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Red and near-infrared photons of longer wave lengths are poorly absorbed in thin film silicon cells and advanced light trapping methods are necessary. The physical mechanisms underlying the light trapping using periodic back reflectors are strong light diffraction, coupled with plasmonic light concentration. These are contrasted with the scattering mechanisms in randomly textured back reflectors. We describe a class of conformal solar cells with nanocone back reflectors with absorption at the Lambertian 4n2 limit, averaged over the “entire” wave length range for hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin-film solar cells. The absorption is theoretically found for 1-μm nc-Si:H cells, and is further enhanced for off-normal incidence. Predicted currents exceed 31 mA/cm2. Nc-Si:H solar cells with the same device architecture were conformally grown on periodic substrates and compared with randomly textured substrates. The periodic back reflector solar cells with nanopillars demonstrated higher quantum efficiency and photocurrents that were 1 mA/cm2 higher than those for the randomly textured back reflectors.
Long wavelength photons in the red and near infrared region of the spectrum are poorly absorbed in thin film silicon cells, due to their long absorption lengths. Advanced light trapping methods are necessary to harvest these photons. The basic physical mechanisms underlying the enhanced light trapping in thin film solar cells using periodic back reflectors include strong diffraction coupled with light concentration. These will be contrasted with the scattering mechanisms involved in randomly textured back reflectors, which are commonly used for light trapping. A special class of conformal solar cells with plasmonic nano-pillar back reflectors will be described, that generates absorption beyond the classical 4n2 limit (the Lambertian limit) averaged over the entire wavelength range for nc-Si:H. The absorption beyond the classical limit exists for common 1 micron thick nc-Si:H cells, and is further enhanced for non-normal light. Predicted currents exceed 31 mA/cm2 for nc-Si:H. The nano-pillars are tapered into conical protrusions that enhance plasmonic effects. Such conformal nc-Si:H solar cells with the same device architecture were grown on periodic nano-hole, periodic nano-pillar substrates and compared with randomly textured substrates, formed by annealing Ag/ZnO or etched Ag/ZnO. The periodic back reflector solar cells with nano-pillars demonstrated higher quantum efficiency and higher photo-currents that were 1 mA/cm2higher than those for the randomly textured back reflectors. Losses within the experimental solar architectures are discussed.
Light trapping is essential to harvest long wavelength red and near-infrared photons in thin film silicon solar cells. Traditionally light trapping has been achieved with a randomly roughened Ag/ZnO back reflector, which scatters incoming light uniformly through all angles, and enhances currents and cell efficiencies over a flat back reflector. A new approach using periodically textured photonic-plasmonic arrays has been recently shown to be very promising for harvesting long wavelength photons, through diffraction of light and plasmonic light concentration. Here we investigate the combination of these two approaches of random scattering and plasmonic effects to increase cell performance even further. An array of periodic conical back reflectors was fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and coated with Ag. These back reflectors were systematically annealed to generate different amounts of random texture, at smaller spatial scales, superimposed on a larger scale periodic texture. nc-Si solar cells were grown on flat, periodic photonic-plasmonic substrates, and randomly roughened photonic-plasmonic substrates. There were large improvements (>20%) in the current and light absorption of the photonic-plasmonic substrates relative to flat. The additional random features introduced on the photonic-plasmonic substrates did not improve the current and light absorption further, over a large range of randomization features.
Here, we report fabrication of an organic field effect transistor that can be used as a memory device. We have evaluated inorganic ferroelectric insulator manganese doped barium titanate(BTO), organic poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE), and their composite. The inorganic and organic ferroelectrics were fabricated using low cost process of spin coating followed by annealing to enhance crystallinity. The ferroelectric phase evolution is assessed by X-ray diffraction, MIM structure is used to study polarization behaviour and leakage current. Finally, OFETs are fabricated using thermal evaporation of 75 nm of pentacene. Gold electrodes of 70 nm were evaporated for the top contact devices keeping W/L=40. The OFET devices, for BTO/P(VDF-TrFE) composite insulator, showed memory effect with shift in threshold voltage of 8.5 ± 1.5V.
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