To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Feedback regarding antibiotic-associated adverse events (ABX-AEs) may assist clinicians with antibiotic decision making. We sought to understand how clinicians account for ABX-AEs when prescribing and their preferences for ABX-AE feedback. Methods: We conducted 1-hour virtual focus groups with 3–5 physicians or advance practice practitioners (APPs) per session at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Participants discussed the role of ABX-AEs in antibiotic decision making and feedback preferences. Participants evaluated prespecified categorization (mildly, moderately, or very concerning) of several ABX-AEs. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded inductively by 2 independent reviewers; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Codes were used to conduct thematic analysis. Results: Overall, 3 focus groups were conducted with 12 participants: 41.6% were house staff, 16.7% were attending physicians, and 41.6% were APPs. Most were female (91.6%) and were white (41.7%) or Asian (41.7%). Clinicians generally agreed with the prespecified categorizations of ABX-AEs based on degree of clinical concern (Table). We identified 5 themes: (1) The risk of ABX-AE is considered during initial prescribing but influences agent selection more than the decision to prescribe antibiotics. (2) The occurrence of an ABX-AE leads to assessment of need for continued antibiotic therapy. (3) The impact of an ABX-AE on other management decisions is as important as the direct harm of the ABX-AE when assessing severity. (4) Feedback must be curated to prevent clinicians from being overwhelmed with data. (5) Clinicians will be more receptive to feedback regarding ABX-AEs if feedback is contextualized (Fig.). Conclusions: The themes identified and assessment of ABX-AEs of greatest clinical concern may help inform the development of effective ABX-AE feedback methods to improve antibiotic safety.
Patients with unbalanced common atrioventricular canal can be difficult to manage. Surgical planning often depends on pre-operative echocardiographic measurements. We aimed to determine the added utility of cardiac MRI in predicting successful biventricular repair in common atrioventricular canal.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with common atrioventricular canal who underwent MRI prior to repair. Associations between MRI and echocardiographic measures and surgical outcome were tested using logistic regression, and models were compared using area under the receiver operator characteristic curve.
We included 28 patients (median age at MRI: 5.2 months). The optimal MRI model included the novel end-diastolic volume index (using the ratio of left ventricular end-diastolic volume to total end-diastolic volume) and the left ventricle–right ventricle angle in diastole (area under the curve 0.83, p = 0.041). End-diastolic volume index ≤ 0.18 and left ventricle–right ventricle angle in diastole ≤ 72° yield a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 81% for successful biventricular repair. The optimal multimodality model included the end-diastolic volume index and the echocardiographic atrioventricular valve index with an area under the curve of 0.87 (p = 0.026).
Cardiac MRI can successfully predict successful biventricular repair in patients with unbalanced common atrioventricular canal utilising the end-diastolic volume index alone or in combination with the MRI left ventricle–right ventricle angle in diastole or the echocardiographic atrioventricular valve index. A prospective cardiac MRI study is warranted to better define the multimodality characteristic predictive of successful biventricular surgery.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Nearly all thoracic aortic aneurysm patients suffer from hypertension leading to elevated wall tension and abnormal extracellular matrix remodeling. PTSD patients have higher blood pressure both at rest and in response to stimuli. Although stress is associated with cardiovascular disease, the exact mechanism linking the two is still unknown. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent a PTSD induction protocol consisting of inescapable foot shock followed by single prolonged stress. The mice were assessed incrementally for their PTSD-like phenotype using specific behavioral tests chosen to assess for each of the human criteria of PTSD according to the DSM-V. Tail cuff blood pressure measurements were taken serially throughout the 16-week protocol. At terminal study, thoracic aortic diameter measurements were obtained through digital microscopy and plasma was harvested for cytokine analysis. Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) were induced through periadventitial application of a calcium chloride solution on the descending thoracic aorta in BPH/2J and BPN/3J adult mice. The thoracic aortic diameter was measured at terminal study through digital microscopy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Using our PTSD-like mouse model we have demonstrated that PTSD-like mice have significantly higher systolic blood pressure following a reminder of the traumatic event than control mice recapitulating the human phenotype. They also had increased plasma proinflammatory cytokines and larger thoracic aortic diameters than control mice. Although the increased thoracic aortic diameter is not an aneurysm, it suggests ECM remodeling is occurring predisposing the aorta to aneurysm formation. Finally, we have shown that in neurogenic hypertensive mice, TAA formation was accelerated by 12 weeks with roughly 70% dilation at 4 weeks post-TAA induction surgery as compared to roughly a 20% dilation in control mice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these studies reinforce the link between stress and TAA development, and our mouse model will allow for the underlying mechanism to be elucidated. Better understanding of the mechanism linking PTSD and TAA will allow for the creation of novel therapeutics to treat PTSD symptoms while also delaying TAA progression.
