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The study primarily focuses on analyzing married women’s attitudes towards negotiating safer sex in two contexts. The first context is when a woman refuses to have sex with husband if she knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and the second is when she does so if she knows he has sex with other women. The study examined predictors of Indian women’s attitude towards negotiating safer-sex using data on 92,306 ever married women from the state module of the 2015-16, National Family Health Survey 4. Descriptive and multilevel logistic regression was used to understand the interplay between the attitude towards negotiation of safer sexual relationships with husband and the selected background characteristics with a primary focus on controlling behaviour and power relations. About 17% of women did not believe in negotiating safer sexual relations with the husband. An approximately equal proportion of ever-married women (79% each) believed in doing so under the two specific conditions, that is, if they knew the husband had an STD and they knew he had sex with other women. Multilevel regression analysis showed that women who had household decision-making power [AOR=0.71; p<0.01] and those whose husbands displayed low control towards them [AOR=0.91; p<0.05] were more likely to believe in negotiating safer-sex. Our findings suggest that women who have controlling partners or those who live under the umbrella of the husband’s authority lack the power to negotiate for safer sex. Interventions promoting sexual well-being must deal with negative male perceptions and expectations that perpetuate unhealthy sexual habits and marriage ties.
This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of different methods to activate buffalo A + B and C + D quality oocytes parthenogenetically and to study the in vitro developmental competence of oocytes and expression of some important genes at the different developmental stages of parthenotes. The percentage of A + B oocytes (62.16 ± 5.06%, range 53.8–71.3%) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) compared with that of C + D oocytes (37.8 ± 5.00%, range 28.6–46.1%) retrieved from slaughterhouse buffalo ovaries. Among all combinations, ethanol activation followed by culture in research vitro cleave medium gave the highest cleavage and blastocyst yields for both A + B and C + D grade oocytes. Total cell numbers, inner cell mass/trophectoderm ratio and apoptotic index of A + B group blastocysts were significantly different (P < 0.05) from their C + D counterpart. To determine the status of expression patterns of developmentally regulated genes, the expression of cumulus–oocyte complexes, fertilization, developmental competence and apoptotic-related genes were also studied in parthenogenetically produced buffalo embryos at different stages, and indicated that the differential expression patterns of the above genes had a role in early embryonic development.
Conducting polymers namely polyaniline (PANI), polypyrrole (PPy) and their copolymer poly(Aniline-co-Pyrrole)(PAPY) were prepared via in-situ polymerization process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red (IR)and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies confirm the formation of polyaniline, polypyrrole and their copolymer with aniline and pyrrole. The XRD pattern of copolymer displayed an amorphous structure as compared to polycrystalline homopolymers. FE-SEM results of Poly (Ani-co-Py) shows the existence of agglomerated spherical structured particles in the copolymer matrix, while the polyaniline and polypyrrole exhibit the porous tubular and spherical structures, respectively. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the copolymer is more stable as compared to their homopolymers at higher temperature. Four probe resistivity (FPR) studies indicate that copolymer has the lower conductivity and act as a diode. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements observe a significant shielding effectiveness (SE) for all the conducting polymers.
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. Swine cysticercosis results in economic losses for pig farmers in disease endemic areas. Consumption of cysticercotic pork leads to taeniasis in humans. Eggs excreted in the faeces of T. solium carriers disseminate to humans and pigs through the faecal–oral route, thus maintaining the life cycle in endemic areas. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed using whole crude T. solium cysticercus antigens (WCA) for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. Sera from 30 swine with cysticercosis confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging were subjected to EITB assay. Sera from 50 swine that were raised in a government farm and not allowed to roam freely were included as negative controls. Two or more bands of 8, 11, 14, 24, 26 and 29 kDa were immunoreactive on blot with sera from all infected swine except two, and none from swine raised on the government farm. The overall sensitivity and specificity of EITB assay for diagnosis of swine cysticercosis were 93.3% and 100%, respectively. Hence, EITB assay based on WCA may be a suitable diagnostic tool for swine cysticercosis in endemic areas.
Despite aggressive multimodal therapy, human glioblastoma (hGBM), a highly malignant grade IV astrocytic tumour, remains incurable and inevitably relapses. Recent data has implicated intratumoral heterogeneity as the driver of therapy resistance and tumour relapse in hGBM. Thus models that capture the evolving hGBM biology in response to chemoradiotherapy will allow for the identification of cellular pathways that govern GBM therapy failure. In this study, we have developed a novel model to profile the clonal evolution of treatment naïve brain tumour initiating cell (BTIC) enriched hGBMs through chemoradiotherapy using: stem cell assays, BTIC marker expression and transcriptome analysis, immunohistochemistry, and cellular DNA barcoding technology. We report that treatment of hGBM BTICs leads to increased self-renewal capacity and higher transcript expression of stem cell genes Bmi1 and Sox2. Based on global transcriptome analysis of the in vitro treated hGBM, we also identify a hyper-aggressive form of glioma. Using our therapy-adapted hGBM-mouse xenograft model, we discover that despite tumour regression and increased mouse survival post-therapy, tumour relapse remains inevitable. The treatment-refractory cells again have increased self-renewal capacity and higher expression of Bmi1 and Sox2. Furthermore, by combining cellular DNA barcoding technology, which barcodes hGBM at single cell resolution, with our novel in vitro and in vivo therapy models, we are able to determine whether a pre-existing or a therapy driven subpopulation(s) seeds hGBM tumour relapse. Profiling the dynamic nature of heterogeneous hGBM subpopulations through disease progression and treatment may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of recurrent hGBM.
