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Many male prisoners have significant mental health problems, including anxiety and depression. High proportions struggle with homelessness and substance misuse.
This study aims to evaluate whether the Engager intervention improves mental health outcomes following release.
The design is a parallel randomised superiority trial that was conducted in the North West and South West of England (ISRCTN11707331). Men serving a prison sentence of 2 years or less were individually allocated 1:1 to either the intervention (Engager plus usual care) or usual care alone. Engager included psychological and practical support in prison, on release and for 3–5 months in the community. The primary outcome was the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), 6 months after release. Primary analysis compared groups based on intention-to-treat (ITT).
In total, 280 men were randomised out of the 396 who were potentially eligible and agreed to participate; 105 did not meet the mental health inclusion criteria. There was no mean difference in the ITT complete case analysis between groups (92 in each arm) for change in the CORE-OM score (1.1, 95% CI –1.1 to 3.2, P = 0.325) or secondary analyses. There were no consistent clinically significant between-group differences for secondary outcomes. Full delivery was not achieved, with 77% (108/140) receiving community-based contact.
Engager is the first trial of a collaborative care intervention adapted for prison leavers. The intervention was not shown to be effective using standard outcome measures. Further testing of different support strategies for prison with mental health problems is needed.
Sparse recent data are available on the epidemiology of surgical site infections (SSIs) in community hospitals. Our objective was to provide updated epidemiology data on complex SSIs in community hospitals and to characterize trends of SSI prevalence rates over time.
Retrospective cohort study.
SSI data were collected from patients undergoing 26 commonly performed surgical procedures at 32 community hospitals in the southeastern United States from 2013 to 2018. SSI prevalence rates were calculated for each year and were stratified by procedure and causative pathogen.
Over the 6-year study period, 3,561 complex (deep incisional or organ-space) SSIs occurred following 669,467 total surgeries (prevalence rate, 0.53 infections per 100 procedures). The overall complex SSI prevalence rate did not change significantly during the study period: 0.58 of 100 procedures in 2013 versus 0.53 of 100 procedures in 2018 (prevalence rate ratio [PRR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66–1.08; P = .16). Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) complex SSIs (n = 480, 13.5%) were more common than complex SSIs caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; n = 363, 10.2%).
The complex SSI rate did not decrease in our cohort of community hospitals from 2013 to 2018, which is a change from prior comparisons. The reason for this stagnation is unclear. Additional research is needed to determine the proportion of or remaining SSIs that are preventable and what measures would be effective to further reduce SSI rates.
The Northern Ireland psychiatry mentoring scheme, in which higher trainees mentor core trainee year 1 (CT1) doctors, has been running for four years. In this year's scheme, implemented in August 2021, we have expanded the scope of the scheme and implemented an online platform to match and connect mentors and mentees. Our aim was to gather baseline data regarding the experiences of mentors and mentees and to capture information regarding the content of mentoring meetings and attitudes towards format of meetings.
Higher psychiatry trainees were invited to sign up as mentors through the Northern Ireland Medical and Dental Training Agency (NIMDTA) and Royal College of Psychiatry Northern Ireland (RCPsych NI) mailing lists. Mentors were obliged to complete a theoretical module on training before meeting their mentees. Core trainees in the first and second year of training were asked to opt-out of the scheme if they preferred not to be involved. CT3 trainees were offered the opportunity to opt-in to the scheme. There were a total of 16 mentors and 22 mentees at the outset. The NIMDTA Professional Support Unit provided an online platform, Mentornet, which allowed mentors and mentees to complete a profile, for mentees to rank their preferences for mentor, and to facilitate meetings. One of the authors (M.M.) presented the developments in the scheme to a nationwide audience in the RCPsych webinar on mentoring.
Six mentors and two mentees responded to the call to complete a baseline online questionnaire. 83% of mentors responded that they had found their role enjoyable and rewarding, whilst 67% of mentors indicated that their role had helped them develop in other skill areas. Both mentees responded that they had found the scheme beneficial and would recommend participation to other trainees.
Mentorship is a valuable opportunity for senior psychiatry trainees to facilitate the professional development of junior trainees and to pass on their experience. This is the first year that all core trainees have been invited to participate and that a new web platform has been used to facilitate meetings. Baseline feedback response numbers have been limited although the responses were universally positive. We intend to obtain further feedback at the end of this year in order to devise quality improvement measures for the 2022/2023 cohort.