Reward processing has been proposed to underpin the atypical social feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous neuroimaging studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the specificity of atypicalities for social reward processing in ASD.
Utilising a large sample, we aimed to assess reward processing in response to reward type (social, monetary) and reward phase (anticipation, delivery) in ASD.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging during social and monetary reward anticipation and delivery was performed in 212 individuals with ASD (7.6–30.6 years of age) and 181 typically developing participants (7.6–30.8 years of age).
Across social and monetary reward anticipation, whole-brain analyses showed hypoactivation of the right ventral striatum in participants with ASD compared with typically developing participants. Further, region of interest analysis across both reward types yielded ASD-related hypoactivation in both the left and right ventral striatum. Across delivery of social and monetary reward, hyperactivation of the ventral striatum in individuals with ASD did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Dimensional analyses of autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) scores were not significant. In categorical analyses, post hoc comparisons showed that ASD effects were most pronounced in participants with ASD without co-occurring ADHD.
Our results do not support current theories linking atypical social interaction in ASD to specific alterations in social reward processing. Instead, they point towards a generalised hypoactivity of ventral striatum in ASD during anticipation of both social and monetary rewards. We suggest this indicates attenuated reward seeking in ASD independent of social content and that elevated ADHD symptoms may attenuate altered reward seeking in ASD.
Hospice patients and caregivers who are members of sexual and gender minority groups (i.e., LGBTQ+) have reported experiencing unmet needs at end of life (EOL). Negative experiences often stem from challenging interactions with healthcare providers due to ineffective or poor communication and providers’ heteronormative assumptions and biases. Few studies, however, examine hospice care team (HCT) providers’ knowledge, experience, and opinions related to EOL care for LGBTQ+ patients and caregivers despite this being identified as a gap in competency and education. We sought to examine HCT providers’ perceptions regarding (1) awareness of LGBTQ+ patients and caregivers; (2) knowledge of specific or unique needs; and (3) opinions on best care and communication practices.
Six focus groups conducted with HCT providers (n = 48) currently delivering hospice care in three US states were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were content coded (κ = 0.77), aggregated by topical categories, and descriptively summarized.
Participants were mostly white and non-Hispanic (n = 43, 89.6%), cisgender female (n = 42, 87.5%), heterosexual (n = 35, 72.9%), and religious (n = 33, 68.8%); they averaged 49 years of age (range 26–72, SD = 11.66). Awareness of LGBTQ+ patients and caregivers depended on patient or caregiver self-disclosure and contextual cues; orientation and gender identity data were not routinely collected. Many viewed being LGBTQ+ as private, irrelevant to care, and not a basis for people having specific or unique EOL needs because they saw EOL processes as universal, and believed that they treat everyone equally. Providers were more comfortable with patients of lesbian or gay orientation and reported less comfort and limited experience caring for transgender and gender-diverse patients or caregivers.
Significance of results
Many HCT members were unaware of specific issues impacting the EOL experiences of LGBTQ+ patients and caregivers, or how these experiences may inform important care and communication needs at EOL.
The optimal timing of blood culture (BCx) sets collection has not been evaluated with continuous BCx detection systems. The yield of BCx was similar between short intervals (median, 3 minutes) and longer intervals (median, 16 or 43 minutes) among 5,856 BCx, except for improved polymicrobial bacteremia detection with long-interval BCx.
To reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) by employing peer comparison with behavioral feedback in the emergency department (ED).