Safflower is a traditional oilseed crop in the world. Its seed oil is a healthy edible oil containing high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Genetically diverse exotic cultivars are valuable germplasm for introducing new diversity in safflower improvement programmes. In this study, we characterized safflower cultivars of India (30) and Mexico (23) comprising varieties, hybrids and advanced lines developed over 50 years for genetic distinctiveness using 38 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Genetic diversity estimates across cultivar groups (total, India and Mexico) were as follows: mean number of alleles (3.2, 3.1, 2.6), expected heterozygosity (0.42, 0.37, 0.37) and polymorphism information content (0.36, 0.33, 0.32) respectively, which suggested narrow SSR allelic diversity within and between cultivar groups. However, distance-based cluster analysis (neighbour-joining tree) and model-based STRUCTURE analysis revealed that safflower cultivars of India and Mexico, with the exception of a few, form two genetically distinct groups. High level of genetic variation explained between the populations (40%) and Fst estimate (0.4) suggested that the cultivar groups were highly differentiated with limited gene flow supporting a strong genetic structuring. High oil (~38%) and high oleic (73–79%) contents of a subset of Mexican safflower varieties and advanced lines were confirmed in field trials in India. These exotic sources from Mexico are valuable for safflower breeding programmes in India to develop new cultivars with high oil yielding potential and high oleic acid content, which is the current market demand.
With the advancement in knowledge of innate immune functioning, toll-like receptors (TLRs) have emerged as potential adjuvant candidates. TLRs are one of the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense conserved signature molecules on invading pathogens. Detection of the pathogens via TLRs alerts the immune system of the host and helps in mounting a quick immune response against the invading pathogens. This property of TLR ligands may be exploited for the development of effective prophylactic agents against infectious chicken diseases. In this review the immunostimulatory effects of various TLRs will be discussed as well as their use as adjuvants in combination.
In this paper, the authors have presented a paraxial theory for propagation of (1) Gaussian (2) dark hollow Gaussian high power laser beams in the atmosphere, considering the nonlinearity arising from the temperature variation along the wave-front. Specifically, the focusing parameter for both beams has been evaluated as a function of distance and initial beam power and width (corresponding to radiation of wavelengths 1.045 µ, 1.625 µ, and 2.141 µ in the water absorption window) for the maritime, desert, rural, and urban environments as modeled at NRL; the results have been presented in the dimensionless form. It is seen that in all four environments a dark hollow beam defocuses less than the corresponding Gaussian beam of same radius and power. It is suggested that this conclusion based on the paraxial theory be verified by numerical simulation.
In this study a new species of nematode, Iheringascaris goai n. sp., is reported from two fish hosts, including silver whiting, Sillago sihama, and spotted catfish, Arius maculatus, caught off the Central West Coast of India at Goa. The new species can be differentiated morphologically from I. inquies, the most closely related species collected from cohabiting marine fish. The distinguishing characteristics are distinct cuticular striations, a unilateral excretory system, the presence of dentigerous ridges on the inner margin of the lips and the ratio of oesophagus to body length. In males, the ratio of spicules to body length is higher and the number of pre-anal papillae is less in comparison to those in I. inquies. In addition, the tail curves ventrad in males, while in females, the vulva is post-equatorial. The sequence alignment of 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I with sequences of known species selected from the same superfamily shows a significant difference. The morphological and molecular differences reported here can, therefore, be used to assign the specimen to a new species.
The present study describes the activity of a nanomaterial on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus, which exhibited morphological changes and apoptosis. Apoptotic changes were deduced on the basis of effector caspase activation and nucleosomal laddering. Invaginated protoscoleces maintained in vitro became evaginated and had hooks, presumptive suckers and stalks. Degenerative changes of protoscoleces were evidenced after treatment with praziquantel and nano-combination. Protoscoleces treated with praziquantel had distinct attestation of necrosis and nano-combination-treated protoscoleces had signatures of apoptosis.
Indian rivers originating in the Himalaya depend on seasonal snow-cover melt during crucial summer months. The seasonal snow cover was monitored using Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) and using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) algorithm. The investigation was carried out for a period of 3 years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07) between October and June. A total of 28 sub-basins of the Ganga and Indus river basins were monitored at intervals of 5 or 10 days. Approximately 1500 AWiFS scenes were analyzed. A combination of area–altitude distribution and snow map was used to estimate the distribution of snow cover in altitude zones for the individual basins and for the western and central Himalaya. Hypsographic curve and snow-free area was used to estimate monthly snow-line elevation. The lowest snow-line altitude in the winters of 2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07 was observed at 2480 ma.s.l. on 25 February 2005. In Ravi basin for the year 2004/05, snow accumulation and ablation were continuous processes throughout the winter. Even in the middle of winter, the snow area was reduced from 90% to 55%. Similar trends were observed for 2005/06 and 2007/08. In Bhaga basin, snowmelt was observed in the early part of the winter, i.e. in December, and no significant melting was observed between January and April.