Background: Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) arise from bacteria migrating from the skin along the catheter, by direct inoculation, or from pathogens that form biofilms on the interior surface of the catheter. However, given the oxygen-poor environments that obligate anaerobes require, these organisms are unlikely to survive long enough on the skin or on the catheter after direct inoculation to be the true cause of a CLABSI. Although some anaerobic CLABSIs may meet the definition for a mucosal-barrier-injury, laboratory-confirmed, bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI), some may be not. We sought to determine the proportion of CLABSIs attributed to obligate anaerobic bacteria, and we sought to determine the pathophysiologic source of these infections. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected CLABSI data at 54 hospitals (academic and community) in the southeastern United States from January 2015 to December 2020. We performed chart reviews on a convenient sample for which medical records were available. We calculated the proportion of CLABSIs due to obligate anaerobes, and we have described a subset of anaerobic CLABSI cases. Results: We identified 60 anaerobic CLABSIs of 2,430 CLABSIs (2.5%). Of the 60 anaerobic CLABSIs, 7 were polymicrobial with nonanaerobic bacteria. The most common species we identified were Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus (Table 1). The proportion of anaerobic CLABSIs per year varied from 1.2% to 3.7% (Fig. 1). Of 60 anaerobic CLABSIs, 29 (48%) occurred in the only quaternary-care academic medical center in the database. In contrast, an average of 0.6 (SD, 0.6) anaerobic CLABSIs occurred in the 53 community hospitals over the 6-year study period. Of these 29 anaerobic CLABSIs, 23 (79%) were clinically consistent with secondary bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to gastrointestinal or genitourinary source, but they lacked appropriate documentation to meet NHSN criteria for secondary BSI or MBI-LCBI based on case reviews by infection prevention physicians. The other 6 anaerobic CLABSIs did not have a clear clinical etiology and did not meet MBI-LCBI criteria. In addition, 27 (93%) of 29 anaerobic CLABSIs occurred in patients who were either solid-organ transplant recipients, were stem-cell transplant recipients, or were receiving chemotherapy. Lastly, 27 (93%) of 29 anaerobic CLABSIs were treated with antibiotics. Conclusions: Anaerobic CLABSIs are uncommon events, but CLABSI may disproportionately affect large, academic hospitals caring for a high proportion of medically complex patients. Additional criteria could be added to the MBI-LCBI to better classify anaerobic BSI.
Background: Racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare access, medical treatment, and outcomes have been extensively reported. However, the impact of racial and ethnic differences in patient safety, including healthcare-associated infections, has not been well described. Methods: We performed a retrospective review analyzing prospectively collected data on central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates per 1,000 device days. Data for adult patients admitted to an academic medical center between 2018 and 2021 were stratified by 7 racial and ethnic groups: non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, American Indian/Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and othe. The “other” group was composed of bi- or multiracial patients, or those for whom no data were reported. We compared the CLABSI and CAUTI rates between the different racial and ethnic groups using Poisson regression. Results: Compared to non-Hispanic White patients, the rate of CLABSI was significantly higher in non-Hispanic Black patients (1.27; 95% CI, 1.02–1.58; P < .03) and those in the “other” race category (1.79; 95% CI, 1.39–2.30; P < .001, respectively), and these trends increased in Hispanic/Latino patients (Table 1). Similarly, Black patients had higher rates of CAUTI (1.42; 95% CI, 1.05–1.92; P < .02), as did Asian patients (2.49; 95% CI, 1.16–5.36; P < .02), and patients in the “other” category (1.52; 95% CI, 1.06–2.18; P < .02) (Table 2). Conclusions: Racial and ethnic minorities may be vulnerable to a higher rate of patient safety events, including CLABSIs and CAUTIs. Additional analyses controlling for potential confounding factors are needed to better understand the relationship between race or ethnicity, clinical management, and healthcare-associated infections. This evaluation is essential to inform mitigation strategies and to provide optimum, equitable care for all.