A controlled before-and-after study.
The study was conducted in 5 adult EDs at teaching and community hospitals in a health system.
Adults presenting to the ED with a respiratory condition diagnosis code. Hospitalized patients and those with a diagnosis code for a non-respiratory condition for which antibiotics are or may be warranted were excluded.
After a baseline period from January 2016 to March 2018, 3 EDs implemented a feedback intervention with peer comparison between April 2018 and December 2019 for attending physicians. Also, 2 EDs in the health system served as controls. Using interrupted time series analysis, the inappropriate ARI prescribing rate was calculated as the proportion of antibiotic-inappropriate ARI encounters with a prescription. Prescribing rates were also evaluated for all ARIs. Attending physicians at intervention sites received biannual e-mails with their inappropriate prescribing rate and had access to a dashboard that was updated daily showing their performance relative to their peers.
Among 28,544 ARI encounters, the inappropriate prescribing rate remained stable at the control EDs between the 2 periods (23.0% and 23.8%). At the intervention sites, the inappropriate prescribing rate decreased significantly from 22.0% to 15.2%. Between periods, the overall ARI prescribing rate was 38.1% and 40.6% in the control group and 35.9% and 30.6% in the intervention group.
Behavioral feedback with peer comparison can be implemented effectively in the ED to reduce inappropriate prescribing for ARIs.
Rumen fluke (Calicophoron daubneyi) has emerged as a prominent parasite of ruminants in Europe over the past decades. Epidemiological questions remain regarding this observed increase in prevalence as well as the prospect for future paramphistomosis risk. This study aimed to identify factors associated with the temporal−spatial prevalence of rumen fluke as measured by veterinary surveillance in a temperate region using zero-inflated negative binomial mixed modelling. Modelling revealed that summer rainfall, raindays and sunshine hours and mean winter temperature as significant positively associated climate variables for rumen fluke prevalence over space and time (P < 0.05). Rumen fluke prevalence was also higher in counties with higher cattle/sheep densities and was positively associated with rumen fluke case rates in the previous years (P < 0.05). Equivalent models for fasciolosis prevalence revealed no significant association with winter temperature and sunshine hours, (P > 0.05). These results confirm a strong association between rainfall and the prevalence of both fluke species in a temperate environment, likely due to the role of Galba truncatula as their intermediate snail host. It also highlights the potential added importance of winter temperature and sunshine hours in rumen fluke epidemiology when compared to liver fluke.
To understand the emergence of symptoms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we need to identify the mechanisms that underpin the development of core social skills. Mounting evidence indicates that young children with later ASD attend less to other people, which could compromise learning opportunities with cascading effects. Passive looking behaviour does not tell us about engagement with visual information, but measures of physiological arousal can provide information on the depth of engagement. In the current study, we use heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) to measure engagement with social dynamic stimuli in ASD.
Sixty-seven preschoolers with ASD and 65 typical developing preschoolers between 2 and 4 years of age participated in a study where HR was measured during viewing of social and non-social videos. Using latent profile analyses, more homogeneous subgroups of children were created based on phenotype and physiology.
Preschool-aged children with ASD, regardless of their non-verbal, verbal and social competencies, do not differ in overall HR or HRV compared to TD children. However, the ASD group showed a larger increase in HR (more disengagement) than the TD group to later-presented social stimuli. Phenotypic and physiological profiles showed this was primarily the case for children with below average verbal and non-verbal skills, but not necessarily those with more ASD symptoms.
Children with ASD, especially a subgroup showing moderate cognitive delays, show an increase in HR to social stimuli over time; this may reflect difficulties re-engaging with social information when attention is waning.
To evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) results in antibiotic decisions for COVID-19 patients at hospital presentation.
Design, setting, and participants:
Multicenter retrospective observational study of patients ≥18 years hospitalized due to COVID-19 at the Johns Hopkins Health system. Patients who were transferred from another facility with >24 hours stay and patients who died within 48 hours of hospitalization were excluded.
