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An adequate intake of PUFA plays a vital role in human health. Therefore, it is important to assess PUFA intakes in different populations and validate them with biomarkers, but only a few small studies are in paediatric populations. We calculated the dietary intake of PUFA and their main food sources in children and assessed associations between PUFA intakes and plasma proportions. Dietary intakes of 7-year-old children (n 8242) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were calculated from the parental-completed FFQ. Plasma PUFA were measured in 5571 children 8 months later, and 4380 children had complete dietary and plasma data. The association between dietary and plasma PUFA proportions was estimated using Spearman’s correlation coefficients, quintile cross-classification and Cohen’s κ coefficients. Mean total PUFA intake was 13·2 g/d (sd 4·2), contributing 6·5 % of total energy intake; n-6 PUFA contributed 5·2 % and n-3 PUFA 0·7 %. The n-6:n-3 ratio was 7·9:1. Mean intakes of EPA and DHA were 35·7 mg/d and 49·7 mg/d, respectively. Most n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes were weakly correlated with their respective plasma lipids (0·07 ≤ r ≤ 0·16, P < 0·001). The correlation between dietary and plasma DHA was stronger though (r = 0·34, P < 0·001), supported by a modest level of agreement between quintiles (k = 0·32). The results indicate that the FFQ was able to reasonably rank the long-chain (LC) PUFA, DHA, in this paediatric population. Public health initiatives need to address the suboptimal ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA and very low n-3 LC-PUFA intakes in school-age children in the UK.
Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is commonly administered in orthopedic procedures. Research regarding SAP appropriateness for specific orthopedic procedures is limited and is required to facilitate targeted orthopedic prescriber behavior change.
To describe SAP prescribing and appropriateness for orthopedic procedures in Australian hospitals.
Design, setting, and participants:
Multicenter, national, quality improvement study with retrospective analysis of data collected from Australian hospitals via Surgical National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey (Surgical NAPS) audits from January 1, 2016, to April 15, 2019, were analyzed.
Logistic regression identified hospital, patient and surgical factors associated with appropriateness. Adjusted appropriateness was calculated from the multivariable model. Additional subanalyses were conducted on smaller subsets to calculate the adjusted appropriateness for specific orthopedic procedures.
In total, 140 facilities contributed to orthopedic audits in the Surgical NAPS, including 4,032 orthopedic surgical episodes and 6,709 prescribed doses. Overall appropriateness was low, 58.0% (n = 3,894). This differed for prescribed procedural (n = 3,978, 64.7%) and postprocedural doses (n = 2,731, 48.3%). The most common reasons for inappropriateness, when prophylaxis was required, was timing for procedural doses (50.9%) and duration for postprocedural prescriptions (49.8%). The adjusted appropriateness of each orthopedic procedure group was low for procedural SAP (knee surgery, 54.1% to total knee joint replacement, 74.1%). The adjusted appropriateness for postprocedural prescription was also low (from hand surgery, 40.7%, to closed reduction fractures, 68.7%).
Orthopedic surgical specialties demonstrated differences across procedural and postprocedural appropriateness. The metric of appropriateness identifies targets for quality improvement and is meaningful for clinicians. Targeted quality improvement projects for orthopedic specialties need to be developed to support optimization of antimicrobial use.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Hospitalized patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB) are placed in airborne isolation until 3 sputum smear samples are negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (“Xpert”) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and resistance to rifampicin is superior to AFB sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of TB.
To compare the performance of a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy for time to airborne infection isolation (AII) discontinuation.
Consecutive patients over 17 years of age in AII for suspected pulmonary TB between October 1, 2014, and March 31, 2016, with leftover respiratory AFB samples were enrolled in this study. A single Xpert was performed on the first available sample. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were recorded for each patient. We compared the duration of AII using a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy under multiple theoretical scenarios using Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves and the log-rank test.
In total, 131 samples were included in our performance analysis of the Xpert, and 114 samples were included in our AII analysis. Overall, 81 patients (65%) were immunosuppressed, of whom 46 (37%) were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert for diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection were 67% and 100%, respectively. Xpert was negative in all cases of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Use of a single Xpert reduced AII duration from a median of 67 hours per patient to 42 hours with usual reporting, to 26 hours with direct communication, and to 12 hours with immediate testing.
A single negative Xpert result can reduce AII duration compared to the AFB smear microscopy technique under multiple theoretical scenarios.
