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This study was conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle-related behaviour related to eating, activity and sleep pattern.
Indexed study used a mixed method design. Phase I employed qualitative methods for development of questionnaire including literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation and pre-testing. Phase II used quantitative methods for establishing construct validity of the questionnaire via parallel factor analysis.
Phase 1 involved participation of experts from different fields (Departments of Medicine, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology) and general adult population. For phase II, data were collected from 124 adult respondents (female = 57·26 %); mean age (36 ± 14·8 years) residing in an urban setting.
The questionnaire consisted of three sections: (A) socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, (B) twenty-four items each for investigating the changes in eating, activity and sleep behaviour before v. during COVID-19, (C) six items assessing COVID-19 specific reasons for lifestyle change. The Cronbach’s α value of the questionnaire is 0·83 suggesting its good internal consistency.
This appears to be a valid tool to assess the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle-related behaviours with potential utility for public health researchers to identify these changes at community level and develop strategies to reinforce corrective behaviours.
The prevalence of Bitot's spots (BS) is often used to quantify vitamin A deficiency burden in India, both before and after mega-dose vitamin A supplementation (MVAS) programmes. However, the proportion of BS cured following this intervention is unclear in contemporary times. The current study evaluated the responsiveness of BS over 1 year to MVAS administered as per the national programme in rural India.
Prospective, community-based, 1-year follow-up of a cohort.
Rural Uttar Pradesh, India.
Two hundred and sixty-two children with BS, aged between 1 and 5 years, administered 60 mg (retinol equivalent) of vitamin A on diagnosis and after 1 month. Cure or resolution was defined if there was no discernible BS in either eye.
During 1 year, only three children were lost to follow-up. At 6 months of follow-up (MVAS at baseline and 1 month later), 51·1 (95% CI 45·3, 57·3) % were classified as cured. The corresponding figure at 1 year (additional MVAS at 6 months) was 59·9 (95% CI 54·1, 65·9) %. Among those cured at 6 months, about half and three-quarters had resolved at 2 and 3 months, respectively. Apart from male gender, there were no significant sociodemographic or clinical predictors of response.
Substantial non-response to MVAS at 6 months (49%) and 1 year (40%) of follow-up suggests that presently in the Indian subcontinent, BS is a relatively crude indicator of severe current vitamin A deficiency. For programmatic decisions and evaluation, the public health burden of vitamin A deficiency should not be assessed solely through BS.
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