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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Environmental factors may significantly increase the risk of or buffer against Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, yet strategies to address cognitive decline and impairment to date largely overlook the role of neighborhoods. This mixed-methods study is the first to examine potential links between access to eateries and cognitive function. The goal is to inform place-specific interventions to help aging individuals reduce risk for cognitive impairment through neighborhood community and design. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Following an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design, seated and mobile interviews with 125 adults aged 55-92 (mean age 71) living in the Minneapolis (Minnesota) metropolitan area suggest that eateries, including coffee shops and fast-food restaurants, represent popular neighborhood destinations for older adults and sources of wellbeing. To test the hypothesis that these sites, and the benefits they confer, are associated with cognitive welfare, we analyzed data from urban and suburban dwelling participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a national racially diverse sample of older Americans followed since 2003 (n = 16,404, average age at assessment 72 years). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Qualitative thematic analysis of how older adults perceived and utilized local eateries include sites of familiarity and comfort; physical and economic accessibility; sociability with friends, family, staff, and customers; and entertainment (e.g., destinations for outings and walks, free newspapers to read). Quantitative results from multilevel linear regression models demonstrate a positive association between density of eateries and cognitive functioning. Taken together, these results complicate our understanding of fast-food settings as possible sites of wellbeing through social interaction and leisure activities. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The results contribute new evidence towards an emerging ecological model of cognitive health. Understanding whether and how retail food environments can help buffer against cognitive decline among older adults provides novel opportunities to promote wellbeing in later life through community interventions and neighborhood design.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Children with prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) exhibit early self-regulatory impairments, reflecting a life-course persistent propensity toward behavioral disinhibition. Previously, we demonstrated the protective role of parental responsiveness for reducing the risk of exposure-related disruptive behavior in adolescence. Here, we expanded this line of inquiry, examining whether responsiveness moderates the relation of PTE to a broader set of behavioral disinhibition features in early childhood and testing alternative diathesis-stress versus differential susceptibility explanatory models. PTE was assessed prospectively using interviews and bioassays in the Midwestern Infant Development Study (MIDS). Mother-child dyads (N = 276) were re-assessed at approximately 5 years of age in a preschool follow-up. We quantified maternal responsiveness and child behavioral disinhibition using a combination of directly observed activities in the lab and developmentally sensitive questionnaires. Results supported a diathesis-stress pattern. Children with PTE and less responsive mothers showed increased disruptive behavior and lower effortful control compared with children without PTE. In contrast, exposed children with more responsive mothers had self-regulatory profiles similar to their non-exposed peers. We did not observe sex differences. Findings provide greater specification of the protective role of maternal responsiveness for self-regulation in children with PTE and help clarify mechanisms that may underscore trajectories of exposure-related behavioral disinhibition.
Phenology is a key ecosystem process that reflects climate–vegetation functioning, and is an indicator of global environmental changes. Recently, it has been suggested that land-use change and timber extraction promote differences in forest phenology. We use remote-sensing data to describe regional leaf phenological patterns in combination with field data from 131 plots in old-growth and disturbed forests distributed over subtropical forests of Argentina (54–65°W). We assessed how climate is related to phenological patterns, and analysed how changes in forest structural characteristics such as stock of above-ground biomass relate to the observed phenological signals across the gradient. We found that the first three axes of a principal component analysis explained 85% of the variation in phenological metrics across subtropical forests, ordering plots mainly along indicators of seasonality and productivity. At the regional scale, the relative importance of forest biomass in explaining variation in phenological patterns was about 15%. Climate showed the highest relative importance, with temperature and rainfall explaining Enhanced Vegetation Index metrics related to seasonality and productivity patterns (27% and 47%, respectively). Within forest types, climate explains the major fraction of variation in phenological patterns, suggesting that forest function may be particularly sensitive to climate change. We found that forest biomass contributed to explaining a proportion of leaf phenological variation within three of the five forest types studied, and this may be related to changes in species composition, probably as a result of forest use.
Healthy adults (n 30) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two 28 d treatments (β2-1 fructan or maltodextrin; 3×5 g/d) separated by a 14-d washout. Subjects provided 1 d faecal collections at days 0 and 28 of each treatment. The ability of faecal bacteria to metabolise β2-1 fructan was common; eighty-seven species (thirty genera, and four phyla) were isolated using anaerobic medium containing β2-1 fructan as the sole carbohydrate source. β2-1 fructan altered the faecal community as determined through analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms and 16S rRNA genes. Supplementation with β2-1 fructan reduced faecal community richness, and two patterns of community change were observed. In most subjects, β2-1 fructan reduced the content of phylotypes aligning within the Bacteroides, whereas increasing those aligning within bifidobacteria, Faecalibacterium and the family Lachnospiraceae. In the remaining subjects, supplementation increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and to a lesser extent bifidobacteria, accompanied by decreases within the Faecalibacterium and family Lachnospiraceae. β2-1 Fructan had no impact on the metagenome or glycoside hydrolase profiles in faeces from four subjects. Few relationships were found between the faecal bacterial community and various host parameters; Bacteroidetes content correlated with faecal propionate, subjects whose faecal community contained higher Bacteroidetes produced more caproic acid independent of treatment, and subjects having lower faecal Bacteroidetes exhibited increased concentrations of serum lipopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide binding protein independent of treatment. We found no evidence to support a defined health benefit for the use of β2-1 fructans in healthy subjects.
