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The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of risk alleles of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms is associated with differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography in a Korean sample of ADHD.
The present study included 24 children with ADHD (9.5±2.4 years), consisting of 20 boys and 4 girls, aged 6-16 years. We investigated the G1287A and -3081(A/T) polymorphisms of the SLC6A2. The rCBF was compared between the ADHD subjects with and without risk alleles at the G1287A polymorphism and at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism. Image analyses were performed with voxelwise t-statistics using SPM2.
1) The ADHD subjects with the A allele (risk allele) at the G1287A polymorphism showed reduced perfusion in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
2) The ADHD subjects with the A allele at the G1287A polymorphism showed increased perfusion in the right middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right anterior lobe of cerebellum as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
3) No significant perfusion differences were found between ADHD subjects with and without the T allele (risk allele) at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism.
Our findings suggest that the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism might exert differential effects on rCBF in children with ADHD.
Infectious diseases, such as Helicobacter pylori, which produce systemic inflammation may be one key factor in the onset of autoimmunity. The association between H. pylori and antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a marker of autoimmunity, has been understudied. Data from the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to evaluate the cross-sectional association between H. pylori seroprevalence and ANA positivity in US adults aged ≥20 years. ANA was measured in a 1:80 dilution of sera by indirect immunofluorescence using HEp-2 cells (positive ⩾3). H. pylori immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to categorise individuals as seropositive or seronegative. H. pylori seropositivity and ANA positivity were common in the adult US population, with estimated prevalences of 33.3% and 9.9%, respectively. Both were associated with increasing age. H. pylori seropositivity was associated with higher odds of ANA (prevalence odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.08–3.33), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and body mass index. H. pylori infection may be one key factor in the loss of self-tolerance, contributing to immune dysfunction.
The present study aimed to compare the anti-biofilm activities of four commonly available antiseptic eardrops against biofilms from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
The anti-biofilm activities of 50 per cent Burow's solution, vinegar with water (1:1), 2 per cent acetic acid solution, and 4 per cent boric acid solution were evaluated using biofilm assays. Additionally, the anti-biofilm activities of the four antiseptic solutions against tympanostomy tube biofilms were compared using a scanning electron microscope.
The inhibition of biofilm formation from methicillin-resistant S aureus and quinolone-resistant P aeruginosa occurred after treatment with 4 per cent boric acid solution, 2 per cent acetic acid solution, and vinegar with water (1:1). However, 50 per cent Burow's solution did not exhibit effective anti-biofilm activity.
The results indicate that 4 per cent boric acid solution and vinegar with water (1:1) are potent inhibitors of biofilms from methicillin-resistant S aureus and quinolone-resistant P aeruginosa, and provide safe pH levels for avoiding ototoxicity.
Noroviruses (NoVs) are major causal agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans. NoV GII.4 is the predominant genotype globally. However, uncommon and minor types of NoVs are consistently detected and some have been shown to dominate over GII.4. Therefore, the prevalence of dominant and uncommon NoVs makes the identification of these viruses important for the prediction and prevention of pandemics. In this study, the full-genome sequence of a NoV (strain JW) detected in Korea was extensively characterized. The full-length genome was 7510 nucleotides long, and phylogenetic analysis based on the whole-genome sequences, including open reading frame (ORF)1, ORF2, and ORF3, indicated that it belonged to the GII.21 genotype. Strain JW showed maximum identity with strain YO284; however, comparison of the amino acid sequence of ORF2, which functions as an antigen, showed substitutions in several amino acids. GII.21 is not a prevalent epidemiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in humans, but it is consistently found in gastroenteritis patients from several countries. The present study provides the first full-genome sequence analysis of NoV GII.21 isolated from a patient in Korea. Our findings provide not only valuable genome information but also data for epidemiology studies, epidemic prevention, and vaccine development strategies.
Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
Of the patients, 24.5% had IGT compared with none of the controls, and they also had significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose load, and were more insulin resistant. Compared with those patients with normal glucose tolerance, the IGT patients were older, had a later age of onset, higher waist or hip circumference and body mass index, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides and higher insulin resistance. Furthermore, IGT patients had higher PANSS total and negative symptom subscale scores, but no greater cognitive impairment except on the emotional intelligence index of the MCCB.