Background: SARS-CoV-2 N95 mask contamination in healthcare providers (HCPs) treating patients with COVID-19 is poorly understood. Method: We performed a prospective observational study of HCP N95 respirator SARS-CoV-2 contamination during aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) on SARS-CoV-2–positive patients housed in a COVID-19–specific unit at an academic medical center. Medical masks were used as surrogates for N95 respirators to avoid waste and were worn on top of HCP N95 respirators during study AGPs. Study masks were provided to HCPs while donning PPE and were retrieved during doffing. Additionally, during doffing, face shields were swabbed with Floq swabs premoistened with viral transport media (VTM) prior to disinfection. Medical masks were cut into 9 position-based pieces, placed in VTM, vortexed, and centrifuged (Fig. 1). RNA extraction and RT-PCR were completed on all samples. RT-PCR–positive samples underwent cell culture infection to detect cytopathic effects (CPE). Contamination was characterized by mask location and front and back of face shields. Patient COVID-19 symptoms were collected from routine clinical documentation. Study HCPs completed HCP-role–specific routine care (eg, assessing, administering medications, and maintaining oxygen supplementation) while in patient rooms and were observed by study team members. Results: We enrolled 31 HCPs between September and December 2021. HCP and patient characteristics are presented in Table 1. In total, 330 individual samples were obtained from 31 masks and 26 face shields among 12 patient rooms. Of the 330 samples, 0 samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 via RT-PCR. Positive controls were successfully performed in the laboratory setting to confirm that the virus was recoverable using these methods. Notably, all samples were collected from HCPs caring for COVID-19 patients on high-flow, high-humidity Optiflow (AGP), with an average of 960 seconds (IQR, 525–1,680) spent in each room. In addition to Optiflow and routine care, study speech pathologists completed an additional AGP of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Notably, 29 (94%) of 31 study HCP had physical contact with their patient. Conclusions: Overall, mask contamination in HCPs treating patients with COVID-19 undergoing AGPs was not detectable while wearing face shields, despite patient contact and performing AGP.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Provide recruitment support via a coordinated application of strategic operations, participant engagement practices, and informatic capabilities best practices. Improve study success through the discovery of optimal recruitment practices, development of needed services, leverage of existing resources, infrastructure and guidance. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The optimization effort utilized a variety of methods for engaging participants and obtaining information related to the recruitment needs of study teams. Information was collected from an advisory board and through surveys of a diverse group of investigators and research coordinators examining recruitment barriers as well as current and possible future recruitment services. A workflow of the investigative teams recruitment experience was created to identify strengths, gaps and areas for improvement. This information was used to develop a set of recommendations for the Indiana CTSI leadership. Three pillars were tasked with tackling specific areas through an integrative and collaborative approach: (1) study planning and operations, (2) informatics, and (3) participant engagement and health literacy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Key resulting recommendations included: creating a recruitment navigator to direct clients to the most appropriate service(s), adding a community engaged staff member and a digital public engagement specialist to the recruitment services team, redesigning the website navigations, creating participant payment guidelines, creating participant engagement principles guidelines, improving informatics support, and continual evaluation of best practices and innovations in recruitment support. An intake and follow-up survey were created for clients to assess services offered, those used, and ultimately the success of those services in improving recruitment measures. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The optimization efforts have shown a positive response from study teams demonstrated by an uptick of support requests. By taking an intensive strategic planning approach to streamlining recruitment services, the Indiana CTSI has leveraged existing resources to better serve clients in need of critical recruitment assistance.
Schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and depression (D) run in families. This susceptibility is partly due to hundreds or thousands of common genetic variants, each conferring a fractional risk. The cumulative effects of the associated variants can be summarised as a polygenic risk score (PRS). Using data from the EUropean Network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) first episode case–control study, we aimed to test whether PRSs for three major psychiatric disorders (SZ, BD, D) and for intelligent quotient (IQ) as a neurodevelopmental proxy, can discriminate affective psychosis (AP) from schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD).
Participants (842 cases, 1284 controls) from 16 European EU-GEI sites were successfully genotyped following standard quality control procedures. The sample was stratified based on genomic ancestry and analyses were done only on the subsample representing the European population (573 cases, 1005 controls). Using PRS for SZ, BD, D, and IQ built from the latest available summary statistics, we performed simple or multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for 10 principal components for the different clinical comparisons.
In case–control comparisons PRS-SZ, PRS-BD and PRS-D distributed differentially across psychotic subcategories. In case–case comparisons, both PRS-SZ [odds ratio (OR) = 0.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54–0.92] and PRS-D (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.61) differentiated AP from SSD; and within AP categories, only PRS-SZ differentiated BD from psychotic depression (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.23–3.74).
Combining PRS for severe psychiatric disorders in prediction models for psychosis phenotypes can increase discriminative ability and improve our understanding of these phenotypes. Our results point towards the potential usefulness of PRSs in specific populations such as high-risk or early psychosis phases.
To determine the impact of an inpatient stewardship intervention targeting fluoroquinolone use on inpatient and postdischarge Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
We used an interrupted time series study design to evaluate the rate of hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI), postdischarge CDI (PD-CDI) within 12 weeks, and inpatient fluoroquinolone use from 2 years prior to 1 year after a stewardship intervention.
