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The school food environment (SFE) is an ideal setting for encouraging healthy dietary behaviour. We aimed to develop an instrument to assess whole-SFE, test the instrument in the school setting and demonstrate its use to make food environment recommendations.
SFE literature and UK school food guidance were searched to inform instrument items. The instrument consisted of (i) an observation proforma capturing canteen areas systems, food presentation and monitoring of food intake and (ii) a questionnaire assessing food policies, provision and activities. The instrument was tested in schools and used to develop SFE recommendations. Descriptive analyses enabled narrative discussion.
An observation was undertaken at schools in urban and rural geographical regions of Northern Ireland of varying socio-economic status (n 18). School senior management completed the questionnaire with input from school caterers (n 16).
The instrument captured desired detail and potential instrument modifications were identified. SFE varied. Differences existed between food policies and how policies were implemented and monitored. At many schools, there was scope to enhance physical eating environments (n 12, 67 %) and food presentation (n 15, 83 %); emphasise healthy eating through food activities (n 7, 78 %) and increase parental engagement in school food (n 9, 56 %).
The developed instrument can measure whole-SFE in primary schools and also enabled identification of recommendations to enhance SFE. Further assessment and adaptation of the instrument are required to enable future use as a research tool or for self-assessment use by schools.
Peer support interventions for dietary change may offer cost-effective alternatives to interventions led by health professionals. This process evaluation of a trial to encourage the adoption and maintenance of a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high CVD risk (TEAM-MED) aimed to investigate the feasibility of implementing a group-based peer support intervention for dietary change, positive elements of the intervention and aspects that could be improved. Data on training and support for the peer supporters; intervention fidelity and acceptability; acceptability of data collection processes for the trial and reasons for withdrawal from the trial were considered. Data were collected from observations, questionnaires and interviews, with both peer supporters and trial participants. Peer supporters were recruited and trained to result in successful implementation of the intervention; all intended sessions were run, with the majority of elements included. Peer supporters were complimentary of the training, and positive comments from participants centred around the peer supporters, the intervention materials and the supportive nature of the group sessions. Attendance at the group sessions, however, waned over the intervention, with suggested effects on intervention engagement, enthusiasm and group cohesion. Reduced attendance was reportedly a result of meeting (in)frequency and organisational concerns, but increased social activities and group-based activities may also increase engagement, group cohesion and attendance. The peer support intervention was successfully implemented and tested, but improvements can be suggested and may enhance the successful nature of these types of interventions. Some consideration of personal preferences may also improve outcomes.
To describe inpatient fluoroquinolone use and susceptibility data over a 10-year period after the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) led by an infectious diseases pharmacist starting in 2011.
Retrospective surveillance study.
Large community health system.
Fluoroquinolone use was quantified by days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days (PD) and reported quarterly. Use data are reported for inpatients from 2016 to 2020. Levofloxacin susceptibility is reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli for inpatients from 2011 to 2020 at a 4 adult-hospital health system.
Inpatient fluoroquinolone use decreased by 74% over a 5-year period, with an average decrease of 3.45 DOT per 1,000 PD per quarter (P < .001). Over a 10-year period, inpatient levofloxacin susceptibility increased by 57% for P. aeruginosa and by 15% for E. coli. P. aeruginosa susceptibility to levofloxacin increased by an average of 2.73% per year (P < .001) and had a strong negative correlation with fluoroquinolone use, r = −0.99 (P = .002). E. coli susceptibility to levofloxacin increased by an average of 1.33% per year (P < .001) and had a strong negative correlation with fluoroquinolone use, r = −0.95 (P = .015).
A substantial decrease in fluoroquinolone use and increase in P. aeruginosa and E. coli levofloxacin susceptibility was observed after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program. These results demonstrate the value of stewardship services and highlight the effectiveness of an infectious diseases pharmacist led antimicrobial stewardship program.