IGT occurs with greater frequency in FEDN schizophrenia, and shows association with demographic and anthropometric parameters, as well as with clinical symptoms but minimally with cognitive impairment during the early course of the disorder.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The chicken major histocompatibility complex B (MHC-B) – a cluster of genes associated with natural disease resistance or susceptibility – has been investigated in experimental and inbred lines by serological typing. However, that method showed some weaknesses for its use on out breeds. This study aims to explore the genetic diversity of the MHC-B of Cameroon indigenous chicken through molecular typing with LEI0258 and MCW0371 microsatellite markers. MHC-B haplotypes of 290 chickens from four agro-ecological zones were identified and compared with published haplotypes. Alleles were analysed for genetic diversity and relationship among Cameroon chicken populations. Hypothetically new LEI0258 alleles and haplotypes were detected. Overall, polymorphism parameters were relatively high in the Cameroon western highlands. The analysis of molecular variance revealed great variability (80.00 percent) between individuals than among and within ecotypes. The inbreeding coefficients of overall populations (FIT), among population (FST) and within population (FIS) were 0.26, 0.04 and 0.22, respectively, and all were highly significant (P < 0.001). A UPGMA tree based on Nei's DA genetic distances showed a clear distinction between Cameroon and out-groups and a structuring of within-country populations into three clusters. There is a great genetic diversity of the MHC-B in Cameroon native chicken and also a need of sequencing of the identified alleles for an accurate identification prior to their assessment for natural disease resistance and responsiveness to vaccination.
Previous studies have implicated the relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of childhood, but no studies have been conducted in children who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD obtained through meticulous diagnostic testing. We aimed to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine would be higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD and would correlate with symptom severity and cortical thickness in ADHD children.
A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations was performed; scores for ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and continuous performance tests were obtained from 180 children with ADHD, and brain-imaging data were obtained from 115 participants. For the control group, children without ADHD (N = 438) were recruited. Correlations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and clinical measures and brain cortical thickness were investigated.
Concentrations of phthalate metabolites, particularly the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite, were significantly higher in boys with ADHD than in boys without ADHD. Concentrations of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite were significantly higher in the combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtypes compared to the inattentive subtype, and the metabolite was positively correlated with the severity of externalizing symptoms. Concentrations of the DEHP metabolite were negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right middle and superior temporal gyri.
The results of this study suggest an association between phthalate concentrations and both the diagnosis and symptom severity of ADHD. Imaging findings suggest a negative impact of phthalates on regional cortical maturation in children with ADHD.
Multifunctional Pr3+-doped GdPO4 nanocrystals possessing UV, visible emissions and magnetic properties were synthesized via co-precipitation and following annealing. It was revealed that as-prepared GdPO4 nanorods were transformed to nanoparticles after heat treatment at 900 °C for 2 hours. Ultimately, GdPO4:Pr3+ nanoparticles have strong UV emission under the excitation of 275 nm and visible emission under the excitation of 445 nm, which offers the optical modalities in both UV and visible range. Moreover, Gd3+-containing nanoparticles are efficient T2-weighted (negative) magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents due to the presence of Gd3+ ions, which can be potentially applied as multimodal, photoluminescence-magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.
To demonstrate a safe and effective method for complete resection of squamous papilloma in the nasopharyngeal surface of the soft palate. This technique was used on a patient in whom the papilloma had twice recurred following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.
Case report and review of the relevant literature.
The patient reported in this paper had recurrent squamous papilloma in the nasopharyngeal surface of the soft palate following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. He also suffered from nasal regurgitation when drinking water. This lesion, which was difficult to access, was successfully treated via a transnasal endoscopic approach using powered instrumentation.
This case report highlights a novel approach for the complete removal of a recurrent papilloma in a relatively inaccessible location. Compared with a transoral approach such as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, the transnasal endoscopic approach using powered instrumentation could provide a safer, faster, easier and less invasive means of treating squamous papilloma in the nasopharyngeal surface of the soft palate, especially for a lesion that recurs following a transoral approach.
The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is the UV/optical telescope of UFFO-pathfinder. The
SMT optical system is a Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) telescope of 100 mm diameter pointed by
means of a gimbal-mounted flat mirror in front of the telescope. The RC telescope has a
17 × 17arcmin2 in Field of View and 4.3 arcsec resolution (full width half
maximum of the point spread function) The beam-steering mirror enables the SMT to access a
35 × 35degree region and point and settle within 1 sec. All mirrors were fabricated to
about 0.02 wavelengths RMS in wave front error (WFE) and 84.7% average reflectivity over
200 nm ~ 650 nm. The RC telescope was aligned to 0.05 wavelengths RMS in WFE (test
wavelength 632.8 nm). In this paper, the technical details of the RC telescope and slewing
mirror system assembly, integration, and testing are given shortly, and performance tests
of the full SMT optical system are reported.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
The blended wing-body configuration holds a major structural design challenge at the centre-body where the structure must support both wing bending loads and internal cabin pressure. A membrane approach is proposed which decouples the loads to allow their resistance by two independent structures: an inner membrane for cabin pressure and an outer structure to resist wing loads. A columned multi-bubble fuselage is proposed for the inner membrane structure, which are multispherical configuration to efficiently withstand the pressure loads. Considering this configuration, the carry-through structure can be designed and optimised. Finite element results show a significant reduction of stress level in this design over that for a conventional multi-bubble fuselage. Up to 30% weight reduction is achieved for a military cargo application that requires an extensive area with no structural interruption. For the outer carry-through structure, the topology and shape optimisations of finite element models were performed on the given design domain. The results from the shape and topology optimisations were complementary demonstrating a consistent design approach. The optimisation theory is briefly presented along with the results.