An academic healthcare system with 4 hospitals.
All inpatients hospitalized between January 2017 and September 2020, excluding those discharged from locations caring for oncology, bone marrow transplant, or solid-organ transplant patients.
Introduction of electronic order sets designed to reduce inpatient fluoroquinolone prescribing.
Among 163,117 admissions, there were 683 cases of HO-CDI and 1,104 cases of PD-CDI. In the context of a 2% month-to-month decline starting in the preintervention period (P < .01), we observed a reduction in fluoroquinolone days of therapy per 1,000 patient days of 21% after the intervention (level change, P < .05). HO-CDI rates were stable throughout the study period. In contrast, we also detected a change in the trend of PD-CDI rates from a stable monthly rate in the preintervention period to a monthly decrease of 2.5% in the postintervention period (P < .01).
Our systemwide intervention reduced inpatient fluoroquinolone use immediately, but not HO-CDI. However, a downward trend in PD-CDI occurred. Relying on outcome measures limited to the inpatient setting may not reflect the full impact of inpatient stewardship efforts.
A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to the number of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing polygenic vulnerability. Here, we investigated, in the largest sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) cases to date, whether childhood adversity and high polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (SZ-PRS) combine synergistically to increase the risk of psychosis, over and above the effect of each alone.
We assigned a schizophrenia-polygenic risk score (SZ-PRS), calculated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2), to all participants in a sample of 384 FEP patients and 690 controls from the case–control component of the EU-GEI study. Only participants of European ancestry were included in the study. A history of childhood adversity was collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Synergistic effects were estimated using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) [odds ratio (OR)exposure and PRS − ORexposure − ORPRS + 1] with adjustment for potential confounders.
There was some evidence that the combined effect of childhood adversities and polygenic risk was greater than the sum of each alone, as indicated by an ICR greater than zero [i.e. ICR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.29 to 3.85]. Examining subtypes of childhood adversities, the strongest synergetic effect was observed for physical abuse (ICR 6.25, 95% CI −6.25 to 20.88).
Our findings suggest possible synergistic effects of genetic liability and childhood adversity experiences in the onset of FEP, but larger samples are needed to increase precision of estimates.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
We performed surveillance for hospital-acquired COVID-19 (HA-COVID-19) and compared time-based, electronic definitions to real-time adjudication of the most likely source of acquisition. Without real-time adjudication, nearly 50% of HA-COVID-19 cases identified using electronic definitions were misclassified. Both electronic and traditional contact tracing methods likely underestimated the incidence of HA-COVID-19.
Group Name: Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention
Background: Wastewater drains in hospital patient rooms have been identified as environmental reservoirs for multidrug-resistant organisms, and they have been linked to outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We studied the colonization of wastewater drains in a new hospital bed tower. Methods: A patient care unit in a new bed tower opened on July 18, 2020. In-room sinks were located in each hospital room opposite the patient head wall. Patients admitted to this unit underwent weekly rectal cultures to survey for carbapenemase-producing CRE. Additionally, infection preventionists performed routine surveillance of all clinical cultures for CRE. Cultures were performed from all patient room sinks in this unit monthly beginning September 14, 2020. Samples were obtained from the drain cover, handles, and top of bowl using sponges soaked in neutralizing buffer and processed using the stomacher technique. The tail-pipe was sampled using a flocked mini-tip swab soaked in neutralizing buffer; the P-trap water was sampled with sterile tubing attached to a 50-mL syringe. All samples were plated on HARDYCHROM-ESBL and KPC Colorex media and were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Results: The first identified CRE-positive patient was admitted to the new unit on December 4, 2020; urine culture obtained at the time of admission grew KPC–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP). The sink in this patient’s room had been sampled 3 prior times (most recently on November 9, 2020) and was negative for CRE. On December 7, 2020, KPC-KP was found on the drain cover (6,750 colony-forming units, CFU) and in the sink’s P-trap (1,840 CFU) of the index patient’s room during routine sink surveillance. Additional samples from other room surfaces were taken on December 9, 2020, and KPC-KP was recovered from the computer keyboard (452 CFU) and patient bedrails (880 CFU). The patient was discharged from this room December 13, 2020, and the room underwent enhanced terminal room cleaning including UV-C light. On the next routine sink sampling on January 4, 2021, KPC-KP was recovered again in the index room sink P-trap (9,800 CFU) but at no additional sites. MLST was performed, and all isolates were ST-258. Conclusions: In a new bed tower with no prior evidence of CRE-positive patients, the first identified case of a CRE (KPC-KP) in a patient resulted in widespread environmental contamination of the room after only 3 days of hospitalization and contamination of the in-room sink drain that persisted after 1 month. Given the ease with which CRE colonizes wastewater drains, new strategies are needed to mitigate drain colonization and to prevent CRE transmission to subsequent patients.