Effective stakeholder engagement increases research relevance and utility. Though published principles of community-based participatory research and patient-centered outcomes research offer guidance, few resources offer effective techniques to engage stakeholders and translate their engagement into improvements in research process and outcomes. The Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (Indiana CTSI) is home to Research Jam (RJ), an interdisciplinary team of researchers, project management professionals, and design experts, that employs human-centered design (HCD) to engage stakeholders in the research process. Establishing HCD services at the Indiana CTSI has allowed for accessible and innovative stakeholder-engaged research. RJ offers services for stakeholder-informed study design, measurement, implementation, and dissemination. RJ’s services are in demand to address research barriers pertaining to a diverse array of health topics and stakeholder groups. As a result, the RJ team has grown significantly with both institutional and extramural support. Researchers involved in RJ projects report that working with RJ helped them learn how to better engage with stakeholders in research and changed the way they approach working with stakeholders. RJ can serve as a potential model for effectively engaging stakeholders through HCD to improve translational research.
Compare rates, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of paediatric palliative care consultation in children supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation admitted to a single-centre 16-bed cardiac or a 28-bed paediatric ICU.
Retrospective review of clinical characteristics and outcomes of children (aged 0–21 years) supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between January, 2017 and December, 2019 compared by palliative care consultation.
Measurements and results:
One hundred children (N = 100) were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; 19% received a palliative care consult. Compared to non-consulted children, consulted children had higher disease severity measured by higher complex chronic conditions at the end of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation hospitalisation (5 versus. 3; p < 0.001), longer hospital length of stay (92 days versus 19 days; p < 0.001), and higher use of life-sustaining therapies after decannulation (79% versus 23%; p < 0.001). Consultations occurred mainly for longitudinal psychosocial-spiritual support after patient survived device deployment with a median of 27 days after cannulation. Most children died in the ICU after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies regardless of consultation status. Over two-thirds of the 44 deaths (84%; n = 37) occurred during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation hospitalisation.
Palliative care consultation was rare showing that palliative care consultation was not viewed as an acute need and only considered when the clinical course became protracted. As a result, there are missed opportunities to involve palliative care earlier and more frequently in the care of extracorporeal membrane survivors and non-survivors and their families.
In this study, we evaluated the impact of a microbiology nudge on de-escalation to first-generation cephalosporins in hospitalized patients with urinary tract infections secondary to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≤ 16 µg/mL. De-escalation to first generation-cephalosporins was uncommon at MICs = 4–16 µg/mL.
To identify the efficacy of group-based nutrition interventions to increase healthy eating, reduce nutrition risk, improve nutritional status and improve physical mobility among community-dwelling older adults.
Systematic review. Electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Sociological Abstracts were searched on July 15, 2020 for studies published in English since January 2010. Study selection, critical appraisal (using the Joanna Briggs Institute’s tools) and data extraction were performed in duplicate by two independent reviewers.
Nutrition interventions delivered to groups in community-based settings were eligible. Studies delivered in acute or long-term care settings were excluded.
Community-dwelling older adults aged 55+ years. Studies targeting specific disease populations or promoting weight loss were excluded.
Thirty-one experimental and quasi-experimental studies with generally unclear to high risk of bias were included. Interventions included nutrition education with behaviour change techniques (BCT) (e.g. goal setting, interactive cooking demonstrations) (n 21), didactic nutrition education (n 4), interactive nutrition education (n 2), food access (n 2) and nutrition education with BCT and food access (n 2). Group-based nutrition education with BCT demonstrated the most promise in improving food and fluid intake, nutritional status and healthy eating knowledge compared with baseline or control. The impact on mobility outcomes was unclear.
Group-based nutrition education with BCT demonstrated the most promise for improving healthy eating among community-dwelling older adults. Our findings should be interpreted with caution related to generally low certainty, unclear to high risk of bias and high heterogeneity across interventions and outcomes. Higher quality research in group-based nutrition education for older adults is needed.
