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People with neuropsychiatric symptoms often experience delay in accurate diagnosis. Although cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light (CSF NfL) shows promise in distinguishing neurodegenerative disorders (ND) from psychiatric disorders (PSY), its accuracy in a diagnostically challenging cohort longitudinally is unknown.
We collected longitudinal diagnostic information (mean = 36 months) from patients assessed at a neuropsychiatry service, categorising diagnoses as ND/mild cognitive impairment/other neurological disorders (ND/MCI/other) and PSY. We pre-specified NfL > 582 pg/mL as indicative of ND/MCI/other.
Diagnostic category changed from initial to final diagnosis for 23% (49/212) of patients. NfL predicted the final diagnostic category for 92% (22/24) of these and predicted final diagnostic category overall (ND/MCI/other vs. PSY) in 88% (187/212), compared to 77% (163/212) with clinical assessment alone.
CSF NfL improved diagnostic accuracy, with potential to have led to earlier, accurate diagnosis in a real-world setting using a pre-specified cut-off, adding weight to translation of NfL into clinical practice.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Multiple induction agents can facilitate rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in management of refractory status epilepticus (rSE), many which have anti-seizure properties. We examine the anti-seizure efficacy and safety of induction agents used during RSI in the management of rSE. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of patients admitted to the neuro-ICU intubated for management of rSE. Propofol, ketamine and benzodiazepines were considered anti-seizure medication (ASMs), etomidate was not. Patients were treated with propofol or midazolam following intubation. Our primary outcome was clinical or electrographic recurrence of SE within 12 hours of intubation. Exploratory outcomes included time to recover command following, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and complications related to intubation. We used multivariable logistical regression to evaluate outcomes between patients induced with ASMs and etomidate. A Fisher exact test was used to compare rSE cessation in a subset of patients with continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) at the time of intubation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 149 induced for RSI in management of rSE: 88 patients intubated using ASMs (propofol,n=56; ketamine,n=14; benzodiazepines,n=18) and 61 patients intubated with etomidate. Forty-one patients had recurrence (29.9% ASMS, 24.6% etomidate). The induction agent was not associated with recurrence of SE, time to command following, or duration of MV. Twenty-seven patients had cEEG monitoring at the time of intubation. Sixteen of the 22 patients induced with ASMs had cessation of rSE with induction, while 1 of 5 intubated with etomidate had cessation (Fisher exact test, p=0.047). There were 34 patients with post-induction hypotension (22.9% ASMs, 22.9% etomidate (Fisher exact test, p=1)). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Induction with an anti-seizure medication during intubation was more likely to halt rSE, but did not decrease the likelihood of clinical or electrographic recurrence of rSE and may not affect time to recovery of command following or duration of MV.
Vascular dementia (VD) is one of the more common types of dementia. Much is known about VD in older adults in terms of survival and associated risk factors, but comparatively less is known about VD in a younger population. This study aimed to investigate survival in people with young-onset VD (YO-VD) compared to those with late-onset VD (LO-VD) and to investigate predictors of mortality.
Retrospective file review from 1992 to 2014.
The inpatient unit of a tertiary neuropsychiatry service in Victoria, Australia.
Inpatients with a diagnosis of VD.
Measurements and methods:
Mortality information was obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Clinical variables included age of onset, sex, vascular risk factors, structural neuroimaging, and Hachinksi scores. Statistical analyses used were Kaplan–Meier curves for median survival and Cox regression for predictors of mortality.
Eighty-four participants were included with few clinical differences between the LO-VD and YO-VD groups. Sixty-eight (81%) had died. Median survival was 9.9 years (95% confidence interval 7.9, 11.7), with those with LO-VD having significantly shorter survival compared to those with YO-VD (6.1 years and 12.8 years, respectively) and proportionally more with LO-VD had died (94.6%) compared to those with YO-VD (67.5%), χ2(1) = 9.16, p = 0.002. The only significant predictor of mortality was increasing age (p = 0.001).
While there were few clinical differences, and older age was the only factor associated with survival, further research into the effects of managing cardiovascular risk factors and their impact on survival are recommended.
