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Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. However, extracting this information requires complex analysis pipelines that include data wrangling, calibration, analysis, and visualization, all while maintaining robustness against imaging distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we present py4DSTEM, an analysis toolkit for measuring material properties from 4D-STEM datasets, written in the Python language and released with an open-source license. We describe the algorithmic steps for dataset calibration and various 4D-STEM property measurements in detail and present results from several experimental datasets. We also implement a simple and universal file format appropriate for electron microscopy data in py4DSTEM, which uses the open-source HDF5 standard. We hope this tool will benefit the research community and help improve the standards for data and computational methods in electron microscopy, and we invite the community to contribute to this ongoing project.
Student's t test is valid for statistical inference under the normality assumption or asymptotically. By contrast, although the bootstrap t test was proposed in 1993, it is seldom adopted in medical research. We aim to demonstrate that the bootstrap t test outperforms Student's t test under normality in data. Using random data samples from normal distributions, we evaluated the testing performance, in terms of true-positive rate (TPR) and false-positive rate and diagnostic abilities, in terms of the area under the curve (AUC), of the bootstrap t test and Student's t test. We explore the AUC of both tests with varying sample size and coefficient of variation. We compare the testing outcomes using the COVID-19 serial interval (SI) data in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, China, for demonstration. With fixed TPR, the bootstrap t test maintained the equivalent accuracy in TPR, but significantly improved the true-negative rate from the Student's t test. With varying TPR, the diagnostic ability of bootstrap t test outperformed or equivalently performed as Student's t test in terms of the AUC. The equivalent performances are possible but rarely occur in practice. We find that the bootstrap t test outperforms by successfully detecting the difference in COVID-19 SI, which is defined as the time interval between consecutive transmission generations, due to sex and non-pharmaceutical interventions against the Student's t test. We demonstrated that the bootstrap t test outperforms Student's t test, and it is recommended to replace Student's t test in medical data analysis regardless of sample size.
The accumulation of nutrients during diapause preparation is crucial because any lack of nutrition will reduce the likelihood of insects completing diapause, thereby decreasing their chances of survival and reproduction. The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea, diapause as overwintering pupae and their diapause incidence and diapause intensity are regulated by the photoperiod. In this study, we test the hypothesis that photoperiod influences energy reserve accumulation during diapause preparation in fall webworm. We found that the body size and mass, lipid and carbohydrate content of pupae with a short photoperiod during the diapause induction phase were significantly greater than those of pupae with a relatively short photoperiod, and the efficiency of converting digested food and ingested food into body matter was greater in the short-photoperiod diapause-destined larvae than the relatively short-photoperiod diapause-destined larvae. We also observed higher lipase and amylase activities in short-photoperiod diapause-destined larvae relative to the counterparts. However, no obvious difference was found in protein and protease in the pupae with a short photoperiod during the diapause induction phase and short-photoperiod diapause-destined larvae compared with the counterparts. Therefore, we conclude that the energy reserve patterns of diapausing fall webworm pupae are plastic and that short-photoperiod diapause-destined larvae increase their energy reserves by improving their feeding efficiency and increase their lipid and carbohydrate stores by increasing the lipase and amylase activities in the midgut.
Social cognition has not previously been assessed in treatment-naive patients with chronic schizophrenia, in patients over 60 years of age, or in patients with less than 5 years of schooling.
We revised a commonly used measure of social cognition, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), by expanding the instructions, using both self-completion and interviewer-completion versions (for illiterate respondents), and classifying each test administration as ‘successfully completed’ or ‘incomplete’. The revised instrument (RMET-CV-R) was administered to 233 treatment-naive patients with chronic schizophrenia (UT), 154 treated controls with chronic schizophrenia (TC), and 259 healthy controls (HC) from rural communities in China.
