were identified. Compared with the non-depressed category, the aHR (95% CIs) for incident HS was 1.24 (1.15–1.34) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among obese individuals, and 1.00 (0.95–1.05) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among non-obese individuals (p for interaction with obesity <0.001). The aHR (95% CIs) for developing HS plus high FIB-4 was 3.41 (1.33–8.74) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among obese individuals, and 1.22 (0.60–2.47) for CES-D ⩾ 16 among non-obese individuals (p for interaction = 0.201).
Depression was associated with an increased risk of incident HS and HS plus high probability of advanced fibrosis, especially among obese individuals.
Psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, but it is not known whether the associations or the role of sociodemographic factors have changed over time.
To investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and IHD and stroke, by time period and sociodemographic factors.
We used Scottish population-based records from 1991 to 2015 to create retrospective cohorts with a hospital record for psychiatric disorders of interest (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or depression) or no record of hospital admission for mental illness. We estimated incidence and relative risks of IHD and stroke in people with versus without psychiatric disorders by calendar year, age, gender and area-based deprivation level.
In all cohorts, incidence of IHD (645 393 events) and stroke (276 073 events) decreased over time, but relative risks decreased for depression only. In 2015, at the mean age at event onset, relative risks were 2- to 2.5-fold higher in people with versus without a psychiatric disorder. Age at incidence of outcome differed by cohort, gender and socioeconomic status. Relative but not absolute risks were generally higher in women than men. Increasing deprivation conveys a greater absolute risk of IHD for people with bipolar disorder or depression.
Despite declines in absolute rates of IHD and stroke, relative risks remain high in those with versus without psychiatric disorders. Cardiovascular disease monitoring and prevention approaches may need to be tailored by psychiatric disorder and cardiovascular outcome, and be targeted, for example, by age and deprivation level.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is known to be associated with elevated serum ferritin levels. The possible association with other Fe markers has been less well studied. We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and ferritin levels with the MetS components, insulin resistance and glycosylated Hb (HbA1C). The sample consisted of 725 adults, aged 19–93 years (284 men, 151 premenopausal and 290 postmenopausal women), from the Croatian island of Vis. Serum sTfR and ferritin levels were measured by immunoturbidimetry and electrochemiluminescence assays, respectively. The MetS was defined using modified international consensus criteria. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations adjusting for age, fibrinogen, smoking status, alcohol consumption and BMI. Prevalence of the MetS was 48·7 %. Standardised values of ferritin were positively associated with all of the MetS components (except high blood pressure and waist circumference) in men (P<0·05). Ferritin was significantly associated with the MetS in men (adjusted OR 1·78 (95 % CI 1·31, 2·42)) and postmenopausal women (1·71 (95 % CI 1·12, 2·62)). Interestingly, sTfR was independently and positively associated with homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance in men (adjusted β=0·44 (95 % CI 0·14, 0·75), P=0·004) and postmenopausal women (adjusted β coefficient=0·34 (95 % CI 0·05, 0·63), P=0·020). However, there was no significant relationship between serum sTfR levels and the MetS or its components. Neither ferritin nor sTfR was significantly associated with HbA1C (P>0·05). sTfR levels could be spuriously elevated in subjects with insulin resistance and without association with the MetS or its components. We conclude that different markers of Fe metabolism are not consistently associated with cardiometabolic risk.
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome (a clustering of three or more of increased waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and fasting plasma triacylglycerol levels and reduced HDL levels), and a marked increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes and CHD. The impact of obesity differs between individuals, particularly between men and women and between ethnic groups. For example, in South Asians, although overall obesity is less prevalent, central obesity and the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent than in Europeans and this pattern is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes and CHD at an earlier age. It is important to examine individual risk factors contributing to obesity because they may have a different impact in population subgroups. Many factors contribute to the aetiology of obesity and there is increasing evidence to suggest that altered early development is one such factor and is associated with abnormal fat accumulation, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in later life. The present review presents this evidence and discusses some of the mechanisms that may be involved in the pathogenesis of the programming of obesity.
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