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Electro- and diffusio-phoresis of particles correspond respectively to the transport of particles under electric field and solute concentration gradients. Such interfacial transport phenomena take their origin in a diffuse layer close to the particle surface, and the motion of the particle is force free. In the case of electrophoresis, it is further expected that the stress acting on the moving particle vanishes locally as a consequence of local electroneutrality. But the argument does not apply to diffusiophoresis, which takes its origin in solute concentration gradients. In this paper we investigate further the local and global force balance on a particle undergoing diffusiophoresis. We calculate the local tension applied on the particle surface and show that, counter-intuitively, the local force on the particle does not vanish for diffusiophoresis, in spite of the global force being zero, as expected. Incidentally, our description allows us to clarify the osmotic balance in diffusiophoresis, which has been a source of debate in recent years. We explore various cases, including hard and soft interactions, as well as porous particles, and provide analytic predictions for the local force balance in these various systems. The existence of local stresses may induce deformation of soft particles undergoing diffusiophoresis, hence suggesting applications in terms of particle separation based on capillary diffusiophoresis.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
The present study focused on parents’ social cue use in relation to young children's attention. Participants were ten parent–child dyads; all children were 36 to 60 months old and were either typically developing (TD) or were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children wore a head-mounted camera that recorded the proximate child view while their parent played with them. The study compared the following between the TD and ASD groups: (a) frequency of parent's gesture use; (b) parents’ monitoring of their child's face; and (c) how children looked at parents’ gestures. Results from Bayesian estimation indicated that, compared to the TD group, parents of children with ASD produced more gestures, more closely monitored their children's faces, and provided more scaffolding for their children's visual experiences. Our findings suggest the importance of further investigating parents’ visual and gestural scaffolding as a potential developmental mechanism for children's early learning, including for children with ASD.
In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at $z\sim7$ has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
We study runaway stellar collisions in primordial star clusters and formation of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using cosmological simulations, we identify eight atomic-cooling halos in which the star clusters form. We follow stellar and dark matter (DM) dynamics for 3Myr using hybrid N-body simulations. We find that the runaway stellar collisions occur in all star clusters and IMBHs with masses ∼400–1900M⊙ form. Performing additional N-body simulations, we explore evolutions of the IMBHs in the star clusters for 15 Myr. The IMBH masses grow via stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) to ∼700–2500 M⊙. The TDE rates are ∼0.3–1.3 Myr−1. DM motions affect the star cluster evolutions and reduce the TDE rates. The IMBHs may subsequently grow to SMBHs by gas supply through galaxy mergers or large-scale gas inflows, or they may remain within or around the clusters.
In order to investigate the distinguishability about the progenitors of FeCCSNe and ECSNe, we calculate the luminosities and spectra of their pre-SN neutrinos and estimate the number of events at neutrino detectors.
Little is known about the economic benefits of cognitive remediation and supported employment (CR + SE). The present study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of CR + SE compared with traditional vocational services (TVS).
Individuals with mental illness and low cognitive function were recruited at six sites in Japan. A total of 111 participants were randomly allocated to the CR + SE group or the TVS group. Clinical and vocational outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Service utilization data were collected monthly. The data on outcomes and costs were combined to examine cost-effectiveness.
The data were obtained from a total of 92 participants. The CR + SE group resulted in better vocational and clinical outcomes (employment rate, 62.2%; work tenures, 78.6 days; cognitive improvement, 0.5) than the TVS group (19.1%, 24.9 days and 0.2). There was no significant difference in mean total costs between the groups (CR + SE group: $9823, s.d. = $6372, TVS group: $11 063, s.d. = $11 263) with and without adjustment for covariates. However, mean cost for medical services in the CR + SE group was significantly lower than that in the TVS group after adjusting covariates (Β = −$3979, 95% confidence interval −$7816 to −$143, p = 0.042). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for vocational outcomes illustrated the high probabilities (approximately 70%) of the CR + SE group being more cost-effective than TVS when society is not willing to pay additional costs.
CR + SE appears to be a cost-effective option for people with mental illness who have low cognitive functioning when compared with TVS.
In this paper we present the results of spectroscopic observations for 34 emission-line stars (ELSs) in the Orion belt region, which were detected in an extensive survery. Spectral classification and the intensities of Hα and Hβ emission have revealed that the observed ELSs are probably T-Tauri type stars.
Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.
Bone contouring is currently the best treatment for fibro-osseous lesions after bone growth arrest. Navigation systems available for this surgery allow intra-operative visualisation with improved cosmetic outcomes. However, conventional navigation systems using superficial skin registration cannot prevent subtle discrepancies.
To address this problem, we used a non-invasive cranial bone registration that uses patient-specific dental templates to maintain exact registration. We created the preset goal using the mirror image of the unaffected side for unilateral lesions, and using images obtained before the onset of symptoms for bilateral lesions. This system achieved precise pre-operative simulation. A sound aid in the navigation system provided information regarding proximity to critical structures and to the preset goal.
