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The number of people over the age of 65 attending Emergency Departments (ED) in the United Kingdom (UK) is increasing. Those who attend with a mental health related problem may be referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. Improving responsiveness and integration of liaison psychiatry in general hospital settings is a national priority. To do this psychiatry teams must be adequately resourced and organised. However, it is unknown how trends in the number of referrals of older people to liaison psychiatry teams by EDs are changing, making this difficult.
We performed a national multi-centre retrospective service evaluation, analysing existing psychiatry referral data from EDs of people over 65. Sites were selected from a convenience sample of older peoples liaison psychiatry departments. Departments from all regions of the UK were invited to participate via the RCPsych liaison and older peoples faculty email distribution lists. From departments who returned data, we combined the date and described trends in the number and rate of referrals over a 7 year period.
Referral data from up to 28 EDs across England and Scotland over a 7 year period were analysed (n = 18828 referrals). There is a general trend towards increasing numbers of older people referred to liaison psychiatry year on year. Rates rose year on year from 1.4 referrals per 1000 ED attenders (>65 years) in 2011 to 4.5 in 2019 . There is inter and intra site variability in referral numbers per 1000 ED attendances between different departments, ranging from 0.1 - 24.3.
To plan an effective healthcare system we need to understand the population it serves, and have appropriate structures and processes within it. The overarching message of this study is clear; older peoples mental health emergencies presenting in ED are common and appear to be increasingly so. Without appropriate investment either in EDs or community mental health services, this is unlikely to improve.
The data also suggest very variable inter-departmental referral rates. It is not possible to establish why rates from one department to another are so different, or whether outcomes for the population they serve are better or worse. The data does however highlight the importance of asking further questions about why the departments are different, and what impact that has on the patients they serve.
Early assessment, diagnosis and management for people living with dementia is essential, both for the patient and their carers. We recognised delays in established local pathways when patients had unplanned acute hospital admissions preventing them from attending memory diagnostic appointments. The Psychiatric Liaison Team (PLT) Memory Pathway was introduced as we had the skills and expertise to resume the process and to find new undetected patients.
Our aim was to determine how well the newly implemented PLT Memory Pathway follows the standards outlined in the National Institute of Health & Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 97 (CG97): Assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers.
A retrospective analysis of all PLT referrals from July 2018 to February 2020 (20 months) was performed to identify patients on the community memory pathway and those with possible undetected cognitive impairment. Data were collected from electronic patient records which included demographics, primary and collateral history, cognitive testing and imaging, dementia type among others. Results were analysed using Microsoft Excel.
41 patients were included (59% female). 80% of patients were referred for memory problems or confusion. 63% had previous referrals to a memory service and was on the community memory pathway at the time of the referral. 34% were on anticholinergic medication but in only 14% were this documented as reviewed. 100 % were offered and had head imaging. A finding worthy of note was the absence of any from the ethnic minority background. 63% of patients were given a memory diagnosis and 34% had anti-dementia medication started. Patients’ families were made aware of the diagnosis in 83% of cases, due to the absence of next of kin details in the patient record. Primary Care was made aware in 100% of cases; post-diagnostic support was 100%.
The PLT is well placed to bridge the service gap between the acute care trust and established community memory services when dealing with patients with dementia. A dedicated Memory Pathway has helped to close this gap and adherence to NICE CG97 standards was good, but there is room for improvement. A particular focus will be on improving documentation of anticholinergic medication review and exploration for the absence of ethnic minority patients. Aiming to achieve 100% family involvement is also recommended.
This study has been submitted to the Royal College of Psychiatrists' Faculty of Old Age Annual Conference 2021.