Healthy adults (n 30) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two 28 d treatments (β2-1 fructan or maltodextrin; 3×5 g/d) separated by a 14-d washout. Subjects provided 1 d faecal collections at days 0 and 28 of each treatment. The ability of faecal bacteria to metabolise β2-1 fructan was common; eighty-seven species (thirty genera, and four phyla) were isolated using anaerobic medium containing β2-1 fructan as the sole carbohydrate source. β2-1 fructan altered the faecal community as determined through analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms and 16S rRNA genes. Supplementation with β2-1 fructan reduced faecal community richness, and two patterns of community change were observed. In most subjects, β2-1 fructan reduced the content of phylotypes aligning within the Bacteroides, whereas increasing those aligning within bifidobacteria, Faecalibacterium and the family Lachnospiraceae. In the remaining subjects, supplementation increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and to a lesser extent bifidobacteria, accompanied by decreases within the Faecalibacterium and family Lachnospiraceae. β2-1 Fructan had no impact on the metagenome or glycoside hydrolase profiles in faeces from four subjects. Few relationships were found between the faecal bacterial community and various host parameters; Bacteroidetes content correlated with faecal propionate, subjects whose faecal community contained higher Bacteroidetes produced more caproic acid independent of treatment, and subjects having lower faecal Bacteroidetes exhibited increased concentrations of serum lipopolysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide binding protein independent of treatment. We found no evidence to support a defined health benefit for the use of β2-1 fructans in healthy subjects.
β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects’ regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters.
Our survey of 112 Australian aged-care facilities demonstrated the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections to be 2.9%. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) defined by McGeer criteria comprised 35% of all clinically defined UTIs. To estimate the infection burden in these facilities where microbiologic testing is not routine, modified surveillance criteria for UTIs are necessary.
Non-compliance with food record submission can induce bias in nutritional epidemiological analysis and make it difficult to draw inference from study findings. We examined the impact of demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors on such non-compliance during the first 3 years of participation in a multidisciplinary prospective paediatric study.
The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study collects a 3 d food record quarterly during the first year of life and semi-annually thereafter. High compliance with food record completion was defined as the participating families submitting one or more days of food record at every scheduled clinic visit.
Three centres in the USA (Colorado, Georgia/Florida and Washington) and three in Europe (Finland, Germany and Sweden).
Families who finished the first 3 years of TEDDY participation (n 8096).
High compliance was associated with having a single child, older maternal age, higher maternal education and father responding to study questionnaires. Families showing poor compliance were more likely to be living far from the study centres, from ethnic minority groups, living in a crowded household and not attending clinic visits regularly. Postpartum depression, maternal smoking behaviour and mother working outside the home were also independently associated with poor compliance.
These findings identified specific groups for targeted strategies to encourage completion of food records, thereby reducing potential bias in multidisciplinary collaborative research.
Recent studies suggest that white matter abnormalities contribute to both motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the degree to which diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) indices are related to executive function in Parkinson's patients. We used tract-based spatial statistics to compare DTI data from 15 patients to 15 healthy, age- and education-matched controls. We then extracted mean values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within an a priori frontal mask. Executive function composite Z scores were regressed against these DTI indices, age, and total intracranial volume. In Parkinson's patients, FA was related to executive composite scores, and both indices were related to Stroop interference scores. We conclude that white matter microstructural abnormalities contribute to cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease. Further work is needed to determine whether these white matter changes reflect the pathological process or a clinically important comorbidity. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–6)
Alexander Litvinenko died on November 23, 2006, from acute radiation sickness syndrome caused by ingestion of polonium-210 (210Po).
The objective was to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for internal contamination with 210Po in healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for the contaminated patient.
HCWs who had direct contact with the patient.
We interviewed 43 HCWs and enquired about their activities and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Internal contamination was denned as urinary 210Po excretion above 20 mBq within 24 hours. We obtained risk ratios (RRs) for internal contamination using Poisson regression.
Thirty-seven HCWs (86%) responded, and 8 (22%) showed evidence of internal contamination, all at very low levels that were unlikely to cause adverse health outcomes. Daily care of the patient (washing and toileting the patient) was the main risk factor (RR, 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-11.6]). In contrast, planned invasive procedures were not associated with a higher risk. There was some evidence of a higher risk associated with handling blood samples (RR, 3.5 [95% CI, 0.8-15.6]) and changing urine bags and/or collecting urine samples (RR, 2.7 [95% CI, 0.8-9.5]). There was also some evidence that those who reported not always using standard PPE were at higher risk than were others (RR, 2.5 [95% CI, 0.8-8.1]).