In bivariate and multivariate analyses, successful completion rates and RMET-CV-R scores (percent correct judgments about emotion exhibited in 70 presented slides) were highest in HC, intermediate in TC, and lowest in UT (adjusted completion rates, 97.0, 72.4, and 49.9%, respectively; adjusted RMET-CV-R scores, 45.4, 38.5, and 34.6%, respectively; all p < 0.02). Stratified analyses by the method of administration (self-completed v. interviewer-completed) and by education and age (‘educated-younger’ v. ‘undereducated-older’) show the same relationship between groups (i.e. NC>TC>UT), though not all differences remain statistically significant.
We find poorer social cognition in treatment-naive than in treated patients with chronic schizophrenia. The discriminant validity of RMET-CV-R in undereducated, older patients demonstrates the feasibility of administering revised versions of RMET to patients who may otherwise be considered ineligible due to education or age by changing the method of test administration and carefully assessing respondents' ability to complete the task successfully.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
There is growing interest globally in using real-world data (RWD) and real-world evidence (RWE) for health technology assessment (HTA). Optimal collection, analysis, and use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA requires a conceptual framework to standardize processes and ensure consistency. However, such framework is currently lacking in Asia, a region that is likely to benefit from RWD/RWE for at least two reasons. First, there is often limited Asian representation in clinical trials unless specifically conducted in Asian populations, and RWD may help to fill the evidence gap. Second, in a few Asian health systems, reimbursement decisions are not made at market entry; thus, allowing RWD/RWE to be collected to give more certainty about the effectiveness of technologies in the local setting and inform their appropriate use. Furthermore, an alignment of RWD/RWE policies across Asia would equip decision makers with context-relevant evidence, and improve timely patient access to new technologies. Using data collected from eleven health systems in Asia, this paper provides a review of the current landscape of RWD/RWE in Asia to inform HTA and explores a way forward to align policies within the region. This paper concludes with a proposal to establish an international collaboration among academics and HTA agencies in the region: the REAL World Data In ASia for HEalth Technology Assessment in Reimbursement (REALISE) working group, which seeks to develop a non-binding guidance document on the use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA for decision making in Asia.
This study aimed to investigate the benefit of Bonebridge devices in patients with single-sided deafness.
Five patients with single-sided deafness who were implanted with Bonebridge devices were recruited in a single-centre study. Participants’ speech perception and horizontal sound localisation abilities were assessed at 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Speech intelligibility in noisy environments was measured in three different testing conditions (speech and noise presented from the front, speech and noise presented from the front and contralateral (normal ear) side separately, and speech presented from the ipsilateral (implanted Bonebridge) side and noise from the contralateral side). Sound localisation was evaluated in Bonebridge-aided and Bonebridge-unaided conditions at different stimuli levels (65, 70 and 75 dB SPL).
All participants showed a better capacity for speech intelligibility in quiet environments with the Bonebridge device. The speech recognition threshold with the Bonebridge device was significantly decreased at both short- and long-term follow up in the speech presented from the ipsilateral (implanted Bonebridge) side and noise from the contralateral side condition (p < 0.05). Additionally, participants maintained similar levels of sound localisation between the Bonebridge-aided and unaided conditions (p > 0.05). However, the accuracy of localisation showed some improvement at 70 dB SPL and 75 dB SPL post-operatively.
The Bonebridge device provides the benefit of improved speech perception performance in patients with single-sided deafness. Sound localisation abilities were neither improved nor worsened with Bonebridge implantation at the follow-up assessments.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We sought to examine: 1) variability in center acceptance patterns for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates, 2) impact of this acceptance behavior on candidate survival, and 3) post-transplantation outcomes in candidates who accepted first rank offer vs. previously declined offer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this retrospective cohort study, the US national transplant registry was queried for all match runs of adult candidates listed for isolated heart transplantation between 2007-2017. We examined center acceptance rates for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates and accounted for covariates in multivariable logistic regression. Competing risks analysis was performed to assess the relationship between center acceptance rate and waitlist mortality. Post-transplantation outcomes (patient survival and graft failure) between candidates who accepted their first-rank offers vs those who accepted previously declined offers were compared using Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 19,703 unique organ offers, 6,302 (32%) were accepted for first-ranked candidates. After adjustment for donor, recipient, and geographic covariates, transplant centers varied markedly in acceptance rates (12%-62%) of offers made to first-ranked candidates. Lowest acceptance rate centers (<25%) associated with highest cumulative incidence of waitlist mortality. For every 10% increase in adjusted center acceptance rate, waitlist mortality risk decreased by 27% (SHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.80). No significant difference was observed in 5-year adjusted post-Tx survival and graft failure between hearts accepted at the first-rank vs lower-rank positions. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wide variability in heart acceptance rates exists among centers, with candidates listed at low acceptance rate centers more likely to die waiting. Similar post-Tx survival suggests previously declined allografts function as well as those accepted at first offer. Center-level decision is a modifiable behavior associated with waitlist mortality.