‘Dementia-friendly communities’ herald a shift toward the neighbourhood as a locus for the care and support of people with dementia, sparking growing interest in the geographies of dementia care and raising questions over the shifting spatial and social experience of the condition. Existing research claims that many people with dementia experience a ‘shrinking world’ whereby the boundaries to their social and physical worlds gradually constrict over time, leading to a loss of control and independence. This paper reports a five-year, international study that investigated the neighbourhood experience of people with dementia and those who care for and support them. We interrogate the notion of a shrinking world and in so doing highlight an absence of attention paid to the agency and actions of people with dementia themselves. The paper draws together a socio-relational and embodied-material approach to question the adequacy of the shrinking world concept as an explanatory framework and to challenge reliance within policy and practice upon notions of place as fixed or stable. We argue instead for the importance of foregrounding ‘lived place’ and attending to social practices and the networks in which such practices evolve. Our findings have implications for policy and practice, emphasising the need to bolster the agency of people living with dementia as a route to fostering accessible and inclusive neighbourhoods.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study evaluates the long term effects of pharmacologic weaning therapy for opiate exposed infants. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Infants born to chronic opioid users often suffer from neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), a condition characterized by tremors, diarrhea, hyperirritability and an inconsolable high-pitched cry. Symptoms are treated with pharmacologic weaning therapy, but long-term effects of this treatment have not been established. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A sample of infants born between 2011-2017 was obtained from a large metropolitan hospital system. All infants who were exposed to opioids and received a Finnegan score were included in the sample (N=1,807). The analysis utilizes three dependent variables to measure developmental delay: motor delay, language delay or any delay, which includes general/non-specific delay in addition to motor and language delay. The treatment is defined as receipt of pharmacologic therapy with methadone or morphine. Maximum Finnegan score was also included as a continuous measure of the extent of the infant’s withdrawal symptoms. Linear models were utilized to determine a relationship between pharmacologic therapy and developmental delay with Maximum Finnegan score as an interaction term. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the linear models examining the main effects of weaning therapy on developmental delay, there was no relationship between pharmacologic therapy and motor delay (p=.260), language delay (p=.542) or any developmental delay (p=.176). When maximum Finnegan score was entered into the model as an interaction term the relationships were not significant. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: These results suggest that while pharmacologic weaning is an appropriate treatment for withdrawal symptoms in infants, it is not a deterrent against developmental delays associated with NAS. This provides support suggest an increased focus on non-pharmacologic interventions such as breastfeeding as the first line of treatment for NAS infants.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Congregations’ support for social, emotional, mental and spiritual wellness is foundational to human health and their community knowledge and presence can improve resilience and health in socially vulnerable neighborhoods. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Indiana CTSI Monon Collaborative is listening and understanding the most pressing health issues in the community and are working together to design and deliver community health solutions. We worked with our community ambassador to launch a health and wellness learning community for ten congregations seeking to build a health-connector network. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Study team used qualitative (interviews, focus groups, listening sessions, learning management system, participatory-design research) and quantitative (surveys) data collection methods in the development and ongoing implementation of the learning community. Study Population: Based on initial assessment of health and social vulnerability data within the Marion County neighborhoods in Indianapolis, community ambassador engaged congregations in more vulnerable neighborhoods to seek participation in learning community. Ten congregations signed a covenant of participation; learning community includes 10 clergy and 8 health advocates. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Since the inception of the Learning Community in May 2020, we have developed a better understanding of the assets and barriers of LC participants around health and well-being. Through ongoing virtual gatherings (facilitated by community ambassador Good to the Soul), sharing of resources through our online modules on Canvas (LMS), and synthesis of data captured throughout our time together, LC participants have developed SMART goals which will inform priority setting for congregations to assist them in identifying the resources and connections necessary to drive forward solutions together as they seek out funding opportunities to support health improvement. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The learning community has provided a space and structure for congregations to align around a shared goal focused on health and wellness. Through regular gatherings we were able to connect people, organizations, and systems who were all eager to learn and work across boundaries leading to greater resilience in vulnerable communities.
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is routinely used during the early assessment of people after stroke to indicate cognitive effects and inform clinical decision-making.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cognition in the first week post-stroke and personal and instrumental activities of daily skills at 1 month and 3 months post-stroke.
A prospective cohort study consecutively recruited people admitted to the acute stroke ward. Acute cognitive status was measured using the MoCA within 1 week post-stroke onset. Functional outcomes were measured using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the Australian Modified Lawton’s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (Lawton’s) at 1 month and 3 months post-stroke.
Fifty participants with predominantly mild stroke (n = 47) and mean age of 69.8 achieved a mean MoCA score of 23.1. Controlling for age, the MoCA was associated with the overall FIM score at 1 month (P = 0.02). It was nearing significance for the Lawton’s at 1 month (P = 0.06) but was not associated with either outcome at 3 months. A score of less than 23 on the MoCA was indicative of lower scores on both outcomes.
A low MoCA score within 1 week of stroke may indicate need for support or rehabilitation due to early impacts on personal activities of daily living, but is not associated with poor functional outcomes at 3 months.
“What I love is how we managed to transition so swiftly from a study initially conceived to happen in-person, to digital and in solitude and – through the zines – in a way back to analogue. Meandering across platforms and techniques we still managed to generate heaps of data, discussion and reflection.”
