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To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
The genus Perkinsus includes protistan parasites infecting marine molluscs throughout
the world, some of which are associated with mass mortalities. Life cycle
involves vegetative proliferation within the host, by which a cell named
trophozoite undergoes successive bipartitioning. Other stages have been
observed in vitro or in vivo, depending on the species: hypnospore, zoosporangium and
zoospore. Molecular taxonomy supports a close affinity between
dinoflagellates and Perkinsus spp. Six species of Perkinsus are currently considered valid:
P. marinus, P. olseni, P. qugwadi, P. chesapeaki, P. andrewsi and P. mediterraneus. Histology and, above all, incubation of host tissues in Ray's
fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) are classic diagnostic methods. In
addition, more sensitive and quicker molecular diagnostic techniques based
on either immunoassays or PCR have been developed for Perkinsus spp. Epizootiological
studies have shown a marked influence of water temperature and salinity on
P. marinus infection in oysters Crassostrea virginica, thus determining parasite geographical range and
temporal disease dynamics (seasonality). In vitro cultures have been established for
four Perkinsus spp. Immune response to infection varies depending on host and
involves phagocytosis or encapsulation of the parasite cells by host
haemocytes. A polypeptide is secreted by clam Tapes philippinarum haemocytes that could kill
the parasite. In vitro cultured P. marinus cells secrete proteases that are likely
involved in degradation of host tissues. P. marinus can suppress the toxic oxygen
radicals produced by host haemocytes. In addition to host death, sublethal
effects caused by Perkinsus spp. (reduction of fecundity, growth, and condition) may
have significant ecological and economic implications. Various strategies
have been assayed to mitigate the consequences of P. marinus epizootics on the oyster
industry: modifications of management/culture procedures, selective breeding
to obtain resistant oyster strains, and the use of triploid oysters and
allochthonous oyster species. Some chemotherapeutants have been proved to
inhibit or kill parasite cells in vitro.
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