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Electrophoretic deposition consisting of bioglass (BG)–chitosan (CS)–iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) on the Ti–13Nb–13Zr substrate was described. The bioactive coating was embedded in a CS matrix. The Fe3O4 NPs collected using the co-precipitation method varied at three different levels (1, 3, and 5 wt%) in the BG coating. The formulated coatings exhibited a hydrophilic character due to higher surface roughness values. The pull-off tape test was performed to check the adhesion strength of coatings. The composite coatings displayed adhesion strength of 5B class. The corrosion behavior was evaluated in Ringer's solution by the electrochemical test. The corrosion results showed that the composite coatings were more impressive as compared to pure BG and Fe3O4 coatings. The hemocompatibility results showed a hemolytic ratio (<5%), which validates them as favorable blood compatible nature of the deposited coatings. The findings exhibited that the BG–Fe3O4–CS coating can be widely employed as a favorable material for orthopedic applications.
It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have a personality disorder. People with emotionally unstable personality disorder are at high risk of suicide. Despite being frequent users of mental health services, there is often no clear pathway for patients to access effective treatments.
To describe the characteristics of patients with personality disorder who died by suicide, examine clinical care pathways and explore whether the care adhered to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance.
National consecutive case series (1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013). The study examined the health records and serious incident reports of patients with personality disorder who died by suicide in the UK.
The majority had a diagnosis of borderline/emotionally unstable or antisocial personality disorder. A high proportion of patients had a history of self-harm (n = 146, 95%) and alcohol (n = 101, 66%) or drug misuse (n = 79, 52%). We found an extensive pattern of service contact in the year before death, with no clear pathway for patients. Care was inconsistent and there were gaps in service provision. In 99 (70%) of the 141 patients with data, the last episode of care followed a crisis. Access to specialised psychological therapies was limited; short-term in-patient admissions was adhered to; however, guidance on short-term prescribing for comorbid conditions was not followed for two-thirds of patients.
Continuity and stability of care is required to prevent, rather than respond to individuals in crisis. A comprehensive audit of services for people with personality disorder across the UK is recommended to assess the quality of care provided.
Bottom-up assembly of nanomaterials using solution-processed methods is ideally suited for use in fabrication of large-area optoelectronic devices. Tailorable visible and near-infrared absorption in shaped nanostructured noble metals is strongly influenced by localized plasmon resonance effects. Obtaining sharp and selective absorption with solution-processed methods is a challenge and requires suitable control on the growth kinetics, which ultimately results in appropriate size and morphology of the final product. In this work, a photo-assisted multigenerational growth process for synthesis of silver nanotriangle ink with narrow linewidth absorbance is developed. This technique combines photochemical and seed-mediated growth approaches. The resulting ink exhibits a sharp absorption at 700 nm with full width at half maximum of ∼170 nm, verified by absorption as well as dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements. Numerical modeling using finite-difference time-domain calculations yields a close match with observed absorption and is used to examine electric field distribution and enhancement factor resonating at 720 nm. The synthesis technique is potentially useable for production of highly selective absorbers in solution phase.
Biochar has received attention due to its potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration in soil and improving soil quality and crop productivity. This study evaluated the effects of rice straw biochar (RSB) and rice husk ash (RHA) each applied at 5 Mg ha−1 and four N levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha−1) on soil fertility, growth, and yield of rice and wheat for three consecutive rice–wheat rotations. RSB significantly increased electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, and P and K contents when compared to control (no amendment) up to 7.5 cm soil depth. Both RSB and RHA did not influence shoot N concentration in wheat plant but significantly increased P and K concentrations at 60 days after sowing. Grain yields of both rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB as compared to control (no amendment) and RHA treatments. While the highest grain yields of rice and wheat were observed at 120 kg N ha−1 in RHA and no biochar-treated plots, a significant increase in grain yields was observed at 80 kg N ha−1 in RSB treatment, thereby saving 40 kg N ha−1 in each crop. Both agronomic and recovery N efficiencies in rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB-amended soil compared to control. Significant positive correlations were observed between soil N, P, and K concentrations and total N, P, and K concentrations in aboveground biomass of wheat at 60 days after sowing. This study showed the potential benefits of applying RSB for improving soil fertility and yields of rice and wheat in a rice–wheat system.
In through the wall imaging systems, wall parameters like its thickness and dielectric constant play an important role in the true and correct image formation of an object behind the wall made of various materials like brick cement, wood, plastic, etc. Incorrect estimation of these parameters leads to dislocation of the object and smearing or blurriness of the image too. A new autofocusing technique for a stepped frequency continuous wave -based radar at the frequency of 1–3 Ghz has been developed that corrects the wall's parameters like its thickness and dielectric constant and provides a better focused image of the target. For this purpose, a peak signal to noise ratio -based autofocusing technique has been developed by using curve fitting and the genetic algorithm. It is observed that the proposed technique has capability to focus the image up to good extent.