The paradoxical relationship between standardized infection ratio and standardized utilization ratio for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in contrast to central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), in addition to CAUTI definition challenges, incentivizes hospitals to focus their prevention efforts on urine culture stewardship rather than catheter avoidance and care.
To determine the impact of a documented penicillin or cephalosporin allergy on the development of surgical site infections (SSIs).
Appropriate preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis reduces SSI risk, but documented antibiotic allergies influence the choice of prophylactic agents. Few studies have examined the relationship between a reported antibiotic allergy and risk of SSI and to what extent this relationship is modified by the antibiotic class given for prophylaxis.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass, craniotomy, spinal fusion, laminectomy, hip arthroplasty and knee arthroplasty at 3 hospitals from July 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017. We built a multivariable logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of developing an SSI among patients with and without patient-reported penicillin or cephalosporin allergies. We also examined effect measure modification (EMM) to determine whether surgical prophylaxis affected the association between reported allergy and SSI.
We analyzed 39,972 procedures; 1,689 (4.2%) with a documented patient penicillin or cephalosporin allergy, and 374 (0.9%) resulted in an SSI. Patients with a reported penicillin or cephalosporin allergy were more likely to develop an SSI compared to patients who did not report an allergy to penicillin or cephalosporins (adjusted odds ratio, 3.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.71–3.93). Surgical prophylaxis did not have significant EMM on this association.
Patients who reported a penicillin or cephalosporin allergy had higher odds of developing an SSI than nonallergic patients. However, the increase in odds is not completely mediated by the type of surgical prophylaxis. Instead, a reported allergy may be a surrogate marker for a more complicated patient population.
We identified quality indicators (QIs) for care during transitions of older persons (≥ 65 years of age). Through systematic literature review, we catalogued QIs related to older persons’ transitions in care among continuing care settings and between continuing care and acute care settings and back. Through two Delphi survey rounds, experts ranked relevance, feasibility, and scientific soundness of QIs. A steering committee reviewed QIs for their feasible capture in Canadian administrative databases. Our search yielded 326 QIs from 53 sources. A final set of 38 feasible indicators to measure in current practice was included. The highest proportions of indicators were for the emergency department (47%) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) quality domain of effectiveness (39.5%). Most feasible indicators were outcome indicators. Our work highlights a lack of standardized transition QI development in practice, and the limitations of current free-text documentation systems in capturing relevant and consistent data.
We describe the frequency of pediatric healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) identified through prospective surveillance in community hospitals participating in an infection control network. Over a 6-year period, 84 HAIs were identified. Of these 51 (61%) were pediatric central-line–associated bloodstream infections, and they often occurred in children <1 year of age.
Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.
We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case−control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.
Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19–1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65–3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).
Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
Psychosis rates are higher among some migrant groups. We hypothesized that psychosis in migrants is associated with cumulative social disadvantage during different phases of migration.
We used data from the EUropean Network of National Schizophrenia Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) case–control study. We defined a set of three indicators of social disadvantage for each phase: pre-migration, migration and post-migration. We examined whether social disadvantage in the pre- and post-migration phases, migration adversities, and mismatch between achievements and expectations differed between first-generation migrants with first-episode psychosis and healthy first-generation migrants, and tested whether this accounted for differences in odds of psychosis in multivariable logistic regression models.
In total, 249 cases and 219 controls were assessed. Pre-migration (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06–2.44, p = 0.027) and post-migration social disadvantages (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.02–3.51, p = 0.044), along with expectations/achievements mismatch (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.26, p = 0.014) were all significantly associated with psychosis. Migration adversities (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.672–2.06, p = 0.568) were not significantly related to the outcome. Finally, we found a dose–response effect between the number of adversities across all phases and odds of psychosis (⩾6: OR 14.09, 95% CI 2.06–96.47, p = 0.007).
The cumulative effect of social disadvantages before, during and after migration was associated with increased odds of psychosis in migrants, independently of ethnicity or length of stay in the country of arrival. Public health initiatives that address the social disadvantages that many migrants face during the whole migration process and post-migration psychological support may reduce the excess of psychosis in migrants.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplementary materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.