Background:Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that is transmitted in healthcare facilities and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Environmental contamination is suspected to play an important role in transmission but additional information is needed to inform environmental cleaning recommendations to prevent spread. Methods: We conducted a multiregional (Chicago, IL; Irvine, CA) prospective study of environmental contamination associated with C. auris colonization of patients and residents of 4 long-term care facilities and 1 acute-care hospital. Participants were identified by screening or clinical cultures. Samples were collected from participants’ body sites (eg, nares, axillae, inguinal creases, palms and fingertips, and perianal skin) and their environment before room cleaning. Daily room cleaning and disinfection by facility environmental service workers was followed by targeted cleaning of high-touch surfaces by research staff using hydrogen peroxide wipes (see EPA-approved product for C. auris, List P). Samples were collected immediately after cleaning from high-touch surfaces and repeated at 4-hour intervals up to 12 hours. A pilot phase (n = 12 patients) was conducted to identify the value of testing specific high-touch surfaces to assess environmental contamination. High-yield surfaces were included in the full evaluation phase (n = 20 patients) (Fig. 1). Samples were submitted for semiquantitative culture of C. auris and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacterales (ESBLs), and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Times to room surface contamination with C. auris and other MDROs after effective cleaning were analyzed. Results:Candida auris colonization was most frequently detected in the nares (72%) and palms and fingertips (72%). Cocolonization of body sites with other MDROs was common (Fig. 2). Surfaces located close to the patient were commonly recontaminated with C. auris by 4 hours after cleaning, including the overbed table (24%), bed handrail (24%), and TV remote or call button (19%). Environmental cocontamination was more common with resistant gram-positive organisms (MRSA and, VRE) than resistant gram-negative organisms (Fig. 3). C. auris was rarely detected on surfaces located outside a patient’s room (1 of 120 swabs; <1%). Conclusions: Environmental surfaces near C. auris–colonized patients were rapidly recontaminated after cleaning and disinfection. Cocolonization of skin and environment with other MDROs was common, with resistant gram-positive organisms predominating over gram-negative organisms on environmental surfaces. Limitations include lack of organism sequencing or typing to confirm environmental contamination was from the room resident. Rapid recontamination of environmental surfaces after manual cleaning and disinfection suggests that alternate mitigation strategies should be evaluated.
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a peer support intervention to encourage adoption and maintenance of a Mediterranean diet (MD) in established community groups where existing social support may assist the behaviour change process. Four established community groups with members at increased Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk and homogenous in gender were recruited and randomised to receive either a 12-month Peer Support (PS) intervention (PSG) (n 2) or a Minimal Support intervention (educational materials only) (MSG) (n 2). The feasibility of the intervention was assessed using recruitment and retention rates, assessing the variability of outcome measures (primary outcome: adoption of an MD at 6 months (using a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS)) and process evaluation measures including qualitative interviews. Recruitment rates for community groups (n 4/8), participants (n 31/51) and peer supporters (n 6/14) were 50 %, 61 % and 43 %, respectively. The recruitment strategy faced several challenges with recruitment and retention of participants, leading to a smaller sample than intended. At 12 months, a 65 % and 76·5 % retention rate for PSG and MSG participants was observed, respectively. A > 2-point increase in MDS was observed in both the PSG and the MSG at 6 months, maintained at 12 months. An increase in MD adherence was evident in both groups during follow-up; however, the challenges faced in recruitment and retention suggest a definitive study of the peer support intervention using current methods is not feasible and refinement based on the current feasibility study should be incorporated. Lessons learned during the implementation of this intervention will help inform future interventions in this area.
Hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients receiving antibiotics (n = 173) were retrospectively assigned to the early or late discontinuation groups. The length of therapy was shorter in the early discontinuation group (3 vs 7 days; P < .0001). Mortality rates (14.3% vs 20.7%; P = .316) and length of stay (7 vs 9 days; P = .063) were similar.