Carer burden is common in younger-onset dementia (YOD), often due to the difficulty of navigating services often designed for older people with dementia. Compared to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the burden is reported to be higher in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, there is little literature comparing carer burden specifically in YOD. This study hypothesized that carer burden in bvFTD would be higher than in AD.
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
Tertiary neuropsychiatry service in Victoria, Australia.
Patient-carer dyads with YOD.
We collected patient data, including behaviors using the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory-Revised (CBI-R). Carer burden was rated using the Zarit Burden Inventory-short version (ZBI-12). Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data.
Carers reported high burden (ZBI-12 mean score = 17.2, SD = 10.5), with no significant difference in burden between younger-onset AD and bvFTD. CBI-R stereotypic and motor behaviors, CBI-R everyday skills, and total NUCOG scores differed between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the rest of the CBI-R subcategories, including the behavior-related domains.
Carers of YOD face high burden and are managing significant challenging behaviors. We found no difference in carer burden between younger-onset AD and bvFTD. This could be due to similarities in the two subtypes in terms of abnormal behavior, motivation, and self-care as measured on CBI-R, contrary to previous literature. Clinicians should screen for carer burden and associated factors including behavioral symptoms in YOD syndromes, as they may contribute to carer burden regardless of the type.
The present study examined high-risk personality traits and associations with psychopathology across multiple levels of a hierarchical-dimensional model of psychopathology in a large adolescent, general population sample. Confirmatory factor analyses were run using data from two randomized controlled trials of Australian adolescents (N = 8,654, mean age = 13.01 years, 52% female). A higher-order model – comprised of general psychopathology, fear, distress, alcohol use/harms, and conduct/inattention dimensions – was selected based on model fit, reliability, and replicability. Indirect-effects models were estimated to examine the unique associations between high-risk personality traits (anxiety sensitivity, negative thinking, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) and general and specific dimensions and symptoms of psychopathology. All personality traits were positively associated with general psychopathology. After accounting for general psychopathology, anxiety sensitivity was positively associated with fear; negative thinking was positively associated with distress; impulsivity was positively associated with conduct/inattention; and sensation seeking was positively associated with alcohol use/harms and conduct/inattention, and negatively associated with fear. Several significant associations between personality traits and individual symptoms remained after accounting for general and specific psychopathology. These findings contribute to our understanding of the underlying structure of psychopathology among adolescents and have implications for the development of personality-based prevention and early intervention programs.
I begin with an unsigned print designed to be pasted into a manuscript album or scrapbook as the frontispiece which greeted readers and prospective contributors (fig. 23.1; Ackermann [1830–58]). A group of young women and girls offer their blank albums, beseeching the viewer to contribute. The image asserts the album’s interactive, social character: this is not a commonplace book, with content selected by the owner, but a communal work. It also defines album-keeping as a feminine practice and hints at an analogical relation between book and owner; the blank faces echo blank pages, and the tableau performs the owner’s verbal request as she proffers her book. Yet this simple message is complicated by the proscenium arch of visual scraps on comic and sentimental subjects. Ostensibly, this assists contributors by giving examples of content they might contribute. However, the Romantic album was primarily a vehicle for amateur arts, handicrafts, and cuttings from magazines and prints. This commercial lithograph functions also as an advertisement for the prints and scraps – and albums and scrapbooks – sold at Ackermann & Co’s London shop, the Repository of Arts at 96 Strand. It posits that the contributor who lacks the time, interest or talent to create a bespoke artwork can purchase an attractive printed alternative. The frontispiece represents the album as operating simultaneously in a gift economy and the marketplace, but supposes an inevitable progression from handmaking to purchasing mass-produced prints. The conflation of charitable giving with economic transactions, and ambivalence about album culture, are symbolised by a disconcerting figure in the foreground: a beggar-boy with peg leg and bandaged head waves his crutch to solicit our attention and extends his hat for donations. This visual pun announces that the girls are engaged in metaphorical beggary, while the unruly urchin satirises the young women at whom the frontispiece is marketed. The earnest album-keepers cannot see the pictures which subvert sentimental clichés of album iconography through broad jokes on courtship and marriage drawn from the tradition of caricature prints. The disruptive beggar-boy is both confirmatory symbol of the girls’ desire and satirical comment on the dubious value of what they want.
