To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Accurate prognostication is important for patients and their families to prepare for the end of life. Objective Prognostic Score (OPS) is an easy-to-use tool that does not require the clinicians’ prediction of survival (CPS), whereas Palliative Prognostic Score (PaP) needs CPS. Thus, inexperienced clinicians may hesitate to use PaP. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of OPS compared with PaP in inpatients in palliative care units (PCUs) in three East Asian countries.
This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-cultural, multicenter cohort study. We enrolled inpatients with far-advanced cancer in PCUs in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan from 2017 to 2018. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve to compare the accuracy of OPS and PaP.
A total of 1,628 inpatients in 33 PCUs in Japan and Korea were analyzed. OPS and PaP were calculated in 71.7% of the Japanese patients and 80.0% of the Korean patients. In Taiwan, PaP was calculated for 81.6% of the patients. The AUROC for 3-week survival was 0.74 for OPS in Japan, 0.68 for OPS in Korea, 0.80 for PaP in Japan, and 0.73 for PaP in Korea. The AUROC for 30-day survival was 0.70 for OPS in Japan, 0.71 for OPS in Korea, 0.79 for PaP in Japan, and 0.74 for PaP in Korea.
Significance of results
Both OPS and PaP showed good performance in Japan and Korea. Compared with PaP, OPS could be more useful for inexperienced physicians who hesitate to estimate CPS.
Mental illness among survivors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) during the post-illness period is an emerging and important health issue.
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of mental illness and the associated factors for its development among COVID-2019 survivors.
From 1 January to 4 June 2020, data were extracted from the National Health Insurance Service COVID-19 database in South Korea. Patients with COVID-19 were defined as those whose test results indicated that they had contracted the infection, regardless of disease severity. COVID-19 survivors were defined as those who recovered from the infection. The primary end-point was the development of mental illness, which was evaluated between 1 January and 1 December 2020.
A total 260 883 individuals were included in this study, and 2.36% (6148) were COVID-19 survivors. The COVID-19 survivors showed higher prevalence of mental illness than the control group (12.0% in the COVID-19 survivors v. 7.7% in the control group; odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, 95% CI 2.21–2.61, P < 0.001). Additionally, compared with the control group, the no specific treatment for COVID-19 group (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.03–2.45, P < 0.001) and specific treatment for COVID-19 group (OR = 3.27, 95% CI 2.77–3.87, P < 0.001) showed higher prevalence of mental illness among survivors.
In South Korea, COVID-19 survivors had a higher risk of developing mental illness compared with the rest of the populations. Moreover, this trend was more evident in COVID-19 survivors who experienced specific treatment in the hospital.
This study aimed to determine the effect of donor-transmitted atherosclerosis on the late aggravation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy in paediatric heart recipients aged ≥7 years.
In total, 48 patients were included and 23 had donor-transmitted atherosclerosis (baseline maximal intimal thickness of >0.5 mm on intravascular ultrasonography). Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for donor-transmitted atherosclerosis. Rates of survival free from the late aggravation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (new or worsening cardiac allograft vasculopathy on following angiograms, starting 1 year after transplantation) in each patient group were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. The effect of the results of intravascular ultrasonography at 1 year after transplantation on the late aggravation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, correcting for possible covariates including donor-transmitted atherosclerosis, was examined using the Cox proportional hazards model.
The mean follow-up duration after transplantation was 5.97 ± 3.58 years. The log-rank test showed that patients with donor-transmitted atherosclerosis had worse survival outcomes than those without (p = 0.008). Per the multivariate model considering the difference of maximal intimal thickness between baseline and 1 year following transplantation (hazard ratio, 22.985; 95% confidence interval, 1.948–271.250; p = 0.013), donor-transmitted atherosclerosis was a significant covariate (hazard ratio, 4.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.047–15.376; p = 0.043).
Paediatric heart transplantation recipients with donor-transmitted atherosclerosis aged ≥7 years had worse late cardiac allograft vasculopathy aggravation-free survival outcomes.
Several studies supported the usefulness of “the surprise question” in terms of 1-year mortality of patients. “The surprise question” requires a “Yes” or “No” answer to the question “Would I be surprised if this patient died in [specific time frame].” However, the 1-year time frame is often too long for advanced cancer patients seen by palliative care personnel. “The surprise question” with shorter time frames is needed for decision making. We examined the accuracy of “the surprise question” for 7-day, 21-day, and 42-day survival in hospitalized patients admitted to palliative care units (PCUs).
This was a prospective multicenter cohort study of 130 adult patients with advanced cancer admitted to 7 hospital-based PCUs in South Korea. The accuracy of “the surprise question” was compared with that of the temporal question for clinician's prediction of survival.
