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The looking-while-listening (LWL) paradigm is frequently used to measure toddlers’ lexical processing efficiency (LPE). Children's LPE is associated with vocabulary size, yet other linguistic, cognitive, or social skills contributing to LPE are not well understood. It also remains unclear whether LPE measures from two types of LWL trials (target-initial versus distractor-initial trials) are differentially associated with the abovementioned potential correlates of LPE. We tested 18- to 24-month-olds and found that children's word learning on a fast-mapping task was associated with LPE measures from all trials and distractor-initial trials but not target-initial trials. Children's vocabulary and pragmatic skills were both associated with their fast-mapping performance. Executive functions and pragmatic skills were associated with LPE measures from distractor-initial but not target-initial trials. Hence, LPE as measured by the LWL paradigm may reflect a constellation of skills important to language development. Methodological implications for future studies using the LWL paradigm are discussed.
Osiurak and Reynaud argue that children are not a good methodological choice to examine cumulative technological culture (CTC). However, the paper ignores other current work that suggests that young children do display some aspects of creative problem-solving. We argue that using multiple methodologies and examining how technical-reasoning develops in children will provide crucial support for a cognitive approach to CTC.
In this introductory chapter, we outline three broad questions of interest to researchers and educators, each of which provides a clear thread throughout the volume. First, where do questions come from, and how do children engage in questioning across development? Second, to what extent is questioning universal, and in what ways is it socialized? Third, what role does question-asking play in learning more broadly, in both formal and informal environments?
In this volume, we have brought together leading researchers in psychology and education with the goal of generating an overview of key issues pertaining to the role of questioning in development, to assess where the field stands in terms of investigating these issues, and to chart a path forward for this research in the coming years. In our introduction, we outlined three broad questions of interest to researchers and educators: (1) Where do questions come from, and how do children engage in questioning across development? (2) To what extent is questioning universal, and in what ways is it socialized? (3) What role does question-asking play in learning more broadly, in both formal and informal environments? In this concluding chapter we revisit these three key questions, weaving together the contributors’ insights before laying out a roadmap to highlight promising avenues of focus for future researchers in the field.
Questioning others is one of the most powerful methods that children use to learn about the world. How does questioning develop? How is it socialized? And how can questioning be leveraged to support learning and education? In this volume, some of the world's leading experts are brought together to explore critical issues in the development of questioning. By collecting interdisciplinary and international perspectives from psychology and education, The Questioning Child presents research from a variety of distinct methodological and theoretical backgrounds. It synthesizes current knowledge on the role of question-asking in cognitive development and charts a path forward for researchers and educators to understand the pivotal function that questioning plays in child development and education.
The early developing capacity of human learners to seek out reliable informants, initiate pedagogical episodes, and monitor and redirect ongoing instruction is critical to understanding humans' remarkable capacity for cumulative culture.
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