β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects’ regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters.
Prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) has a well-documented association with disruptive behavior in childhood, but the neurocognitive effects of exposure that underlie this link are not sufficiently understood. The present study was designed to address this gap, through longitudinal follow-up in early childhood of a prospectively enrolled cohort with well-characterized prenatal exposure. Three-year-old children (n = 151) were assessed using a developmentally sensitive battery capturing both cognitive and motivational aspects of self-regulation. PTE was related to motivational self-regulation, where children had to delay approach to attractive rewards, but not cognitive self-regulation, where children had to hold information in mind and inhibit prepotent motor responses. Furthermore, PTE predicted motivational self-regulation more strongly in boys than in girls, and when propensity scores were covaried to control for confounding risk factors, the effect of PTE on motivational self-regulation was significant only in boys. These findings suggest that PTE's impact on neurodevelopment may be greater in boys than in girls, perhaps reflecting vulnerability in neural circuits that subserve reward sensitivity and emotion regulation, and may also help to explain why PTE is more consistently related to disruptive behavior disorders than attention problems.
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been investigated for their role in the prevention of many chronic conditions. Among the fruits, mango provides numerous bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, which have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the effects of dietary supplementation of freeze-dried mango pulp, in comparison with the hypolipidaemic drug, fenofibrate, and the hypoglycaemic drug, rosiglitazone, in reducing adiposity and alterations in glucose metabolism and lipid profile in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six treatment groups (eight to nine/group): control (10 % energy from fat); HF (60 % energy from fat); HF+1 or 10 % freeze-dried mango (w/w); HF+fenofibrate (500 mg/kg diet); HF+rosiglitazone (50 mg/kg diet). After 8 weeks of treatment, mice receiving the HF diet had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0·0205) and epididymal fat mass (P = 0·0037) compared with the other treatment groups. Both doses of freeze-dried mango, similar to fenofibrate and rosiglitazone, prevented the increase in epididymal fat mass and the percentage of body fat. Freeze-dried mango supplementation at the 1 % dose improved glucose tolerance as shown by approximately 35 % lower blood glucose area under the curve compared with the HF group. Moreover, freeze-dried mango lowered insulin resistance, as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, to a similar extent as rosiglitazone and modulated NEFA. The present findings demonstrate that incorporation of freeze-dried mango in the diet of mice improved glucose tolerance and lipid profile and reduced adiposity associated with a HF diet.
This chapter describes the vernacular varieties of English spoken in Newfoundland and Labrador, the most easterly province of Canada. Until union with Canada in 1949, the island of Newfoundland, along with its continental portion, Labrador, constituted an independent colony of Britain. Known to European explorers and fishermen from the late fifteenth century, the island represents one of the earliest of Britain's transatlantic colonies, with permanent (if sparse) settlement dating back to the first decades of the seventeenth century.
Though perhaps more has been written on Newfoundland and Labrador English (NLE) than on many of the varieties represented in this volume, much of this material is little-known outside the local area. Moreover, this work has dealt largely with the region's rich and unique lexical heritage, culminating in the 1982 publication of the Dictionary of Newfoundland English.
The phonology and morphosyntax of present-day NLE, however, are likewise highly distinct from those of many varieties of English found on the North American mainland. The province also exhibits considerable internal dialect diversity. As late as 1950, much of the island's population was distributed in some 1,300 small fishing villages scattered over 6,000 miles (c. 9,660 km) of coastline; many of these communities were linked to the outside world only by sea. This situation, coupled with the region's relatively isolated geographical location at the northeastern extremity of North America, is in large measure responsible for the generally conservative nature of local speech, which preserves a number of features no longer current in world Englishes.
Contemporary varieties of standard English differ to a much greater degree in terms of accent and sound system than they do with respect to their grammatical patterns. Though certain differences relating to word structure (morphology) and sentence structure (syntax) are evident if, say, standard Newfoundland or Canadian English is compared to standard British English, on the whole, standard varieties of English throughout the world display shared grammatical features. Likewise, English varieties spoken by those towards the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum share a number of grammatical features which are judged non-standard, no matter where in the English-speaking world they are found. These include forms such as she don't go there (rather than she doesn't go there), they seen it (rather than they saw it) and we don't want no favours (instead of … any favours).
What is unusual about the English of present-day NL (Newfoundland and Labrador), however, is the rich array of non-standard morphosyntactic patterns that it displays. These extend well beyond the type of features just cited, labelled ‘mainstream non-standard’ by Hay et al. (2008). They include many grammatical patterns inherited from source areas in the British Isles and Ireland. A small number of these – including the Irish after-perfect form, as in I'm just after doing it, meaning ‘I've just done it’ – also occur in contemporary Standard Newfoundland and Labrador English (SNLE).