To compare efficacy and medical costs of typital and atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenic patients.
250 in patients in general hospital and psychiatric hospital were randomly allocated to one of the two groups, one treated with typital antipsychotics as chlorpromazine, haloperidol and so on with a mean daily dose of 500∼800 mg in chlorpromazine equivalents, and the other with atypical agents in cluding clozapine (mean daily dose of 400∼800mg ), risperidone of 6 mg, or olanzapine of 20 mg.
The total costs of the treatment were (3157±253) Yuan RMB for patients treated with typical agents in general hospital, and (3673±294) Yuan RMB for patients treated with typical agents in psychiatric hospital respectively. the costs for medicine were (774±903) Yuan RMB, (1061±903) Yuan RMB respectively. the costs in atypical group were(1120±390) Yuan RMB and (1637±325) Yuan RMB, and (108±157) Yuan RMB and (240±317) Yuan RMB respectively. the duration of patients treated with typical agents in hospital is longer than that with atypical agents.
It indicates that atypical antipsychotics have similar efficacy to typical agents in treating schizophrenic patients with less costs.
To evaluate open-label treatment with olanzapine in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD).
In two concurrent studies, patients received 12 weeks of open-label olanzapine after completing 12-weeks of double-blind treatment with either olanzapine or placebo. Open-label olanzapine dosing started at 2.5 or 5mg/day and could be increased up to 20mg/day (Study 1) or 15mg/day (Study 2).
Mean ZAN-BPD total scores decreased from approximately 17 points to approximately 8-10 points during the acute phase. After 12 weeks of open-label olanzapine treatment, mean ZAN-BPD total scores were approximately 6-7 points. Patients treated with placebo during the acute phase and then open-label olanzapine showed changes in weight, prolactin, and other laboratory values similar in magnitude to those seen in acutely olanzapine-treated patients. Patients treated with olanzapine during the acute phase showed smaller changes in weight and laboratory values during the open-label extension.
Overall BPD symptom severity was low by the end of the open-label olanzapine treatment period. The types of treatment emergent adverse events appeared to be consistent with those seen previously in patients treated with olanzapine. The direction and magnitude of effects on safety measures depended on the treatment received during the prior double-blind period.
Imprinting, characterized by unequal expression of the offspring's genes in a parent-of-origin dependent manner, has been functionally implicated in brain development and in psychiatric disorders. In this study, unambiguous distortion in paternal but not maternal transmission of the disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6556547 (T/G) clearly indicated the presence of parent-of-origin effect (POE) in the GABAA receptor β2 subunit gene (GABRB2). ‘Flipping’ of allelic mRNA expression in heterozygotes of SNP rs2229944 (C/T) and the observed two-tiered distribution of mRNA expression levels in heterozygotes of the disease-associated SNP rs1816071 (G/A) furnished important support for the occurrence of imprinting at GABRB2. Imprinting in effect introduced heterozygotes from different parents-of-origin endowed with dissimilar mRNA expression capabilities. The deficit of upper-tiered expressions accounted for the lowered mRNA expression levels in the schizophrenic heterozygotes. This pointed to the necessity of differentiating between two kinds of heterozygotes of different parental origins in disease association studies on GABRB2. Bisulfite sequencing revealed hypermethylation in the neighborhood of SNP rs1816071, and methylation differences between controls and schizophrenia patients. Notably, allele-specific methylation was observed at the disease-associated SNPs rs6556547 and rs1816071. These findings raised the possibility that CpG methylation status of these sites could have an impact on the expression of GABRB2 and the risk of schizophrenia. Furthermore, the occurrence of imprinting and allele-specific methylation in the schizophrenia candidate gene GABRB2 was compatible with the epigenetic hypothesis for schizophrenia pathophysiology, thereby calling for the need to explore the role of epigenetic factors in mediating susceptibility to schizophrenia.