The sensitive quantitative measurement enabled us to identify factors associated with contamination, which by analogy to other conditions with similar transmission mechanisms may help improve protection and preparedness in staff dealing with an ill patient who experiences an unknown illness.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of the horse's laterality on the symmetry of rein tension in right-handed riders. Eleven right-handed riders rode both a right-lateralized (RL) and a left-lateralized (LL) horse. Rein tension was measured during three circles of walk, trot and canter and four walk–halt transitions in each direction. Tensions were recorded continuously using a rein tension meter. The LL horse was ridden with significantly stronger mean tension in the left rein than in the right rein (1.5 vs. 1.4 kg; P = 0.0352). Significantly more tension was applied to the outside rein in a clockwise (1.4 vs. 1.2 kg; P = 0.0202), but not in a counterclockwise, direction (1.3 vs. 1.2 kg; P = 0.49). Less minimum tension (0.06 vs. 0.29 kg) and greater maximum (6.4 vs. 3.9 kg) and range of tension (6.3 vs. 3.6 kg) occurred in the left rein of the RL horse (P < 0.0001) and the right rein of the LL horse (0.37 vs. 0.08 kg, 4.8 vs. 7.4 kg, 4.3 vs. 7.3 kg respectively; P < 0.0001). The results of the present study indicate that the different utilization of both reins is likely to be influenced by the laterality of both horse and rider. These findings may have important implications for equine training, since consistency of reinforcement is an important factor for equine learning success.
The effect of nalidixic acid on conjugal recombination was studied in matings with recipient strains carrying recA200, a mutation which confers a thermosensitive Rec− phenotype. Addition of nalidixic acid to Hfr Nals × F−NalRrecA200 matings at low temperature (35 °C) caused a sharp 10- to 20-fold decline in the yield of recombinants if plating on selective agar was delayed. Two separate processes were identified as being responsible for this decline. Those merozygotes in which the transferred DNA was free of the donor cell lost the ability to form recombinants through inactivation of this DNA, an effect which could be prevented by using exonuclease deficient (recB sbcB) recipients or by prior growth of exonuclease proficient recipients in medium containing 0·25 M sodium chloride. No more than 50% of the observed loss of recombinants could be attributed to this effect. The remaining merozygotes lost their ability for recombinant formation provided mating pairs, and presumably the displaced donor DNA strand, remained intact. This process was thought to involve withdrawal of transferred DNA (DeHaan & Gross, 1962) and was studied in isolation in matings with recA+, or recA200 recB sbcB recipients. A mechanism involving re-annealing of the displaced Hfr DNA to the donor molecule as a result of nalidixic inhibition of gyrase activity in the donor causing relaxation of DNA supercoils is proposed to account for this withdrawal event.
The occurrence of nosocomial infections due to third-generation cephalosporin–resistant gram-negative bacteria is increasing. Gastrointestinal colonization is an important reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and it often precedes clinical infection.
To estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal colonization with ceftazidime-resistant gram-negative bacteria among intensive care unit (ICU) patients at a university-affiliated tertiary-care hospital during 2 distinct periods and to assess whether, at any time during the index hospitalization, colonized patients had a clinical culture positive for the same organism that was recovered from surveillance culture.
Two ICUs at the University of Maryland Medical Center, a 656-bed tertiary-care hospital located in Baltimore, Maryland. Both ICUs provide care to adult patients.
We performed a cross-sectional study of adult patients admitted to the medical ICU or the surgical ICU from June 14 to July 14, 2003, and from June 14 to July 14, 2006. Perirectal swab samples were obtained for surveillance culture on admission to the intensive care unit, weekly thereafter, and at discharge. Each culture sample was plated onto MacConkey agar supplemented with ceftazidime.
In 2003, a total of 33 (18.8%) of 176 patients were colonized with ceftazidime-resistant gram-negative bacilli; in 2006, 60 (31.4%) of 191 patients were (P<.01). This increase was largely driven by an increase in ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella isolates (which accounted for 6.4% of isolates in 2003 and for 22.8% in 2006; P<.01). In 2003, a total of 16 (48.5%) of 33 colonized patients had a clinical culture positive for the same organism that was recovered from the perirectal surveillance culture, compared with 22 (36.6%) of 60 colonized patients in 2006 (P = .28).
Our data suggest that gastrointestinal colonization with ceftazidime-resistant gram-negative bacilli is common, that its prevalence is increasing, and that colonization may result in clinical cultures positive for these bacilli.