Elevated PCT values were determined based on each hospital’s definition. Antibiotic therapy and PCT results were evaluated for patients with no evidence of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (bCAP) and patients with confirmed, probable, or possible bCAP. The added value of PCT testing to clinical criteria in detecting bCAP was evaluated using receiving operating curve characteristics (ROC).
Of 962 patients, 611 (64%) received a PCT test. ROC curves for clinical criteria and clinical criteria plus PCT test were similar (at 0.5 ng/mL and 0.25 ng/mL). By bCAP group, median initial PCT values were 0.58 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 0.24–1.14), 0.23 ng/mL (IQR, 0.1–0.63), and 0.15 ng/mL (IQR, 0.09–0.35) for proven/probable, possible, and no bCAP groups, respectively. Among patients without bCAP, an elevated PCT level was associated with 1.8 additional days of CAP therapy (95% CI, 1.01–2.75; P < .01) compared to patients with a negative PCT result after adjusting for potential confounders. Duration of CAP therapy was similar between patients without a PCT test ordered and a low PCT level for no bCAP and possible bCAP groups.
PCT results may be abnormal in COVID-19 patients without bCAP and may result in receipt of unnecessary antibiotics.
In a multicenter cohort of 963 adults hospitalized due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), 5% had a proven hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and 21% had a proven, probable, or possible HAI. Risk factors for proven or probable HAIs included intensive care unit admission, dexamethasone use, severe COVID-19, heart failure, and antibiotic exposure upon admission.
People living in precarious housing or homelessness have higher than expected rates of psychotic disorders, persistent psychotic symptoms, and premature mortality. Psychotic symptoms can be modeled as a complex dynamic system, allowing assessment of roles for risk factors in symptom development, persistence, and contribution to premature mortality.
The severity of delusions, conceptual disorganization, hallucinations, suspiciousness, and unusual thought content was rated monthly over 5 years in a community sample of precariously housed/homeless adults (n = 375) in Vancouver, Canada. Multilevel vector auto-regression analysis was used to construct temporal, contemporaneous, and between-person symptom networks. Network measures were compared between participants with (n = 219) or without (n = 156) history of psychotic disorder using bootstrap and permutation analyses. Relationships between network connectivity and risk factors including homelessness, trauma, and substance dependence were estimated by multiple linear regression. The contribution of network measures to premature mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models.
Delusions and unusual thought content were central symptoms in the multilevel network. Each psychotic symptom was positively reinforcing over time, an effect most pronounced in participants with a history of psychotic disorder. Global connectivity was similar between those with and without such a history. Greater connectivity between symptoms was associated with methamphetamine dependence and past trauma exposure. Auto-regressive connectivity was associated with premature mortality in participants under age 55.
Past and current experiences contribute to the severity and dynamic relationships between psychotic symptoms. Interrupting the self-perpetuating severity of psychotic symptoms in a vulnerable group of people could contribute to reducing premature mortality.
Bedside nurses have been recognized as potential antibiotic stewards; however, data on effective ways that nurses can contribute to stewardship activities in acute-care hospitals are scarce. Methods: A nurse-driven urine culture intervention to improve urine culture ordering practices was implemented in a medicine and a neurocritical care unit (NCCU) at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Bedside nurses implemented an algorithm (Fig. 1) developed by the antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) to review the appropriateness of urine culture and to guide discussions with ordering providers regarding unnecessary urine cultures. Nurses received in-person training by an ASP physician champion on how to use the algorithm and education on the definition and indications for evaluation for asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections. The ASP physician periodically visited the units to address concerns and questions. In both units, a nurse champion was identified to serve as liaison between the ASP and bedside nurses, and physician support was obtained before the intervention. The pre- and postintervention periods for the medicine unit were September 2017–August 2018 and September 2018–August 2019, respectively. For the NCCU, these periods were September 2018–February 2019 and March 2019–September 2019, respectively. Trends in urine cultures per 100 patient days (PD) were examined with statistical process charts and compared before and after the intervention using a standard incident ratio (IRR) and Poisson regression. Results: In total, 327 urine cultures were collected in the medicine unit and 293 in the NCCU over the study period. Although the intervention led to a significant 34% reduction in the rate of urine cultures on the medicine unit (from 2.3 to 1.5 cultures/100 PD; IRR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50–0.87; P < .01), the number of urine cultures remained without a significant change in the NCCU (from 4.5 to 3.7 cultures/100 PD; IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65–1.22; P = .48) (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Algorithm-based, nurse-driven review of urine culture indications reduced urine cultures on a medicine unit but not in a neurosciences ICU. Success on the medicine unit may have been driven by highly engaged nurse and physician champions and by patients being able to respond questions about symptoms. The following factors might have impacted results on NCCU: presence of conflicting protocols (eg, panculturing patients every 48 hours per a hypothermia protocol), unit tradition (eg, obtaining cultures to assess treatment response), perception of greater risk benefit in NCCU patients, and unit dynamics (open unit with other primary services placing orders for patients). Unit and team dynamics can affect effective implementation of antimicrobial stewardship interventions by nurses.