To investigate the effect of Chinese herb Danshen-Dahuang on learning and memory ability in rats with Alzheimer disease (AD) induced by D-galactose and AlCl3 and its possible mechanisms.
The AD model was produced by injecting D-galactose and AlCl3 intraperitoneally for 90 days. Since the 20th day of D-galactose and AlCl3 intraperitoneal injection, the rats in Danshen-Dahuang group had been treated with Danshen-Dahuang extraction by intragastric administration for 70 days. Subsequently,learning and memory ability of the mice was evaluated by Morris water maze and hippocampal gene expression of APP, PS1 was tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Rats intragastric administration with Danshen-Dahuang, mice had shorter latency (P< 0.05) and less error times (P< 0.05) in water maze test compared with those in AD model group. At the same time, Danshen-Dahuang down regulated the expression of APP, PS1 mRNA (P< 0.05) in hippocampus.
Danshen-Dahuang improves the learning and memory ability of AD rats, its mechanism may be related to the downregulated expression of APP, PS1 mRNA.
To study on mental health status of the freshman and graduates in five different universities.
The 1022 freshman and 956 college graduates from five different universities were tested with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). They came from one was general university, two technological universities, one is medical university, one is agricultural university.
All of the freshman and college graduates’ mental health status is inferior to the contemporaries; there are about 8.5% freshman and 11.4% graduates who have psychological problems. the SCL-90 factor scores of liberal arts students are higher than those of the science in freshman and graduates. There is significant difference between two groups (P< 0.05~P< 0.01). among the five different universities, freshman is same, but in graduates of five different universities, medical graduates have a better mental health status than other college's students do.
It is necessary that positive educating mental health status to college students’ and trained always-cheerful character and stable mood so level of mental health status of college freshman and graduates will be improved.
The relative effect of the atypical antipsychotic drugs and conventional agents on neurocognition in patients with early-stage schizophrenia has not been comprehensively determined.
The present study aimed to assess the cognitive effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition under naturalistic treatment conditions.
In a 12 months open-label, multicenter study, 698 patients with early-stage schizophrenia (< 5 years) were monotherapy with chlorpromazine, sulpiride, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or aripiprazole. Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Visual Reproduction Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised Digit Symbol Test and Digit-span Task Test, Trail Making Tests Part A and Part B, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered at baseline and 12 months follow-up evaluation. The primary outcome was change in a cognitive composite score after 12 months of treatment.
Compared with scores at baseline, the composite cognitive test scores and individual test scores had significant improvement for all seven treatment groups at 12-month follow-up evaluation (all p-values ≤ 0.013). However, olanzapine and quetiapine provided greater improvement than that provided by chlorpromazine and sulpiride in the composite score, processing speed and executive function (all p-values ≤ 0.045).
Both conventional and atypical antipsychotic medication long-term maintenance treatment can benefit congitive function in patients with early-stage schizophrenia, but olanzapine and quetiapine may be superior to chlorpromazine and sulpiride in improving some areas of neurocognitive function.
Previously the GABA(A) receptor beta-2 subunit gene GABRB2 was found to be associated with schizophrenia (SCZ). for SNPs and haplotypes in GRBRB2, the associations with bipolar disorder (BPD), the functional consequences on GABRB2 expression and their relationship to demographic and clinical characteristics in BPD and SCZ remain to be elucidated.
Case-control analysis was performed for association study of GABRB2 with BPD, and its mRNA expression in postmortem BPD brains was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Quantitative trait analysis was subsequently employed to assess the covariate effects of demographic and clinical characteristics on genotypic correlation of GABRB2 expression in SCZ and BPD.
