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Several studies have already examined the differential effects of first-generation agents (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotic medications (SGAs) on employment. The data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial provided an opportunity to prospectively examine the differential effect of FGAs and SGAs on employment outcomes. This chapter describes the results from Phase 1 of CATIE that examined the relationship between assignment to five different antipsychotic medications and two outcomes: employment and participation in psychiatric rehabilitation. It examines participation in psychiatric or psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR), which includes participation in vocational rehabilitation. The chapter analyzes the bivariate and multivariate relationships between potential baseline predictors with both employment measures and participation in PSR. Employment in the competitive economy is a primary goal of recovery-oriented behavioral health services. The chapter suggests that SGAs are no more likely to facilitate achievement of that goal than FGAs.