Infectious diseases outbreaks are a cause of significant morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are particularly vulnerable to infectious complications during hospitalization. Thus, rapid recognition of and response to outbreaks in the NICU is essential. At Rush University Medical Center, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been utilized since early 2016 as an adjunctive method for outbreak investigations. The use of WGS and potential lessons learned are illustrated for 3 different NICU outbreak investigations involving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), group B Streptococcus (GBS), and Serratia marcescens. WGS has contributed to the understanding of the epidemiology of outbreaks in our NICU, and it has also provided further insight in settings of unusual diseases or when lower-resolution typing methods have been inadequate. WGS has emerged as the new gold standard for evaluating strain relatedness. As barriers to implementation are overcome, WGS has the potential to transform outbreak investigation in healthcare settings.
Retrospectively apply criteria from Center to Advance Palliative Care to a cohort of children treated in a cardiac ICU and compare children who received a palliative care consultation to those who were eligible for but did not receive one.
Medical records of children admitted to a cardiac ICU between January 2014 and June 2017 were reviewed. Selected criteria include cardiac ICU length of stay >14 days and/or ≥ 3 hospitalisations within a 6-month period.
Measurements and Results:
A consultation occurred in 17% (n = 48) of 288 eligible children. Children who received a consult had longer cardiac ICU (27 days versus 17 days; p < 0.001) and hospital (91 days versus 35 days; p < 0.001) lengths of stay, more complex chronic conditions at the end of first hospitalisation (3 versus1; p < 0.001) and the end of the study (4 vs.2; p < 0.001), and higher mortality (42% versus 7%; p < 0.001) when compared with the non-consulted group. Of the 142 pre-natally diagnosed children, only one received a pre-natal consult and 23 received it post-natally. Children who received a consultation (n = 48) were almost 2 months of age at the time of the consult.
Less than a quarter of eligible children received a consultation. The consultation usually occurred in the context of medical complexity, high risk of mortality, and at an older age, suggesting potential opportunities for more and earlier paediatric palliative care involvement in the cardiac ICU. Screening criteria to identify patients for a consultation may increase the use of palliative care services in the cardiac ICU.
To explore, from the perspectives of adolescents and caregivers, and using qualitative methods, influences on adolescent diet and physical activity in rural Gambia.
Six focus group discussions (FGD) with adolescents and caregivers were conducted. Thematic analysis was employed across the data set.
Rural region of The Gambia, West Africa.
Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Four FGD, conducted with forty adolescents, comprised: girls aged 10–12 years; boys aged 10–12 years; girls aged 15–17 years, boys aged 15–17 years. Twenty caregivers also participated in two FGD (mothers and fathers).
All participants expressed an understanding of the association between salt and hypertension, sugary foods and diabetes, and dental health. Adolescents and caregivers suggested that adolescent nutrition and health were shaped by economic, social and cultural factors and the local environment. Adolescent diet was thought to be influenced by: affordability, seasonality and the receipt of remittances; gender norms, including differences in opportunities afforded to girls, and mother-led decision-making; cultural ceremonies and school holidays. Adolescent physical activity included walking or cycling to school, playing football and farming. Participants felt adolescent engagement in physical activity was influenced by gender, seasonality, cultural ceremonies and, to some extent, the availability of digital media.
These novel insights into local understanding should be considered when formulating future interventions. Interventions need to address these interrelated factors, including misconceptions regarding diet and physical activity that may be harmful to health.
To explore stakeholder perspectives regarding online diabetes nutrition education for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Qualitative data were collected through focus groups and interviews. Focus group participants completed a brief demographic and internet use survey.
Focus groups and community participant interviews were conducted in diverse AI/AN communities. Interviews with nationally recognised content experts were held via teleconference.
Eight focus groups were conducted with AI/AN adults with T2D (n 29) and their family members (n 22). Community participant interviews were conducted with eleven clinicians and healthcare administrators working in Native communities. Interviews with nine content experts included clinicians and researchers serving AI/AN.