(Niels Wouters in a co-research-creation team chat)
Could COVID-19, this unexpected crisis, act as a comma in a co-research-creation project to become a breathing space and not a full stop? Maybe this pause is a colon: the two different periods of the project (and life in general) on either side of the pandemic, equally important and dependent on each other for full meaning. In this chapter, we tell the story of how a co-research-creation event (the Sci Curious Project) unfolded before and during the COVID-19 pandemic; the lead-up to its irruption (St. Pierre, 1997) and then what came after. ‘Scicurious as method’ emerged out of the unexpected pause and recalibration of the project; a method that emphasizes the creation of research spaces that activate scicuriosity in situated practice. We understand scicuriosity as emerging from collaborative research-creation events that ignite curiosity and creativity. Scicurious as method is presented through an encounter with speculative fiction and scicurious zine travels. Scicurious as method has significant ethical implications, these reify the potential of co-designed speculative inquiries with creativity and curiosity at their heart. This is, in part, due to its contingency on cultivating digital co-research-creation spaces that enfold rather than eschew the analogue and highlight the joyous potential of a deeply situated, co-designed speculative inquiry; an inquiry with galleries, libraries, archives and museums (GLAM) young people living in a pandemic.
About the research(ers)
We are an intergenerational co-research team from The University of Melbourne, Science Gallery Melbourne (SGM) and Science Gallery's Sci Curious advisory committee. Sci Curious are an advisory committee aged 14–25 that inform and shape the future of SGM exhibitions, public events and programmes. SGM is a new addition to the GLAM sector in Australia which shares Science Gallery International's mission to ignite curiosity where art and science collide (Gorman, 2010).
Background: The capacity to monitor the emergence of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) is critical in limiting transmission. CPO-colonized patients can be identified by screening rectal specimens for carbapenemase genes and the Cepheid GeneXpert Carba-R (XCR), the only FDA-approved test, is limited to 5 carbapenemase genes and cannot identify the bacterial species. Objective: We describe the development and validation of culture-based methods for the detection of CPO in rectal cultures (RCs) and nonrectal cultures (NRCs) of tracheal aspirate and axilla-groin swabs. Methods: Colonization screening was performed at 3 US healthcare facilities; specimens of RC swabs and NRC ESwabs were collected. Each specimen was inoculated to a MacConkey broth enrichment tube for overnight incubation then were subcultured to MacConkey agar with meropenem and ertapenem 10 µg disks (BEMA) and CHROMagar KPC (KCHR) or CHROMagar Acinetobacter (ACHR). All media were evaluated for the presence of carbapenem-resistant organisms; suspect colonies were screened by real-time PCR for the most common carbapenemase genes. MALDI-TOF was performed for species identification. BEMA, a previously validated method, was the comparator for 52 RCs; clinical culture (CC) served as the comparator method for 66 NRCs. Select CPO-positive and -negative specimens underwent reproducibility testing. Results: Among 56 patients undergoing colonization screening, 12 (21%) carried a CPO. Only 1 patient had CPO solely from RC. Also, 6 patients had both CPO-positive RC and NRC, and 5 patients only had a CPO-positive NRC. Of the latter, 4 had a CPO-positive tracheal specimen, and 1 had a positive culture from both tracheal and axilla-groin specimens. Sensitivity of BEMA (70%) for NRC was lower than for KCHR (96%) and ACHR (88 %) for all specimens. All methods showed a specificity of 100% and reproducibility of 92%. The detected CPO included OXA-23–positive Acinetobacter baumannii, NDM-positive Escherichia coli, KPC-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 4 genera of KPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusions:The addition of nonrectal specimens and use of selective media contributed to increased sensitivity and enhanced identification of CPO-colonized patients. Positive cultures were equally distributed among the 3 specimen types. The addition of the nonrectal specimens resulted in the identification of more colonized patients. The culture-based method was successful in detecting an array of different CPOs and target genes, including genes not detected by the Carba-R assay (eg, blaOXA-23-like). Enhanced isolation and characterization of CPOs will be key in aiding epidemiologic investigations and strengthening targeted guidance for containment strategies.
Disclosures: We discuss the drug combination aztreonam-avibactam and acknowledge that this drug combination is not currently FDA approved.
This article draws upon six social research studies completed by members of the Dementia and Ageing Research Team at The University of Manchester and their associated networks over an eight-year period (2011–2019) with the aim of constructing a definition of ‘being in the moment’ and situating it within a continuum of moments that could be used to contextualise and frame the lived experience of dementia. Using the approach formulated by Pound et al. (2005) in synthesising qualitative studies, we identified this continuum of moments as comprising four sequential and interlinked steps: (a) ‘creating the moment’, defined as the processes and procedures necessary to enable being in the moment to take place – the time necessary for this to occur can range from fleeting to prolonged; (b) ‘being in the moment’, which refers to the multi-sensory processes involved in a personal or relational interaction and embodied engagement – being in the moment can be sustained through creativity and flow; (c) ‘ending the moment’, defined as when a specific moment is disengaged – this can be triggered by the person(s) involved consciously or subconsciously, or caused by a distraction in the environment or suchlike; and (d) ‘reliving the moment’, which refers to the opportunity for the experience(s) involved in ‘being in the moment’ to be later remembered and shared, however fragmentary, supported or full the recall.