We analyzed 130 inpatients who died in PCUs during the study period. The median survival was 21.0 days. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for the 7-day “the surprise question” were 46.7, 88.7, and 83.9%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for the 7-day temporal question were 6.7, 98.3, and 87.7%, respectively. The c-indices of the 7-day “the surprise question” and 7-day temporal question were 0.662 (95% CI: 0.539–0.785) and 0.521 (95% CI: 0.464–0.579), respectively. The c-indices of the 42-day “the surprise question” and 42-day temporal question were 0.554 (95% CI: 0.509–0.599) and 0.616 (95% CI: 0.569–0.663), respectively.
Significance of results
Surprisingly, “the surprise questions” and temporal questions had similar accuracies. The high specificities for the 7-day “the surprise question” and 7- and 21-day temporal question suggest they may be useful to rule in death if positive.
The explosive outbreak of COVID-19 led to a shortage of medical resources, including isolation rooms in hospitals, healthcare workers (HCWs) and personal protective equipment. Here, we constructed a new model, non-contact community treatment centres to monitor and quarantine asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients who recorded their own vital signs using a smartphone application. This new model in Korea is useful to overcome shortages of medical resources and to minimise the risk of infection transmission to HCWs.
Mycobacterial infections are widely distributed in animals and cause considerable economic losses, especially in livestock animals. Bovine paratuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis, which are representative mycobacterial infections in cattle, are difficult to diagnose using current-generation diagnostics due to their relatively long incubation periods. Thus, alternative diagnostic tools are needed for the detection of mycobacterial infections in cattle. A biomarker is an indicator present in biological fluids that reflects the biological state of an individual during the progression of a specific disease. Therefore, biomarkers are considered a potential diagnostic tool for various diseases. Recently, the number of studies investigating biomarkers as tools for diagnosing mycobacterial infections has increased. In human medicine, many diagnostic biomarkers have been developed and applied in clinical practice. In veterinary medicine, however, many such developments are still in the early stages. In this review, we summarize the current progress in biomarker research related to the development of diagnostic biomarkers for mycobacterial infections in cattle.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of porcine follicular fluid (pFF) from large-sized (LFF; >8 mm in diameter) and medium-sized (MFF; 3–6 mm in diameter) follicles on the maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from follicles 3–6 mm in diameter. The collected COCs were incubated for 22 h with LFF or MFF (in vitro maturation (IVM)-I stage) and were incubated subsequently for 22 h with LFF or MFF (IVM-II stage). Cumulus expansion was confirmed after the IVM-I stage and nuclear maturation was evaluated after the IVM-II stage. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured and embryonic development was evaluated. Relative cumulus expansion and GSH levels were higher in the LFF group compared with in the MFF group after the IVM-I stage (P < 0.05). After the IVM-II stage, the numbers of oocytes in metaphase-II were increased in the LFF group and GSH content was higher in all of the LFF treatment groups compared with in the MFF treatment groups during both IVM stages (P < 0.05). ROS levels were reduced by LFF treatment regardless of IVM stage (P < 0.05). Blastocyst formation and the total numbers of cells in blastocysts were increased in all LFF treatment groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These results suggested that pFF from large follicles at the IVM stage could improve nucleic and cytoplasmic maturation status and further embryonic development through reducing ROS levels and enhancing responsiveness to gonadotropins.
Calcium–magnesium–alumino-silicate (CMAS) particulates enter the aero-engine in a sandy environment, melt and infiltrate into 7 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), reducing their lifetime. This leads to chemical degradation in 7YSZ accompanied by tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation upon cooling. In this work, electron-beam physical vapor deposition coatings were infiltrated with a synthetic CMAS. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements show that CMAS infiltration at 1250 °C has about 43% higher monoclinic phase volume fraction (PVF) at the coating surface compared to 1225 °C and remains consistently higher throughout the coating depth. Additionally, the increase in annealing time from 1 to 10 h results in a 31% higher monoclinic phase at the surface. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of globular monoclinic phases corresponding spatially with the above findings. These results resolve the impact of time and temperature on CMAS infiltration kinetics which is important for mitigation.
This work quantitatively analyses vessel traffic service (VTS) communications in ports and suggests improvements for more efficient control of the service. For this purpose, analysis of VTS communications was performed on VHF channel 12 in Busan North Port, South Korea. This communications service follows the queue of M/G/1 (the arrivals have a Poisson distribution, the service time is characterized by a general distribution, and with a single server). The degree of congestion of the communication channel was shown as the utilisation rate of the queue, which was 67·7% at peak times and 29·6% at non-peak times. To reduce congestion in the communication channel, we propose to separate the peak time control channel, exclude passing reporting, and decrease the reporting time. With separation of the peak time control channel, the utilisation rate decreased by 41·1%. The utilisation rate decreased by 5·7% when passing reporting was omitted, and by 8·3% when reporting time was reduced by 60%. The results of this study can be used as basic policy data to improve VTS, including reinforcement of the VTS officer's role and adjustment of the control report contents.