Qualitative content analysis used constant comparative method for coding and generating themes across transcripts. Descriptive statistics were computed from surveys. AI/AN adults access the internet primarily through smartphones, use the internet for many purposes and identify opportunities for online diabetes nutrition education.
Online diabetes nutrition education may be feasible in Indian Country. These findings will inform the development of an eLearning diabetes nutrition education programme for AI/AN adults with T2D.
Evidence suggests that dietary intake of UK children is currently suboptimal. It is therefore imperative to identify effective and sustainable methods of improving dietary habits and knowledge in this population, whilst also promoting the value of healthiness of food products beyond price. Schools are ideally placed to influence children's knowledge and health, and Project Daire, in partnership with schools, food industry partners and stakeholders, aims to improve children's knowledge of, and interest in, food to improve health, wellbeing and educational attainment.
Daire is a randomised-controlled, factorial design trial evaluating two interventions. In total, n = 880 Key Stage (KS) 1 and 2 pupils have been recruited from 18 primary schools in the North West of Northern Ireland and will be randomised to one of four 6-month intervention arms: i) ‘Engage’, ii) ‘Nourish’, iii) ‘Engage’ and ‘Nourish’ and iv) Delayed. ‘Engage’ is an age-appropriate, cross-curricular educational intervention on food, agriculture, science and careers linked to the current curriculum. ‘Nourish’ is an intervention aiming to alter schools’ food environments and increase exposure to local foods. Study outcomes include food knowledge, attitudes, trust, diet, behaviour, health and wellbeing and will be collected at baseline and six months. Qualitative data on teacher/pupil opinions will also be collected. The intervention phase is currently ongoing. We present baseline results from our involvement and food attitudes measure from all participating schools. Results were compared by Key Stage and sex using Pearson Chi-Squared test.
Baseline results from our food involvement and attitudes measure are presented for n = 880 KS1 (n = 454) and KS2 (n = 426) pupils. KS1 pupils were more likely to always or sometimes help with food shopping (89.0%) whilst KS2 pupils were more likely to always or sometimes help with food preparation (69.0%). A higher proportion of KS1 pupils reported liking to try new foods (66.1%) and that it was important that food looked (64.5%), tasted (71.1%) and smelled good (60.6%) compared with KS2 children (P < 0.01). Girls were more likely to always or sometimes help with food shopping (96.2%) and preparation (73%) when compared with boys; whilst a higher proportion of girls reported they liked to try new foods (48.2%) and that it was important that food looked (68%) smelled (50.5%) and tasted (71.8%) good compared with boys (P < 0.01).
Results suggest that involvement in food preparation and shopping, willingness to try new foods and attitudes towards food presentation varied by KS and sex in this cohort.
There is an urgent need to find effective methods of supporting individuals to make dietary behaviour changes. Peer-supported interventions (PSI) have been suggested as a cost-effective strategy to support chronic disease self-management. However, the effect of PSI on dietary behaviour is unclear. The present systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of PSI for encouraging dietary behaviour change in adults and to consider intervention characteristics linked with effectiveness.
Electronic databases were searched until June 2018 for randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of PSI compared with an alternative intervention and/or control on a dietary related outcome in adults. Following title and abstract screening, two reviewers independently screened full texts and data were extracted by one reviewer and independently checked by another. Results were synthesised narratively.
Randomised controlled trials.
The fifty-four included studies varied in participants, intervention details and results. More PSI reported a positive or mixed effect on diet than no effect. Most interventions used a group model and were lay-led by peer supporters. Several studies did not report intervention intensity, fidelity and peer training and support in detail. Studies reporting positive effects employed more behaviour change techniques (BCT) than studies reporting no effect; however, heterogeneity between studies was considerable.
As evidence was mixed, further interventions need to assess the effect of PSI on dietary behaviour, describe intervention content (theoretical basis, BCT, intensity and peer training/support) and include a detailed process evaluation.