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Hydrogen incorporation is studied in two Microwave Plasma CVD nanocrystalline diamond films deposited with prolongated BIAS or not during the growth step. The hydrogen content and bonding forms are analysed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Raman and Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy. Our results show a high hydrogen concentration up to 3.1021 cm-1, as expected in nanocrystalline diamond, and in good agreement with the sp2 phase rate measured by Raman spectroscopy . The FTIR spectra exhibit two sharp peaks at 2850 and 2920 cm-1 and show that a fraction of hydrogen is bonded to sp3 CH2 groups. Hydrogen desorption experiments are performed to analyse the local structure modification of the diamond films.
With respect to Silicon-on-Diamond approaches as an alternative to SOI where diamond is used as the buried dielectric, we have in recent works demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approaches where the CVD diamond layer is grown on silicon using Bias Enhanced Nucleation (BEN) over large area substrates, then smoothed and assembled to successfully enable the fabrication of first prototypes of silicon-on-diamond substrates. The key novelty to those SOD substrates were that only a very thin box dielectric diamond layer is used (typically from 150 to 500nm thick), as required by the current SOI technology. However we had also observed that the silicon-diamond interface quality to be sensitive to the nature of the nucleation interface. Thus the current contribution here studies the chemical nature of various capping materials used to solve the issue of electrical defects in case of direct silicon-diamond interface and at the same time to enable the whole system to benefit from the high thermal conductivity of diamond when compared to other standard electrical insulating materials.
The chemical stability of three heterosubstrates (Si, 3C-SiC and iridium) has been studied using the same MPCVD reactor during the successive steps of BEN process. An in situ sequential approach allows a monitoring of the chemical modifications induced by interactions between plasma and surfaces. Contrary to silicon, 3C-SiC and iridium underwent weak surface evolutions during BEN. This leads to favourable conditions for the interface formation in agreement with the better Highly Oriented Diamond films reported in the literature. A short description of the nucleation pathways identified for each heterosubstrate is also presented.
Diamond is the ultimate candidate for heat-spreading applications because of its extreme thermal management properties. The synthesis of sub-micron diamond films is of great interest for SOD (Silicon On Diamond) wafer technology as well as for specific thermal device applications. The challenge here is the necessity to fabricate ultra-thin layers (down to 100 nm) that are continuous and homogeneous. We studied the Bias Enhanced Nucleation (BEN) pretreatment on microwave plasma reactors in order to have very high nucleation densities (> to 1011 cm−2) and optimised the following growth step of the process to obtain sub-micron covering diamond films. In this study, we focus on the bias step parameters to increase the nucleation rate and to limit the growth rate during the bias step. Then, we performed a growth step to control the morphology of the films. We obtained diamond films with thickness lower than 80 nm and with a 6 nm Root-Mean-Square roughness.
The methane effects on nucleation and growth of diamond during bias enhanced nucleation treatment have been studied on 3C-SiC (100) surfaces. At low methane concentration of 1%, no diamond nucleation was observed, whether at 3 %, nucleation density values as high as 4×1010/cm2 were reached. A further increase of the methane concentration up to 5% induces a significant enhancement of the diamond nucleation density that was observed only slightly higher at 7×1010/cm2. Moreover, the Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM) pictures well emphasized that the methane content affects both the nucleation and growth mechanisms.
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