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GnRh agonists are drugs used in various gynecological pathologies, among which is endometriosis. They act by stimulating GnRh receptors in the pituitary gland. This sustained and continuous stimulation of GnRh, will initially generate an increase in the release of luteinizing hormones and follicle-stimulating hormones, subsequently losing sensitivity to the receptors, internalizing them, and thus suppressing the release of these hormones, which would entail an ovarian suppression, thereby inhibiting the release of estrogens and progesterone. Psychiatric adverse effects have been described. Gonzalez-Rodriguez et al (Front Psychiatry 2020; 11:479), described this association with changes in mood, and the presence of a series of cases where the link between GnRh agonist and the possibility of presenting psychotic symptoms is observed. Wieck (Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2011;8:173-87), Frokjaer (J Neurosci Res 2020;98(7):1283-1292), Brzezinski-Sinai et al (Front Psychiatry 2020;11:693) reported that this association could be related with the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, hormonal fluctuation and its relationship with the dopaminergic regulation, a genetic component that would increase the predisposition to trigger psychiatric pathology in patients with greater sensitivity to hormonal fluctuations, and the loss of neuroprotection generated by the decrease of estrogens in the central nervous system. All of this in the context of multiple environmental and genetic factors that participate together in the appearance of the disease.
To describe the importance of detecting the risk factors that can precipitate a psychotic episode, including the use of certain drugs, such as GnRh agonists.
We describe a case of a 45 year old patient with endometriosis with multiple organ involvement who went to the emergency room due to behavioral changes in the context of a brief psychotic disorder with “ad-integrum” recovery.
A retrospective analysis of the case is conducted, observing an association between the introduction of GnRh agonists and the presentation of a first psychotic episode.
The importance of this case lies in the limited evidence of this association in the literature, and the implication of these drugs in the triggering of psychiatric pathology, being an aspect to be considered by psychiatrists in their patient’s follow-up.
Nanoporous organosilicate films have been recently prepared using tetraalkylammonium cations in acid and basic media, outperforming other materials. Resulting films using basic medium were called zeolite-inspired low-k dielectrics. Here we study the dependence of the properties of these films on the used silica sources: methyltrimethoxy silane (MTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). A set of experiments varying the MTMS:TEOS ratio were prepared in acid medium and characterized. A textural, physico-chemical, mechanical, and electrical characterization of this series of experiments is presented.
Spin-on pure-silica-zeolite MFI films consist of zeolite nanocrystals embedded in a compacted silica matrix of zeolite primary nanoparticles. They appear to be promising as a low-k material due to their good mechanical properties and high microporosity, parallel to their intrinsic low k-value. Results are promising but the implementation of this material is still far away. To contribute to the implementation we present a study on the final film properties depending on the zeolite MFI nanocrystal size. Different techniques are used for the characterization: Dynamic Light Scattering, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Nitrogen adsorption, EllipsoPorosimetry using toluene and NanoIndentation. The results show a clear dependence of the film properties on the nanocrystal size. Clearly, smaller nanocrystals provide better homogeneity, smaller pore size and higher mechanical properties. However, due to the hydrophilicity of the silica matrix lower k-values are only obtained for larger zeolite nanocrystals which provide with higher crystallinity in the films.
As conventional materials in CMOS manufacturing, Si as a gate material and SiO2 as a gate dielectric, approach their performance limit, the search for new materials becomes key point. Patterning of the new stacks containing these materials require both new plasma etch chemistries and new approaches.
We propose a BCl3/N2 based plasma mixture for the advanced gate patterning (in this case pure Ge gates and TaN metal gates). There are three reasons to select this combination:
a) The gas mixture generates Cl* species able to etch a diversity of materials, b) it is selective towards Si due to formation of passivating Si-B bonds and c) it improves profile control possibly by formation of a passivating BN-like film on feature side walls. It was found that BCl3 in presence of N2 results in a film deposition if no bias is applied to the substrate (i.e. there is no ion bombardment). The film is hexagonal BN-like since the characteristic peaks corresponding to the in-plane B-N and out-of-plane B-N-B bonds were found in FTIR spectra. The composition of the film surface as found by XPS is B, N and O (as no O2 is present in the plasma it may be a result of oxidation in the atmosphere), the amount of Cl is approx. 1%. The film is soluble in water that makes its removal easy. The deposition rate can be as high as 300 nm/min depending on plasma power, pressure, flow rates and BCl3 to N2 ratio.
We propose to use the BCl3/N2 mixture to etch materials too sensitive to Cl-based plasma. Pure BCl3 plasma might distort gate profiles, as materials are etched in a lateral direction as well, this is the case, e.g. for pure Ge gates. Addition of small amount of nitrogen (5% to 10%) to the BCl3 plasma preserves the vertical profile, apparently by the formation of a passivating BN-like layer on the vertical surfaces where there is no ion bombardment. Too high nitrogen concentration results in positively sloped gate profile or even in the etch stop that could be attributed to the too high deposition rate that exceeds the etch rate. All experiments have been performed in Lam Versys 2300 etch chamber.
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