To utilise a community-based participatory approach in the design and implementation of an intervention targeting diet-related health problems on Navajo Nation.
A dual strategy approach of community needs/assets assessment and engagement of cross-sectorial partners in programme design with systematic cyclical feedback for programme modifications.
Navajo Nation, USA.
Navajo families with individuals meeting criteria for programme enrolment. Participant enrolment increased with iterative cycles.
The Navajo Fruit and Vegetable Prescription (FVRx) Programme.
A broad, community-driven and culturally relevant programme design has resulted in a programme able to maintain core programmatic principles, while also allowing for flexible adaptation to changing needs.
Two similarly designed extension studies evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of desvenlafaxine for the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Efficacy was evaluated as a secondary objective.
Both 6-month, open-label, flexible-dose extension studies enrolled children and adolescents who had completed one of two double-blind, placebo-controlled, lead-in studies. One lead-in study included a 1-week transition period prior to the extension study. Patients received 26-week treatment with flexible-dose desvenlafaxine (20–50 mg/d). Safety assessments included comprehensive psychiatric evaluations, vital sign assessments, laboratory evaluations, 12-lead electrocardiogram, physical examination with Tanner assessment, and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Adverse events (AEs) were collected throughout the studies. Efficacy was assessed using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R).
A total of 552 patients enrolled (completion rates: 66.4 and 69.1%). AEs were reported by 79.4 and 79.1% of patients in the two studies; 8.9 and 5.2% discontinued due to AEs. Treatment-emergent suicidal ideation or behavior was reported for 16.6 and 14.1% of patients in the two studies. Mean (SD) CDRS-R total score decreased from 33.83 (11.93) and 30.92 (10.20) at the extension study baseline to 24.31 (7.48) and 24.92 (8.45), respectively, at week 26.
Desvenlafaxine 20 to 50 mg/d was generally safe and well tolerated with no new safety signals identified in children and adolescents with MDD who received up to 6 months of treatment in these studies. Patients maintained the reduction in severity of depressive symptoms observed in all treatment groups at the end of the lead-in study.
To investigate the association between maternal employment and childhood overweight in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
We utilized cross-sectional data from forty-five Demographic and Health Surveys from 2010 to 2016 (n 268 763). Mothers were categorized as formally employed, informally employed or non-employed. We used country-specific logistic regression models to investigate the association between maternal employment and childhood overweight (BMI Z-score>2) and assessed heterogeneity in the association by maternal education with the inclusion of an interaction term. We used meta-analysis to pool the associations across countries. Sensitivity analyses included modelling BMI Z-score and normal weight (weight-for-age Z-score≥−2 to <2) as outcomes.
Participants included children 0–5 years old and their mothers (aged 18–49 years).
In most countries, neither formal nor informal employment was associated with childhood overweight. However, children of employed mothers, compared with children of non-employed mothers, had higher BMI Z-score and higher odds of normal weight. In countries where the association varied by education, children of formally employed women with high education, compared with children of non-employed women with high education, had higher odds of overweight (pooled OR=1·2; 95 % CI 1·0, 1·4).
We find no clear association between employment and child overweight. However, maternal employment is associated with a modestly higher BMI Z-score and normal weight, suggesting that employment is currently associated with beneficial effects on children’s weight status in most LMIC.