Even though South Korea’s universal health care system was established in 1989, many South Koreans continue to encounter obstacles in their attempts to access health care. Previous studies have not investigated the relationship between health care access and utilization and perceived health in the context of a universal health care system that implements a mandatory social health insurance policy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of health care access and use of preventive health care services on self-rated health among young and middle-aged adults in Korea. The sample consisted of 1242 young adults aged 20–39 years and 2389 middle-aged adults aged 40–64 years who had participated in the cross-sectional 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the association between health care access and use of preventive health care services and perceived poor health among young adults and middle-aged adults was assessed. The main finding was that a history of unmet health care requirements during the past 12 months was strongly associated with fair and poor self-rated health, especially among young adults. Additionally, middle-aged adults who had attended medical check-ups during the preceding 2 years reported poorer self-rated health. This study’s findings suggest that, despite South Korea’s universal public insurance system, there remains the need to improve access to health care services, especially among young adults. As a health improvement strategy, it is imperative that measures be taken to promote the availability of health care services when they are required and to solve any of the various individual accessibility problems, such as cost, particularly with young adults in mind.
Yarn-type supercapacitors should have high energy density in small given spaces, and the one attempt among many is to comprise the electrodes asymmetrically. However, the low capacitance of conventional materials causes the widened operating voltage useless. In this study, we have utilized a novel material MXene with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to make highly loaded MXene/CNT yarn electrodes, which exhibited a remarkable areal capacitance. With MnO2/CNT biscrolled cathode and PVA/LiCl gel electrolyte, the plied asymmetric yarn supercapacitor had energy density of 100 µWh/cm2. The yarn supercapacitor could operate under mechanical deformations without performance degradation.
Joonkoo Lee, Assistant Professor in the School of Business at Hanyang University, Seoul,
Sang-Hoon Lee, doctoral student in the School of Labor and Employment Relations at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
Gwanho Park, construction supervisor at Korea Land and Housing Corporation, Jinju
South Korea has been known for its successful economic development in the post-World War II world economy. In 1960, the country's gross domestic production (GDP) per capita was just US$156, lower than Ghana's. However, it has rapidly grown since then, reaching $25,977 in 2013. In 1996, South Korea joined the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and become only the second Asian member of this rich countries’ club, after Japan. South Korea's economic development was mainly driven by exporting manufacturing goods. The country's exports rose from $122 million in 1960 to $703 billion in 2013, with manufacturing accounting for more than 80 per cent of the exports. It has become one of the ten largest trading economies in the world. The rapid expansion of exports was largely attributable to the constant upgrading of export product composition to higher value-added, more technologically sophisticated products, which coincided with upgrading the country's industry structure to focus on high-tech sectors, such as electronics and information technology (IT). In this regard, South Korea is an example of successful ‘economic upgrading’, defined as moving up to higher value-added activities with improved technology, knowledge and skills (Gereffi, 2005).
In explaining South Korea's economic growth, two opposite explanations have been presented. A market-based perspective highlights export-push strategies, openness to foreign investment and technology transfer as the key factors of the growth (World Bank, 1993). In contrast, state-centred views emphasize the key role of the state's active industrial policy in prodding local firms to upgrade and compete in global markets (Amsden, 1989; Chang, 1993; Evans, 1995). The debate following the economic crisis of the late 1990s centred on the development state was eclipsed by a ‘neoliberal turn’, or its strength was maintained with newly mandated roles (Chu, 2009; Kalinowski, 2008; Pirie, 2008). Missing in these explanations, however, is the role of global–local linkages in economic development (Hamilton and Gereffi, 2009). Economic development and industrial upgrading take place in a global economic context and through the interaction of global and local actors. Furthermore, just focusing on macro-economic settings or the role of the state fails to explain commonalities and differences in the patterns and trajectories of upgrading across different sectors and time periods.
People who eat alone, which is becoming a new trend owing to the increasing proportion of one-person households in Korea, are more likely to become overweight and obese. Therefore, we investigated the association between having a dinner companion and BMI.
A linear regression model adjusted for covariates was utilized to examine the association between having a dinner companion and BMI. Subgroup analyses were performed, stratified by age group, gender, household income, educational level and occupation.
We used the data from the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI. Our primary independent variable was having a dinner companion while the dependent variable was BMI.
In total, 13303 individuals, aged 20 years or over, were analysed.
Compared with the solo eating group, BMI was lower in the family dinner group (β=−0·39, P<0·01) but not in the non-family dinner group (β=−0·06, P=0·67). The subgroup analysis revealed that the difference in BMI was most significant in young generations, such as those aged 20–29 years (β=−1·15, P<0·01) and 30–39 years (β=−0·78, P=0·01).
We found that people who eat dinner alone are more likely to become overweight and obese than those who eat with their family. This association was stronger in males and young adults than their counterparts. Considering the increasing trends in the proportion of single-person households and solo eating, appropriate intervention is needed.
Adequate facepiece fit of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) is crucial for optimal protection against airborne pathogens. The quantitative fit test (QNFT) pass rates of the 4 N95 FFR models commonly used in Korea were below 50%. Male sex was identified as a single independent predictive factor for QNFT pass.