Reflectance data for contaminated and different grain-size snow were collected using a spectroradiometer ranging from 350 to 2500 nm. Contamination was predominantly due to soil. The radiometer data were binned at 10 nm intervals by averaging, and then principal component analysis, shape, size and strength of the absorption peak, first and second derivatives were computed, providing information about the effect of grain size and contamination on snow reflectance. Relative strength for contamination and grain size showed a distinct reverse pattern at 1025 nm after continuum removal. Band absorption depth at 1025 nm showed an increase with increasing snow grain size, whereas the band depth was found to decrease with increased soil contamination. The curve shape was right asymmetric and showed a change to left asymmetry with increase in contamination. The first derivative of reflectance in the visible region showed a shift of peak due to contamination. Soil contamination significantly reduced the albedo of snow at a low level of contamination but showed little influence at higher level. Relative strength, shape of curve and reflectance characteristics have shown the potential to identify the influence of contamination and grain-size based metamorphism using satellite-based hyperspectral remote sensing.
This paper presents a sequential evaluation of snow microstructure and its associated thermal conductivity under the influence of a temperature gradient. Temperature gradients from 28 to 45 Km–1 were applied to snow samples having a density range 180–320 kgm–3. The experiments were conducted inside a cold room in a specially designed heat-flux apparatus for a period of 4weeks. A constant heat flux was applied at the base of the heat-flux apparatus to produce a temperature gradient in the snow sample. A steady-state approach was used to estimate the effective thermal conductivity of snow. Horizontal and vertical thick sections were prepared on a weekly basis to obtain snow micrographs. These micrographs were used to obtain snow microstructure using stereological tools. The thermal conductivity was found to increase with increase in grain size, bond size and grain and pore intercept lengths, suggesting a possible correlation of thermal conductivity with snow microstructure. Thermal conductivity increased even though surface area and area fraction of ice were found to decrease. The outcome suggests that changes in snow microstructure have significant control on thermal conductivity even at a constant density.
Cerium-doped Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (BLT) thin films were fabricated by depositing sol-gel solutions on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si 〈100〉 substrates. The Ce-doping in BLT up to 6.7% of Ti atoms did not affect the single-phase bismuth-layered structure but small modification was observed in structural orientation, which influenced the microstructure and ferroelectric properties of BLT films. As we did not observe any structural distortion in x-ray diffraction data, it was suggested that doped Ce4+ was converted to Ce3+ during the annealing at 750 °C, and cerium ions might be substituted at Bi-site in BLT films. The small amount of Ce doping (1% of Ti atoms) enhanced the remanent polarization and reduced the coercive field by about 17% in BLT films, and these films showed fatigue-free response up to 1010 switching cycles at 300 kV/cm applied fields. Moderately Ce-doped films (1.7% of Ti atoms) also showed fatigue-free response up to 1010 switching cycles in 200 kV/cm applied field, but the polarization was found to increase with switching cycles when applied field was higher than 200 kV/cm. After Ce doping, the oxygen vacancy concentration may decrease in BLT films, and consequently, one can expect less domain pinning and higher fatigue resistance. Under the high cycling field, the high probability of field-assisted unpinning may be the main cause for the increased polarization.
The improvement programme in Jamunapari goats was started with the active participation of farmers in two adopted villages and efforts have been made to characterise the performance of Jamunapari goats in their home tract in relation to production, reproduction performance and field conditions relating to socio-economic status of farmers. The phenotypic measurements are also described in the breed in its habitat. Jamunapari is a tall, white and large size milch goat breed of India and their numbers have been reducing over the years for various reasons. The description in relation to housing, feeding, management, growth parameters, milk yield, parasitic load, blood polymorphism and constraints in field conditions has been made in detail. Body weights at birth, three, six and nine months were 2.75 kg, 12.3 kg, 16 kg and 22 kg, respectively. Milk yield at 90 and 150 days was 102 and 145 litres, respectively. The peak breeding season of this goat in field conditions is in May-June and twining percentage is about 52 percent. The overall mortality in village conditions is about 3.7 percent and is mostly due to diarrhea and pneumonia. The mortality was 3.7 percent, 1.9 percent, 9.8 percent and 2.0 percent in 0–3, 3–6, and 6–12 months, and adult goats, respectively over the years. The native goat in its home tract is endangered for several reasons and utmost care is needed from all angles to save this germplasm.
We have deposited unhydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by laser ablation of graphite, using a high power Ti: Sapphire solid state laser system. DLC films were deposited onto single crystal silicon substrates at room temperature with picosecond laser pulses, at peak power densities in the 5x1011 - 8x1012 W/cm2 range. A variety of techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) have been used to analyze the film quality. Smooth, partially transparent films were produced, distinct from the graphite target. Sp3 volume fractions were found to be in the 50 - 60% range, with optical bandgaps ranging from 0. 6 to1. 2 eV, depending on the laser power density.
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