Our study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and analyse the epidemiological characteristics of EPTB patients with or without pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). EPTB cases admitted in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2020 were included. Uni- and multi-variable logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify risk factors and prognostic factors of concomitant EPTB and PTB or exclusively EPTB. A total of 3488 EPTB patients were reviewed, including 2086 patients with concurrent PTB and EPTB, and 1402 patients with exclusively EPTB. Logistic regression analysis showed that age >60 years (OR = 1.674, 95% CI = 1.438–1.949, P < 0.001) and female (OR = 1.325, 95% CI = 1.155–1.520, P < 0.001) were risk factors of exclusively EPTB, while co-morbidities (OR = 0.676, 95% CI = 0.492–0.929, P = 0.016) and severe symptoms (OR = 0.613, 95% CI = 0.405–0.929, P = 0.021) were risk factors for concurrence of EPTB and PTB. Age >60 years was an independent prognostic factor in EPTB patients with or without PTB (HR = 11.059, 95%CI = 5.097–23.999, P < 0.001; HR = 23.994, 95%CI = 3.093–186.151, P = 0.0020). Female gender was an independent prognostic factor in patients with concurrent PTB and EPTB (HR = 23.994, 95%CI = 3.093–186.151, P = 0.002). Our study disclosed the differential epidemiological characteristics of EPTB patients with or without PTB in China.