The extent of social isolation experienced by people living with dementia who reside in the community has been well acknowledged, yet little is known about how people living alone with dementia maintain neighbourhood-based connections. The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of people with dementia who live alone, focusing upon how they establish social networks and relationships in a neighbourhood context, and how they are supported to maintain this social context within everyday life. Multiple data collection methods were used including, semi-structured interviews, walking interviews, guided home tours and social network mapping, which were conducted with 14 community-dwelling people living alone with dementia (11 women and three men) situated across the three international study sites in England, Scotland and Sweden. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed four main themes: (a) making the effort to stay connected; (b) befriending by organisations and facilitated friendships; (c) the quiet neighbourhood atmosphere; and (d) changing social connections. The analysis suggests that people with dementia who live alone were active agents who took control to find and maintain relationships and social networks in the neighbourhood. Our findings indicate the need to raise awareness about this specific group in both policy and practice, and to find creative ways to help people connect through everyday activities and by spontaneous encounters in the neighbourhood.
In a 2017 article, Holen and colleagues reported evidence for a 130 000-year-old archaeological site in California. Acceptance of the site would overturn current understanding of global human migrations. The authors here consider Holen et al.’s conclusions through critical evaluation of their replicative experiments. Drawing on best practice in experimental archaeology, and paying particular attention to the authors’ chain of inference, Magnani et al. suggest that to argue convincingly for an early human presence at the Cerutti Mastodon site, Holen et al. must improve their analogical foundations, test alternative hypotheses, increase experimental control and quantify their results.
Simulation is often employed to test mass casualty and disaster response planning within hospitals, but it is resource intensive and needs to achieve high-quality recreation of scenarios to be effective. The delivery of large-scale interdisciplinary team and system simulation requires consideration of physical safety, system integrity for real patients, simulation team communication, and effective dissemination of outcomes.
To describe challenges and potential solutions for effective delivery of disaster simulations, drawn from simulation service experience at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS).
This case study reviews strategies used to deliver a large-scale multi-team in-hospital disaster and trauma simulation, involving more than 75 participants drawn from paramedic/ambulance, emergency, trauma service, anesthetics, perioperative, surgical, and hospital administrative teams.
Issues reviewed include simulation delivery team composition and briefing, safety strategies, matching simulation methodology to exercise objectives, the use of real-time communications technologies and apps for real-time communication and performance tracking, and leveraging the simulation experience for observers by narrated Facetime stream. Following the simulation, a debriefing was conducted with participants to address performance, communication and interfaces, strengths and weaknesses, and overall opportunity for improvement. Facility-wide dissemination of messages through standardized reporting, infographics, and video vignettes were also reviewed.
Simulation is an engaging way to assess protocols and practices for disaster response within a tertiary hospital, and effectiveness can be enhanced through the strategic use of contemporary techniques and technologies.
In this paper, we report progress on “Neighborhoods: our people, our places” an international study about how people living with dementia interact with their neighborhoods. The ideas of social health and citizenship are drawn upon to contextualize the data and make a case for recognizing and understanding the strengths and agency of people with dementia. In particular, we address the lived experience of the environment as a route to better understanding the capabilities, capacities, and competencies of people living with dementia. In doing this, our aim is to demonstrate the contribution of social engagement and environmental support to social health.
The study aims to “map” local spaces and networks across three field sites (Manchester, Central Scotland and Linkoping, Sweden). It employs a mix of qualitative and participatory approaches that include mobile and visual methods intended to create knowledge that will inform the design and piloting of a neighborhood-based intervention.
Our research shows that the neighborhood plays an active role in the lives of people with dementia, setting limits, and constraints but also offering significant opportunities, encompassing forms of help and support as yet rarely discussed in the field of dementia studies. The paper presents new and distinctive insights into the relationship between neighborhoods and everyday life for people with dementia that have important implications for the debate on social health and policy concerning dementia friendly communities.
We end by reflecting on the messages for policy and practice that are beginning to emerge from this on-going study.
A core feature of romantic relationships is the interpersonal consequence of partners’ behavior on each other over time. The Ideal Standards Model (ISM) was developed with this in mind, but early research guided by this model focused more intently on understanding the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of individuals involved in romantic relationships. For example, determining how individuals evaluate the quality of their relationship based on how closely they perceive their partners match their standards for an ideal partner. More recent research has begun systematically testing the dyadic implications of partner’s perceived discrepancies. In this chapter we briefly outline the major tenets of the ISM, review research supporting predictions derived from the model, and discuss in more detail research focusing on the dyadic nature of ideal standards in a relationship context. We provide some thoughts on the direction of future research.
Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study’s objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother’s country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children’s Fe intake levels.