To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Astigmatism and myopia are two common ocular refractive errors that can impact daily life, including learning and productivity. Current knowledge suggests that the etiology of these conditions is the result of a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Studies in populations of European ancestry have demonstrated a higher concordance of refractive errors in monozygotic (MZ) twins compared to dizygotic (DZ) twins. However, there is a lack of studies on genetically informative samples of multi-ethnic ancestry. This study aimed to estimate the genetic contribution to astigmatism and myopia in the Mexican population. A sample of 1399 families, including 243 twin pairs and 1156 single twins, completed a medical questionnaire about their own and their co-twin’s diagnosis of astigmatism and myopia. Concordance rates for astigmatism and myopia were estimated, and heritability and genetic correlations were determined using a bivariate ACE Cholesky decomposition method, decomposed into A (additive genetic), C (shared environmental) and E (unique environmental) components. The results showed a higher concordance rate for astigmatism and myopia for MZ twins (.74 and .74, respectively) than for DZ twins (.50 and .55). The AE model, instead of the ACE model, best fitted the data. Based on this, heritability estimates were .81 for astigmatism and .81 for myopia, with a cross-trait genetic correlation of rA = .80, nonshared environmental correlation rE = .89, and a phenotypic correlation of rP = .80. These results are consistent with previous findings in other populations, providing evidence for a similar genetic architecture of these conditions in the multi-ethnic Mexican population.
The recruitment of participants for research studies may be subject to bias. The Prospective Imaging Study of Ageing (PISA) aims to characterize the phenotype and natural history of healthy adult Australians at high future risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Participants approached to take part in PISA were selected from existing cohort studies with available genomewide genetic data for both successfully and unsuccessfully recruited participants, allowing us to investigate the genetic contribution to voluntary recruitment, including the genetic predisposition to AD. We use a polygenic risk score (PRS) approach to test to what extent the genetic risk for AD, and related risk factors predict participation in PISA. We did not identify a significant association of genetic risk for AD with study participation, but we did identify significant associations with PRS for key causal risk factors for AD, IQ, household income and years of education. We also found that older and female participants were more likely to take part in the study. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bias in key risk factors for AD in the recruitment of individuals for cohort studies.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.