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As nurse practitioners and physician assistants (APPs) become more prevalent in delivering pediatric care, their involvement in antimicrobial stewardship efforts increases in importance. This project aimed to create and assess the efficacy of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching APPs antimicrobial stewardship principles.
A PBL education initiative was developed after communication with local APP leadership and focus group feedback. It was offered to all APPs associated with Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago. Participants completed a survey which assessed opinions on antimicrobial stewardship and included knowledge-based questions focused on antimicrobial stewardship. Prescriptions for skin and soft tissue infections associated with APPs were recorded via chart review before and after the education campaign.
Eighty APPs participated in the initial survey and teaching initiative with 44 filling out the 2-week follow-up and 29 filling out the 6-month follow-up. Subjective opinions of antimicrobial stewardship and comfort with basic principles of AS increased from pre-intervention. Correct responses to knowledge-based assessments increased from baseline after 2-week follow-up (p < 0.01) and were maintained at the 6-month follow-up (p = 0.03). Simple skin and soft tissue infection prescriptions for clindamycin went from 44.4% pre-intervention to 26.5% (p = 0.2) post-intervention.
A PBL approach for APP education on antimicrobial stewardship can be effective in increasing knowledge and comfort with principles of antimicrobial stewardship. These changes are maintained in long-term follow-up. Changes in prescribing habits showed a strong trend towards recommended empiric therapy choice. Institutions should develop similar education campaigns for APPs.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
Traditional antibiograms can guide empiric antibiotic therapy, but they may miss differences in resistance across patient subpopulations. In this retrospective descriptive study, we constructed and validated antibiograms using International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes and other discrete data elements to define a cohort of previously healthy children with urinary tract infections. Our results demonstrate increased antibiotic susceptibility. This methodology may be modified to create other syndrome-specific antibiograms.
Transitioning from administration of monthly palivizumab to a single dose at discharge was associated with substantial pharmacy cost savings. With the concurrent adoption of private hospital rooms and visitor restriction policies, hospital-wide and neonatal intensive care unit healthcare-associated respiratory syncytial virus infections decreased following these changes.
The molecular epidemiology of pediatric Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) groups causing CDI and to determine risk factors and outcomes associated with CDI caused by epidemic strains in children.
Retrospective cohort study
Inpatients and outpatients >1 year old receiving care between December 2012 and December 2013
An academic children’s hospital in Chicago, Illinois
C. difficile PCR-positive stools were cultured, and C. difficile isolates were typed by REA. REA of isolates from patients with multiple CDIs was performed to differentiate relapse (infection with same strain) from reinfection (different strains) irrespective of time between CDIs.
A total of 189 CDIs occurred among 145 patients. REA groups were widely distributed. The BI/NAP1/027 strain caused CDI in only 1 patient. DH/NAP11/106, the predominant epidemic strain identified, was associated with the use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins (risk ratio [RR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–9.9; P=.04). CDI relapse commonly occurred up to 20 weeks later. Compared with CDI caused by non-DH/NAP11/106 strains, CDI caused by DH/NAP11/106 was more likely to result in multiple CDI relapses (40% vs 8%; P=.05) among children with multiple CDIs.
REA identified the exceedingly low prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 and the high prevalence of DH/NAP11/106, a common epidemic strain in the United Kingdom that is less often reported in the United States. CDI relapse commonly occurred up to 20 weeks from the previous CDI. Defining recurrent CDI as that occurring only within 8 weeks of the original infection may lead to misclassification of some recurrent CDIs as new CDIs in children.
To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB).
A knowledge, attitude, and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians' knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting AST results, and beliefs regarding the impact of AST on patient outcomes.
Sixteen ICUs affiliated with NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital.
Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs as well as infectious diseases subspecialists and clinical pharmacists.
Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized estimating equation logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU.
The response rate was 51% (178 of 349 eligible participants); of the respondents, 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and were more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but more than 95% believed that AST improved patient outcomes. After adjustment for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident that they could interpret AST results and/or request additional in vitro testing.
Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge, and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting the results.
The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of infection or colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in hospitalized children utilizing an electronic health record.
Tertiary care facility.
Pediatric patients 18 years of age or younger hospitalized from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2008.
Children were identified who had (1) at least 1 positive culture for a multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB, defined as a GNB with resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes; or (2) additive drug resistance, defined as isolation of more than 1 GNB that collectively as a group demonstrated resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes over the study period. Differences in clinical characteristics between the 2 groups were ascertained, including history of admissions and transfers, comorbid conditions, receipt of procedures, and antibiotic exposure.
Of 56,235 pediatric patients, 46 children were infected or colonized with an MDR GNB, of which 16 were resistant to 3 classes and 30 were resistant to 4 classes. Another 39 patients had positive cultures for GNB that exhibited additive drug resistance. Patients with additive drug resistance were more likely than patients with MDR GNB to have had previous admissions to a long-term facility (8 vs 2; P = .04) and had more mean admissions (7 vs 3; P <.01) and more mean antibiotic-days (P < .01 to P = .02). Six patients with additive drug resistance later had a positive culture with an MDR GNB.
An electronic health record can be used to track antibiotic class resistance in GNB isolated from hospitalized children over multiple cultures and hospitalizations.