We used this system to contour fibro-osseous lesions in three patients. All patients achieved good facial contours and improvement in symptoms.
This method offers a safe, rapid surgical aid in treating orbital fibro-osseous lesions.
To report magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with an SLC26A4 gene mutation who had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss.
A 13-year-old girl had bilateral and symmetric low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Upon genetic testing, a heterozygous c.1105A > G (p.K369E) mutation of the SLC26A4 gene was detected. Mild endolymphatic hydrops in the right cochlea and marked endolymphatic hydrops in the left vestibulum were seen by magnetic resonance imaging 4 hours after an intravenous gadolinium injection.
This is the first reported case of a patient with the SLC26A4 gene mutation c.1105A > G (p.K369E) who had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Co-occurrence of cochlear and vestibular endolymphatic hydrops suggests an association with that pathology.
A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted during January to August 2001 to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira serovars in five species of livestock in Thailand and to identify associations between seropositivity and sex, age, species and geographical locations. Sera from 14188 livestock (9288 cattle, 1376 buffaloes, 1898 pigs, 1110 sheep, 516 goats) from 36 provinces were tested for antibodies against 24 Leptospira serovars with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for which the criterion for a positive result was set at a titre of ⩾1:50. A total of 1635 [11·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11·0–12·0] animals were seropositive and the highest prevalence (30·4%, 95% CI 28·2–32·5) of evidence of infection was recorded in the northeast region followed by the central region (22·2%, 95% CI 20–24·6). Seroprevalences recorded for cattle, buffaloes, pigs, sheep and goats were 9·9% (95% CI 9·3–10·5), 30·5% (95% CI 28·1–32·9), 10·8% (95% CI 9·5–12·3), 4·7% (95% CI 3·6–6·1) and 7·9% (95% CI 5·8–10·5), respectively. Buffaloes were 3·1 (95% CI 2·8–3·4) times more likely than cattle to be seropositive. The most commonly detected antibodies were against L. interrogans serovars Ranarum, Sejroe, and Mini in cattle, Mini, Sejroe, and Bratislava in buffaloes, Ranarum, Pomona, and Bratislava in pigs and Mini, Shermani, and Ranarum in sheep and goats. Seroprevalences in cattle and buffaloes trended upwards with increasing age and there was no difference in the risk of seropositivity between males and females.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
We have examined the intrinsic surface physical property of a CrO2 thin film by means of surface sensitive photoemission spectroscopy. Epitaxial thin film of CrO2(100) has been grown on TiO2(100) by a closed chemical vapor deposition method using a Cr8O21 precursor. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) observations find that epitaxial growth of rutile-phase CrO2 occurs to the top monolayer of the film. Surface sensitive x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show a finite intensity in the region of the Fermi energy. The result evidences that the physical nature of near topmost layer of CrO2 thin film is metallic. Progress of understanding of the surface physical property of CrO2 thin film helps not only perform a reliable photoemission study to understand the physics of ferromagnetic metal in CrO2, but also develop the CrO2-based devices using a half-metallic nature for spintronics applications.
High reliability, low power consumption and high speed laser diodes are required for optical interconnect. We developed 1060nm VCSELs with InGaAs/GaAs strained quantum wells, oxide-confined and double intra-cavity structures for that purpose. As for the power consumption, low power dissipation of 0.14 mW/Gbps at 10 Gbps operation has been achieved. Clear eye openings up to 20 Gbps were confirmed at a low bias current of 5 mA. In the reliability test, accelerated aging tests were performed up to 5,000 hours at 6 mA in three different temperatures, 70 oC, 90 oC and 120 oC. The total number of the VCSELs was 4,898 pcs (approximately 5,000). No failure was observed. Under the normal operating condition of 40 oC and 6 mA, the total device-hours was 7.75×107 hours assuming Ea = 0.35 eV according to Telcordia GR-468-CORE. The random failure rate of 30 FIT with the confidence level (C.L.) of 90 % and 12 FIT with the C.L. of 60 % were estimated. To estimate the wear-out lifetime and the number of FITs, high stressed aging tests with 170 oC and 6 mA were performed. With the acceleration factor of Ea = 0.7 eV in the wear-out failure, the median lifetime was 3,000 hours which was equivalent to 300 years in 40 oC ambient. The FIT numbers due to the wear-out were estimated as 0.3 FIT for 10 years. Compared with the random failure rate of 30 FIT, the wear-out failure rates are considered to be negligible. In the extremely long term aging test with 90 oC and 6 mA, no wear-out trend has been observed in both threshold current and optical power up to 20,000 hours operation. These results indicate that 1060 nm VCSEL is promising light source used in optical interconnect for high performance computers and data centers.