More than 80% of antibiotics are prescribed in the outpatient setting, of which 30% are inappropriate. The National Action Plan for Combating Antimicrobial Resistance called for a 50% decrease in outpatient antibiotic use by 2020. Inappropriate antibiotics are associated with adverse reactions and Clostridioides difficile infection, especially among older adults.
Before and after study.
We performed a quality improvement initiative at the University of Colorado Seniors Clinic. Providers received education on antibiotic guidelines, electronic antibiotic order sets were introduced with standardized stop dates. Antibiotic use data were collected for 6 months before and 6 months after the intervention, from December to May to avoid seasonal variation. Descriptive statistics and linear mixed-effects regression models were used for this comparison.
Total antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory conditions decreased from 137 prescriptions before the intervention (December 1, 2017, to May 31, 2018) to 112 prescriptions after the intervention (December 1, 2018, to May 31, 2019), driven primarily by decreases in antibiotic prescriptions for pneumonia, sinusitis, and bronchitis. Prescriptions for broad-spectrum antibiotics declined following the intervention including decreases in levofloxacin from 12 (9%) to 3 (3%) and amoxicillin-clavulanate from 15 (12%) to 7 (7%). We detected significant reductions in prescribed antibiotic durations (days) after the intervention for sinusitis (estimate, −2.0; 95% CI, −3.1 to −1.0; P = .0003), pharyngitis (estimate, −2.5; 95% CI, −4.6 to −0.5; P = .018), and otitis (−3.2; 95% CI, −5.2 to −1.3; P = .008).
Low-cost interventions were initially successful in changing patterns of antibiotic use and decreasing overall antibiotic prescribing among older patients in the outpatient setting. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to determine the sustainability and clinical impact of these interventions.
To examine awareness and recall of healthy eating public education campaigns in five countries.
Data were cross-sectional and collected as part of the 2018 International Food Policy Study. Respondents were asked whether they had seen government healthy eating campaigns in the past year; if yes (awareness), they were asked to describe the campaign. Open-ended descriptions were coded to indicate recall of specific campaigns. Logistic models regressed awareness of healthy eating campaigns on participant country, age, sex, ethnicity, education, income adequacy and BMI. Analyses were also stratified by country.
Participants were Nielsen panelists aged ≥18 years in Australia, Canada, Mexico, UK and the USA (n 22 463).
Odds of campaign awareness were higher in Mexico (50·9 %) than UK (18·2 %), Australia (17·9 %), the USA (13·0 %) and Canada (10·2 %) (P < 0·001). Awareness was also higher in UK and Australia v. Canada and the USA, and the USA v. Canada (P < 0·001). Overall, awareness was higher among males v. females and respondents with medium or high v. low education (P < 0·001 for all). Similar results were found in stratified models, although no sex difference was observed in Australia or UK (P > 0·05), and age was associated with campaign awareness in UK (P < 0·001). Common keywords in all countries included sugar/sugary drinks, fruits and vegetables, and physical activity. The top five campaigns recalled were Chécate, mídete, muévete (Mexico), PrevenIMSS (Mexico), Change4Life (UK), LiveLighter® (Australia), and Actívate, Vive Mejor (Mexico).
In Mexico, UK and Australia, comprehensive campaigns to promote healthy lifestyles appear to have achieved broad, population-level reach.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes.
A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up.
Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09–2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up).
Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Lung transplant (LTx) candidates benefit from use of non-ideal donor organs. Each organ procurement organization (OPO) defines “acceptable” donor organs introducing unmeasured variation in donor pursuit. We characterized non-ideal donor pursuit among OPOs to identify drivers of risk aversion in LTx. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We queried the UNOS registry for adult donors who donated ≥1 organ for transplantation from 12/2007-12/2018. Non-ideal donors were those with any of age>50, smoking history ≥20 pack-years, PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio<350, donation after cardiac death (DCD) status, or CDC increased risk (IRD) status. Non-ideal donor pursuit rate was defined as the proportion of non-ideal donors at each OPO from whom consent for lung donation was requested with lower numbers indicating increased risk aversion. We estimated the correlation between non-ideal and overall donor pursuit using a Spearman correlation coefficient. Adjusted non-ideal donor pursuit rates were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, 18,333 deceased donors were included and classified as ideal or non-ideal. Among 58 OPOs, rates of non-ideal donor pursuit ranged from 0.24-1.00 Figure). Of 5 non-ideal characteristics, DCD and IRD status were associated with the most and least risk aversion, respectively. Non-ideal donor pursuit was strongly correlated with overall donor pursuit (r = 0.99). On adjusted analysis, older age (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.13-0.16), smoking history (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.34-0.44), low P/F ratio (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.11-0.14), and DCD status (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.03-0.04) were all independently associated with significant risk aversion, corresponding to decreased rates of donor pursuit. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: OPOs differ in their levels of risk aversion in LTx and risk aversion is not uniform across selected categories of non-ideal lung donor. Consideration of new OPO performance metrics that encourage the pursuit of non-ideal lung donors is warranted.
There is a growing body of evidence highlighting the presence of a single general dimension of psychopathology that can account for multiple associations across mental and substance use disorders. However, relatively little evidence has emerged regarding the validity of this model with respect to a range of factors that have been previously implicated across multiple disorders. The current study utilized a cross-sectional population survey of adolescents (n = 2,003) to examine the extent to which broad psychopathology factors account for specific associations between psychopathology and key validators: poor sleep, self-harm, suicidality, risky sexual behavior, and low self-esteem. Confirmatory factor models, latent class models, and factor mixture models were estimated to identify the best structure of psychopathology. Structural equation models were then estimated to examine the broad and specific associations between each psychopathology indicator and the validators. A confirmatory factor model with three lower-order factors, representing internalizing, externalizing, and psychotic-like experiences, and a single higher-order factor evidenced the best fit. The associations between manifest indicators of psychopathology and validators were largely nonspecific. However, significant and large direct effects were found between several pairwise associations. These findings have implications for the identification of potential targets for intervention and/or tailoring of prevention programs.
Special educator attrition is a major problem in the United States (US) and in many countries worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the experiences of 5 highly successful special education teachers serving students with autism spectrum disorder in the central Florida area of the US with particular attention to factors associated with teacher retention. A phenomenological research design was employed to identify factors leading participants to persevere where others have not. A representative sample was included of multiple teachers in classrooms of varying grade levels and school districts across central Florida as part of a funded project by the Office of Special Education Services and the U.S. Department of Education. Findings include that teachers of students with ASD who are involved in extracurricular activities may show a lowered burnout rate.
