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There are few data on the profile of those with serious mental illness (SMI) admitted to hospital for physical health reasons.
To compare outcomes for patients with and without an SMI admitted to hospital in England where the primary reason for admission was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
This was a retrospective, observational analysis of the English Hospital Episodes Statistics data-set for the period from 1 April 2018 to 31 March 2019, for patients aged 18–74 years with COPD as the dominant reason for admission. Patient with an SMI (psychosis spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder) were identified.
Data were available for 54 578 patients, of whom 2096 (3.8%) had an SMI. Patients with an SMI were younger, more likely to be female and more likely to live in deprived areas than those without an SMI. The burden of comorbidity was similar between the two groups. After adjusting for covariates, SMI was associated with significantly greater risk of length of stay than the median (odds ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.12–1.37, P ≤ 0.001) and with 30-day emergency readmission (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.34–1.69, P ≤ 0.001) but not with in-hospital mortality.
Clinicians should be aware of the potential for poorer outcomes in patients with an SMI even when the SMI is not the primary reason for admission. Collaborative working across mental and physical healthcare provision may facilitate improved outcomes for people with SMI.
This is part 1 of a two-part series detailing the selection and confirmation processes of lower federal court judges during President Obama’s first 6 years. Our attention in part 1 is on Obama’s lower federal court appointments during the 113th Congress, specifically on the selection processes. We then examine the backgrounds and attributes of those confirmed during the 113th, looking at the appointees to the district and appeals courts separately. Confirmation processes are the main focus of part 2 of our study, where we discuss the lead-up to the nuclear option, the “fallout” from its invocation, and the renewed emphasis on the Blue Slip system as a tool of the minority party in the Senate. We conclude by taking a deeper look at the administration’s historic contribution to enhancing diversity on the federal bench across the district and circuit courts and, as well, make a similar assessment of the impact of the Obama appointments on the partisan makeup of the federal bench on the district courts and across the appellate circuits.
This article looks at the appointment and confirmation politics of President Obama’s nominees during the 114th Congress in which unprecedented obstruction and delay of Obama's nominees including the Supreme Court nomination of Merrick Garland occurred. This is placed within the overall context of Obama’s impact on the judiciary. The demographic portrait of the Obama judiciary is sketched with special attention to the historic record of diverse nontraditional appointees. We conclude with a look at what lies ahead with the Trump administration and judicial appointments/confirmation.
Building on the empirical portrait of federal judicial selection processes and outcomes in the 113th Congress published in part 1, we now turn to in-depth analyses, drawing on extensive interview data, of the confirmation battle over confirmations to the DC Circuit Court of Appeals, filibuster reform (the nuclear option) and its consequences, the role of the blue slip system in contemporary judicial selection, case studies of selection successes and failures, and the historic impact of the Obama appointments record on patterns of diversity and partisanship on the federal bench.
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in human eggs has been investigated by using immunoblotting with both anti-Active MAPK and anti-ERK2 antibodies. The results showed that the main form of MAP kinase was p42ERK2. It was in a dephosphorylated form in oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage, but fully phosphorylated in unfertilised mature eggs. MAP kinase phosphorylation was significantly decreased when pronuclei were formed after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Neither MAP kinase expression nor activity was detected in morphologically degenerated eggs. Although MAP kinase still existed in early embryos arrested at the 8-cell or morula stages, little, if any, activity could be detected. These data suggest that MAP kinase may play an important role in the cell cycle regulation of human eggs, as in other mammalian species.
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