Molten vanadate-induced hot corrosion is the major cause of failure of superalloys which are generally used at higher temperatures (such as in internal combustion engines, gas turbines, high temperature tooling and dies, and petrochemical industries and marines). This effect can be minimized by applying thermally stable coatings over the superalloy. In this aspect, the current work investigates the effect of nanostructured aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) coatings on the hot corrosion behavior of Co-based superalloy, Superco-605, in an aggressive environment of Na2SO4–60% V2O5 (ratio by weight) at 700 °C up to 80 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 1 h heating at 700 °C followed by 20 min cooling in an ambient temperature. Hot corrosion kinetics was studied using the thermogravimetric technique and found to follow the parabolic rate law. The corrosion surface morphology and phases formed during hot corrosion were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was found that AlCrN coating had a better hot corrosion resistance than TiAlN coating.
In this study the improvement in thermal stability of optical properties of InAs submonolayer quantum dot (SML QD) heterostructures is observed through incorporation of symmetric AlGaAs barrier layers. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra shows blue shift with less full width at half maxima, ascribe to the assimilation of AlGaAs barrier layers. The sample with confinement enhancing barrier shows the highest ground to ground transition energy with the lowest dot size distribution. Ex situ annealing of as grown samples, followed by PL analysis, confirms the improvement in thermal stability of optical behavior. For the samples with symmetric AlGaAs layer, annealing at higher temperatures under an inert condition can not change the downward transition energy effectively, whereas normal DWELL structures exhibits significant blue shift for the same.
Bagasse and rice husk are two important agro-industrial by-products that are used as fuel in the sugar and rice mill industries, thus producing large quantities of bagasse ash (BA; 0·05 of bagasse) and rice husk ash (0·20 of rice husk) as waste material. Applying BA and rice husk ash (RHA) to agricultural land improves yield, nutrient uptake and chemical fertility of soil, particularly with special reference to available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The present field experiment was conducted for 3 years to evaluate the P fertilizer value of these agro-industrial waste materials in a wheat–rice system (WRS). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with RHA and BA applied at 10 t/ha and including a no-amendment control as the main plot treatments and three levels of fertilizer P (0, 13 and 26 kg P/ha; designated P0, P13 and P26, respectively) as sub-plot treatments to wheat in WRS. Application of fertilizer P increased the wheat grain yield up to P26 in the un-amended control treatment. However, a significant response of wheat to fertilizer P was also observed up to P13 in the presence of BA and RHA, thereby saving 50% of fertilizer P. Both RHA and BA increased wheat productivity by 12 and 16%, respectively, over the un-amended control. The subsequent rice crop also produced 14% higher paddy yield when the two ashes were applied along with P13 to the previous wheat crop. The increases in grain yield were accompanied by significant increases in the uptake of P and K, and P content (Olsen P) in the soil. The application of recommended P (P26) in un-amended plots resulted in a negative P balance of 9·3 kg P/ha/year. On the other hand, the application of BA alone and RHA along with P13 resulted in neutral/slightly positive P balance. A strong linear relationship (R2 = 0·98) was observed between P balance and Olsen-P build up in the soil. It may be concluded that application of BA and RHA has the potential to increase system productivity and reduce the cost of inputs in terms of reduced application of fertilizer P to wheat and rice.
The design and measurement of reconfigurable circularly polarized capacitive fed microstrip antenna are presented. Small isosceles right angle triangular sections are removed from diagonally opposite corners for the generation of circular polarization (CP) of axial ratio bandwidth of 11.1%. Horizontal slits of different lengths are inserted at the edges of the truncated patch to provide the dual-band CP and by switching PIN diodes across the slits ON and OFF, reconfigurable circularly polarized antenna is realized. The antenna shows dual-band behavior with reconfigurable CP. In order to enhance the operation bandwidth of the antenna, an inclined slot was embedded on the patch along with PIN diodes across the horizontal slits. This proposed antenna gave an impedance bandwidth of 66.61% (ON state) ranging from 4.42 to 8.80 GHz and 68.42% (OFF state) ranging from 4.12 to 8.91 GHz and exhibits dual-frequency CP with PIN diode in OFF state and single-frequency CP with PIN diode in ON state with good axial ratio bandwidth. The axial ratio bandwidth of 4.42, 2.35, and 2.72% is obtained from the antenna. The antenna has a similar radiation pattern in all the three different CP bands and almost constant gain within the bands of CP operation.
