Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which can largely be prevented by controlling avoidable lifestyle-related risk factors, are rapidly penetrating the entire world, including developing countries. The present study aimed to assess NCD lifestyle risk factors among the adult population in Bangladesh. The data used in the study were collected as part of a population-based cross-sectional survey covering rural and urban areas of Bangladesh conducted in 2015–16 (N=11,982 adults aged ≥35 years). The lifestyle factors considered were diet (daily fruit and vegetable consumption and extra salt intake with meals), sleeping patterns, smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, and physical activity. The study found that approximately 18.5% of participants had a non-daily consumption of fruit or vegetables, 46.6% used extra salt with their meals, 11.8% reported sleeping <7 hours daily, 25.7% smoked tobacco, 60.9% used smokeless tobacco and 69.7% were less physically active. The prevalence of improper lifestyle practices relevant to NCDs, such as an inadequate diet, poor sleeping pattern, tobacco consumption, and low physical activity, was significantly higher among older adults, women, the uneducated, the unemployed, urban dwellers, and people from rich households. The study found that NCD-related lifestyle characteristics were poorly compliant with standard guidelines among many adult populations in Bangladesh. The findings can inform preventative strategies to control the overwhelming NCD burden in Bangladesh, such as the promotion of physical exercise, healthy eating, and the cessation of the use of tobacco products.