Significant association of GABRB2 with BPD and reduction in GABRB2 mRNA expression in BPD brains were observed in the present study. Duration of illness (DOI) was found to be a significant covariate for the correlation of the disease-associated SNPs rs1816071, rs1816072 and rs187269 with GABRB2 expression in both SCZ and BPD. for individuals with homozygous major genotypes of these SNPs, while GABRB2 expression increased with age in the controls, it decreased with DOI and age in SCZ, and with DOI in BPD. with age of onset as covariate, these three SNPs were significantly correlated with antipsychotic dosage in SCZ.
These results have thus revealed correlations of GABRB2 SNPs and expression not only with the occurrence of SCZ and BPD, but also with the clinical characteristics of patients, therefore providing support for a shared etiological role played by the gene in both diseases.
To study on Personal Characteristics of the freshman and graduates in five different universities.
The 1022 freshman and 956 graduates from five different universities were tested with the Eysenck Personality Questiornaire (EPQ). They came from one was general university, two technological universities, one is medical university, one is agricultural university.
Distribution of freshman and graduates personal characteristics in various sexes and universities is different. There are 19% and 12% of freshman with some psychological problem were P type and N type respectively according to neuroticism scale of EPQ, 64% of that were unstable temperament; 31% of the freshman who were unstable temperament and 25% were mental health status was extroversion disposition. But in graduates are 42% and 34% ( P type and N type) respectively according to neuroticism scale of EPQ. Unstable temperament is 58% and mental health status was extroversion disposition is 39%.
The freshman and graduates psychological health of Shanxi Province of China is poor and should be paid more attention. the psychological state is related to different universities. the freshman and graduates are associated with personal characteristics, unstable professions, emotional trouble and passive attitude to the value and so on.
We examined the efficacy and safety of low vs. moderate olanzapine doses for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the largest controlled clinical trial ever conducted in this population.
This 12-week, double-blind trial involved patients 18-65 years with a diagnosis of DSM-IV BPD randomized to receive 2.5mg/day olanzapine (N=150), 5-10mg/day olanzapine (N=148), or placebo (N=153). The primary efficacy measure was the change from baseline-to-endpoint (last-observation-carried-forward) on the Zanarini Rating Scale for BPD (ZAN-BPD) total score. Rate of response and time-to-response were also examined (response defined as a >=50% reduction in ZAN-BPD total score).
Mean baseline ZAN-BPD total scores ranged from 17.01 to 17.42, indicating moderate symptom severity. Treatment with OLZ5-10 was associated with significantly greater mean change from baseline-to-endpoint in ZAN-BPD total score than placebo (-8.50 vs. -6.79, p=.010). Response rates were significantly higher for OLZ5-10 (73.6%) than for OLZ2.5 (60.1%, p=.018) and placebo (57.8%, p=.006). Time-to-response was significantly shorter for OLZ5-10 than placebo (p=.028). Treatment-emergent adverse events seen more frequently in the olanzapine groups included somnolence, increased appetite, and weight gain. Mean weight change from baseline-to-endpoint was 2.09kg for OLZ 2.5, 3.17kg for OLZ5-10, and 0.02kg for placebo.
The results of this study suggest that moderate doses of olanzapine (5-10mg/day) are effective in the treatment of overall borderline psychopathology. Also, the types of adverse events observed with olanzapine treatment were similar to those seen previously in adult populations.
Childhoods in urban or rural environments may differentially affect risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we leveraged on dramatic urbanization and rural-urban migration since the 1980s in China to explore the hypothesis that rural or urban childhoods may differentially influence memory processing and neural responses to neutral and aversive stimuli.
Explore the underlying mechanisms of childhood environment effect on brain function and neuropsychiatric risk.
We examined 420 adult subjects with similar current socioeconomic status and living in Beijing, China, but with differing rural (n = 227) or urban (n = 193) childhoods. In an episodic memory paradigm scanned in a 3 T GE MRI, subjects viewed blocks of neutral or aversive pictures in the encoding and retrieval sessions.