We performed first-principles study of electronic properties of FeCrxSe (x=0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04) alloys using the Green’s function-based Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Atomic Sphere Approximation method within the coherent potential approximation (KKR-ASA-CPA). The KKR-ASA-CPA method is implemented with density function theory (DFT). We find that the excess of Cr into FeSe significantly affects the electronic structure with respect to the parent FeSe. The results have been analyzed in terms of changes in the density of states (DOS), partial DOS, band structures, Fermi surface, bare Sommerfeld constant and the superconducting transition temperature of FeCr0.01Se, FeCr0.02Se and FeCr0.04Se alloys respectively. Our calculations show that calculated Tc for these alloys are close to experimental values, given the nature of approximations used in our calculations.
Electrochemical performance of hybrid supercapacitor (HSC) utilizing surface sculpted Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) insertion electrode having nanoplatelet-like morphology and activated carbon (AC) electrode is investigated for energy storage application. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) at variable scan rates 0.5 to 60 mV.s-1 in the 0-3.2 V range show pseusocapacitive behavior and fast rate of current change indicating rapid Faradaic kinetics. Nyquist impedance study show charge transfer resistance due to kinetic effects of electron transfer and Li+ de-intercalation process at the LTO anode. Low capacity (0.2 C-1C) charge-discharge (CD) curves show high Coulomb efficiency with marginal reduction at high 5-10 C rates due to irreversibility of adsorbed PF6 anions at the electrolyte-AC interface. Galvanostatic CD cycling tests over 50 cycles at different C-rates show decline in storage capacity due to electrode polarization effects. Reduction, broadening and shift of the Raman line at 678 cm-1 from Ti-O bonds in TiO6 octahedra after cycling indicates Li insertion reactions in functioning of hybrid supercapacitor. The hybrid supercapacitor cells have shown energy density, 29 Wh.kg-1 and power density, 350 W.kg-1.
This paper elaborates the effect of unmatched stored energy in high-voltage high-energy pulsed power systems. High-voltage insulation failure of KALI system is analyzed thoroughly for its occurrence. According to the simulations and analysis energy mismatch of MARX generator and Blumlein transmission line is found to be the most significant cause for high-voltage failure of the system. MARX generator and Blumlein of KALI are redesigned to attain better energy balance at same voltage level. Observations, simulation and analytical results are illustrated in the following sections.
The aim of the present research was to study the prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency in patients with diabetic foot infection. Patients were enrolled in two groups: diabetic patients with foot infection (n 125) as cases and diabetic patients without the infection as controls (n 164). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by RIA. Data were presented as means and standard deviations unless otherwise indicated and were analysed by SPSS. Results revealed that 25(OH)D (nmol/l) was significantly lower (40·25 (sd 38·35) v. 50·75 (sd 33·00); P < 0·001) in cases than in controls. Vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D < 75 nmol/l) was equally common in cases and controls (OR 1·45, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·0; P = 0·32), but cases had a greater risk of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l) than controls (OR 1·8, 95 % CI 1·1, 3·0; P = 0·02). Risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/l) was significantly higher in cases than in controls (OR 4·0, 95 % CI 2·4, 6·9; P < 0·0001). Age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c were significantly higher in cases than in controls and therefore adjusted to nullify the effect of these variables, if any, on study outcome. The study concluded that vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent and severe in patients with diabetic foot infection. This study opens up the issue of recognising severe vitamin D deficiency ( < 25 nmol/l) as a possible risk factor for diabetic foot infections and the need for vitamin D supplementation in such patients for a better clinical outcome. This could be substantiated by similar data from future studies.
Allergic rhinitis is associated with excess specific immunoglobulin E. Inner ear involvement (via both cellular and humoral immunity) is poorly understood, but appears to arise from the endolymphatic sac and duct.
To assess the otological and audiological status of patients with allergic rhinitis.
Thirty allergic rhinitis patients (14 men, 16 women; age 17–45 years, mean 31 years) and 20 controls (12 men, eight women; age 21–42 years, mean 27 years) underwent audiological investigation.
All study group patients had sensorineural (rather than conductive) hearing loss, worse at high frequencies. All had abnormal transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and 27 had abnormal distortion product otoacoustic emissions. All had a statistically significantly prolonged wave I latency, and shortened absolute wave I–III and I–V interpeak latencies, compared with controls.
Allergic rhinitis patients had a higher prevalence of hearing loss and otoacoustic emission abnormalities than controls. The endolymphatic sac can process antigens and produce its own local antibody response; the resulting inflammatory mediators and toxic products may interfere with hair cell function. Additional research is needed to determine the clinical value of audiometry and otoacoustic emission testing in allergic rhinitis.
Three patients with heart failure after chronic right ventricular apical pacing were treated with resynchronization. Biventricular pacing was used for two patients, and the other was treated with left univentricular pacing. In all patients, we observed a dramatic improvement of left ventricular dimension, function, and clinical state. We conclude that biventricular or left ventricular pacing is superior to right ventricular apical pacing in children who are pacemaker-dependent.
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