The paper analyses the policy process which enabled the successful adoption of Australia's National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan 2013–2023 (NATSIHP), which is grounded in an understanding of the Social Determinants of Indigenous Health (SDIH). Ten interviews were conducted with key policy actors directly involved in its development. The theories we used to analyse qualitative data were the Advocacy Coalition Framework, the Multiple Streams Approach, policy framing and critical constructionism. We used a complementary approach to policy analysis. The NATSIHP acknowledges the importance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter, Aboriginal) culture and the health effects of racism, and explicitly adopts a human-rights-based approach. This was enabled by a coalition campaigning to ‘Close the Gap’ (CTG) in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The CTG campaign, and key Aboriginal health networks associated with it, operated as an effective advocacy coalition, and policy entrepreneurs emerged to lead the policy agenda. Thus, Aboriginal health networks were able to successfully contest conventional problem conceptions and policy framings offered by government policy actors and drive a paradigm shift for Aboriginal health to place SDIH at the centre of the NATSIHP policy. Implications of this research for policy theory and for other policy environments are considered along with suggestions for future research.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create a searchable public registry of all Quality Improvement (QI) projects. To incentivize the medical professionals at UF Health to initiate quality improvement projects by reducing startup burden and providing a path to publishing results. To reduce the review effort performed by the internal review board on projects that are quality improvement Versus research. To foster publication of completed quality improvement projects. To assist the UF Health Sebastian Ferrero Office of Clinical Quality & Patient Safety in managing quality improvement across the hospital system. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project used a variant of the spiral software development model and principles from the ADDIE instructional design process for the creation of a registry that is web based. To understand the current registration process and management of quality projects in the UF Health system a needs assessment was performed with the UF Health Sebastian Ferrero Office of Clinical Quality & Patient Safety to gather project requirements. Biweekly meetings were held between the Quality Improvement office and the Clinical and Translational Science – Informatics and Technology teams during the entire project. Our primary goal was to collect just enough information to answer the basic questions of who is doing which QI project, what department are they from, what are the most basic details about the type of project and who is involved. We also wanted to create incentive in the user group to try to find an existing project to join or to commit the details of their proposed new project to a data registry for others to find to reduce the amount of duplicate QI projects. We created a series of design templates for further customization and feature discovery. We then proceed with the development of the registry using a Python web development framework called Django, which is a technology that powers Pinterest and the Washington Post Web sites. The application is broken down into 2 main components (i) data input, where information is collected from clinical staff, Nurses, Pharmacists, Residents, and Doctors on what quality improvement projects they intend to complete and (ii) project registry, where completed or “registered” projects can be viewed and searched publicly. The registry consists of a quality investigator profile that lists contact information, expertise, and areas of interest. A dashboard allows for the creation and review of quality improvement projects. A search function enables certain quality project details to be publicly accessible to encourage collaboration. We developed the Registry Matching Algorithm which is based on the Jaccard similarity coefficient that uses quality project features to find similar quality projects. The algorithm allows for quality investigators to find existing or previous quality improvement projects to encourage collaboration and to reduce repeat projects. We also developed the QIPR Approver Algorithm that guides the investigator through a series of questions that allows an appropriate quality project to get approved to start without the need for human intervention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A product of this project is an open source software package that is freely available on GitHub for distribution to other health systems under the Apache 2.0 open source license. Adoption of the Quality Improvement Project Registry and promotion of it to the intended audience are important factors for the success of this registry. Thanks goes to the UW-Madison and their QI/Program Evaluation Self-Certification Tool (https://uwmadison.co1.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_3lVeNuKe8FhKc73) used as example and inspiration for this project. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This registry was created to help understand the impact of improved management of quality projects in a hospital system. The ultimate result will be to reduce time to approve quality improvement projects, increase collaboration across the UF Health Hospital system, reduce redundancy of quality improvement projects and translate more projects into publications.
This study examined seed ultrastructure in relation to germination of North American dandelion seeds. Based on laboratory rearing observations, it was thought that the design of the pappus acts as a conduit facilitating water entry into the seed. It was hypothesized that seeds without a pappus would yield fewer seedlings and require more time to germinate than seeds with an intact pappus. Seed ultrastructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, while relative humidity and fungal association were explored as factors that may confer an advantage to intact seeds. Results indicate that germination for seeds lacking a pappus is 31% lower than control seeds (with an intact pappus) and that the seeds lacking a pappus require more time to germinate. Relative humidity did not differentially affect germination, and while a fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides was recovered internally, its presence neither enhanced germination nor decreased time to germination when tested by antimycotic removal. Electron micrographs revealed that (1) the pappus is hollow and (2) the pericarp of the fruit fuses with and partially encloses the pappus. Fusion of the pappus with the fruit suggests that this structure acts as a device to regulate seed hydration.
Photogrammetry provides an accessible, cost-effective means of creating a
high-resolution, digital 3D record of archaeological artefacts. The
methodology has been widely adopted, but a number of issues remain,
especially in relation to model variability, and to misalignments that
result in gaps in the models generated. Two new approaches are presented
here that have been shown to increase standardisation during data capture
and processing routines. This ensures that models are seamless and