Episodic memory accuracy for neutral stimuli was less than for aversive stimuli (P < 0.001). However, subjects with rural childhoods apparently performed less accurately for memory of aversive but not neutral stimuli (P < 0.01). In subjects with rural childhoods, there was relatively increased engagement of bilateral striatum at encoding, increased engagement of bilateral hippocampus at retrieval of neutral and aversive stimuli, and increased engagement of amygdala at aversive retrieval (P < 0.05 FDR corrected, cluster size > 50).
Rural or urban childhoods appear associated with physiological and behavioural differences, particularly in the neural processing of aversive episodic memory at medial temporal and striatal brain regions. It remains to be explored the extent to which these effects relate to individual risk for neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Flax seed meal (FSM) is rich in various nutrients, especially CP and energy, and can be used as animal protein feed. In animal husbandry production, it is a long-term goal to replace soybean meal (SBM) in animal feed with other plant protein feed. However, studies on the effects of replacing SBM with FSM in fattening sheep are limited. The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of replacing a portion of SBM with FSM on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis and growth performance in sheep. Thirty-six Dorper × Small Thin-Tailed crossbred rams (BW = 40.4 ± 1.73 kg, mean ± SD) were randomly assigned into four groups. The dietary treatments (forage/concentrate, 45 : 55) were isocaloric according to the nutrient requirements of rams. Soybean meal was replaced with FSM at different levels (DM basis): (1) 18% SBM (18SBM), (2) 12% SBM and 6% FSM (6FSM), (3) 6% SBM and 12% FSM (12FSM) and (4) 18% FSM (18FSM). The rams were fed in individual pens for 60 days, with the first 10 days for adaptation to diets, and then the digestibility of nutrients was determined. There was no significant difference in DM intake, but quadratic (P < 0.001) effects on the average daily gain and feed efficiency were detected, with the highest values in the 6FSM and 12FSM groups. For DM and NDF digestibility, quadratic effects were observed with the higher values in the 6FSM and 12FSM groups, but the digestibility of CP linearly decreased with the increase in FSM in the diet (P = 0.043). There was a quadratic (P < 0.001) effect of FSM inclusion rate on the estimated microbial CP yield. However, the values of intestinally absorbable dietary protein decreased linearly (P < 0.001). For the supply of metabolisable protein, both the linear (P = 0.001) and quadratic (P = 0.044) effects were observed with the lowest value in the 18FSM group. Overall, the results indicated that SBM can be effectively replaced by FSM in the diets of fattening sheep and the optimal proportion was 12.0% under the conditions of this experiment.
Lassa fever (LF) is increasingly recognised as an important rodent-borne viral haemorrhagic fever presenting a severe public health threat to sub-Saharan West Africa. In 2017–18, LF caused an unprecedented epidemic in Nigeria and the situation was worsening in 2018–19. This work aims to study the epidemiological features of epidemics in different Nigerian regions and quantify the association between reproduction number (R) and state rainfall. We quantify the infectivity of LF by the reproduction numbers estimated from four different growth models: the Richards, three-parameter logistic, Gompertz and Weibull growth models. LF surveillance data are used to fit the growth models and estimate the Rs and epidemic turning points (τ) in different regions at different time periods. Cochran's Q test is further applied to test the spatial heterogeneity of the LF epidemics. A linear random-effect regression model is adopted to quantify the association between R and state rainfall with various lag terms. Our estimated Rs for 2017–18 (1.33 with 95% CI 1.29–1.37) was significantly higher than those for 2016–17 (1.23 with 95% CI: (1.22, 1.24)) and 2018–19 (ranged from 1.08 to 1.36). We report spatial heterogeneity in the Rs for epidemics in different Nigerian regions. We find that a one-unit (mm) increase in average monthly rainfall over the past 7 months could cause a 0.62% (95% CI 0.20%–1.05%)) rise in R. There is significant spatial heterogeneity in the LF epidemics in different Nigerian regions. We report clear evidence of rainfall impacts on LF epidemics in Nigeria and quantify the impact.