We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.
In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD Rating Scale – IV (ADHD-RS) and Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways.
After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities.
Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.
We have investigated the nonthermal bioplasma sources and their characteristics as well as their interactions with biological cells. The electron temperature and plasma density are measured to be about 1.5 eV and 3×1012 cm-3 , respectively, for the direct palsma jet under Ar gas flow. The hydroxyl radical density has also been investigated and measured to be maximum value of about 3 ×1015 cm-3 and 8 ×1014 cm-3 in the direct plasma jet and dielectric barrier discharge bioplasma, respectively, by the ultraviolet optical absorption spectroscopy. Herein, we have investigated the basic interactions of these nonthermal bioplasma with the living organisms in morphological and biomolecular aspects. We found that the secondary electron emision coefficient of the biological surface has been drastically increased by atmospheric bioplasma, which indicates the biological surface to be oxidized especially by the hydroxyl (OH) radical species. In order to elucidate the basic mechanisms for the cell shrinking and apoptosis leading to a cell death by the nonthermal bioplasma, the cell membrane potential has been estimated based on the ROS density as well as cell capacitances. It is also found that the molecular electron energy band structure in the biological cells have been shifted closer toward the vacuum surface and accordingly their central energy of molecular band becomes small by the nonthermal bioplasma due to cell oxidation caused by OH radicals.
Double-shelled nanotubes composed of inner shell Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) and outer shell TiO2 are successfully fabricated by a spin coating of each sol-gel solution on porous anodic alumina template. Field emission transmission electron microscopy images show that they have a ~ 10 nm wall thickness. The selected area electron diffraction patterns show that they have two mixed crystalline phases of tetragonal PZT and anatase TiO2. The analyses of scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm their uniform distribution of each element.
Haemangiomas do not develop as commonly in the sinonasal cavity, compared with other head and neck sites. The clinical characteristics of sinonasal cavity haemangiomas and the results for endoscopic resection have been addressed in the literature only briefly. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate these points.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 22 patients who had undergone endoscopic excision of sinonasal cavity haemangiomas, in order to define clinical characteristics and tumour control rates.
Results and analysis:
The most common presenting symptom was epistaxis. The most prevalent site was the inferior turbinate (45.5 per cent), followed by the maxillary sinus (18.2 per cent). No recurrence was observed in any patient.
Although past studies have described external approach sinonasal surgery as the mainstay of treatment, our results imply that endoscopic excision of sinonasal haemangiomas yields excellent outcomes in terms of tumour control and safety.
This study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety profile of combination treatment with S-1 and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Eligibility criteria comprised: histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck; stage three or four disease with no evidence of distant metastasis; evaluable lesions; adequate organ function; age 20–80 years; and a performance status of two or less. Cisplatin was infused over one hour on day one (75 mg/m2) and S-1 was administered orally for 14 consecutive days (days two to 15). The dosages of S-1 were calculated according to the patients' body surface area: 50 mg twice a day (body surface area <1.5 m2) or 60 mg twice a day (body surface area >1.5 m2). Each course was repeated every three weeks. After two courses, tumour response was evaluated by computed tomography and laryngoscopy. If a response was evident (either complete or partial), the patient received one more course of chemotherapy, before undergoing radical treatment such as radiotherapy or surgery.
All 30 patients were assessable for toxicity, and 29 patients for treatment response. The overall response was 89.7 per cent (complete response: nine; partial response: 17). The two-year estimated overall survival rate was 79.2 per cent. Adverse reactions occurred 128 times during 81 courses in the 30 cases. The most common grade three to four adverse event was neutropenia, which occurred in eight patients. Cases of non-haematological grade three or four toxicity included nausea and vomiting in four patients, stomatitis in two and diarrhoea in one.
S-1 plus cisplatin combination chemotherapy is effective against locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, with only mild toxicity.