To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Electro- and diffusio-phoresis of particles correspond respectively to the transport of particles under electric field and solute concentration gradients. Such interfacial transport phenomena take their origin in a diffuse layer close to the particle surface, and the motion of the particle is force free. In the case of electrophoresis, it is further expected that the stress acting on the moving particle vanishes locally as a consequence of local electroneutrality. But the argument does not apply to diffusiophoresis, which takes its origin in solute concentration gradients. In this paper we investigate further the local and global force balance on a particle undergoing diffusiophoresis. We calculate the local tension applied on the particle surface and show that, counter-intuitively, the local force on the particle does not vanish for diffusiophoresis, in spite of the global force being zero, as expected. Incidentally, our description allows us to clarify the osmotic balance in diffusiophoresis, which has been a source of debate in recent years. We explore various cases, including hard and soft interactions, as well as porous particles, and provide analytic predictions for the local force balance in these various systems. The existence of local stresses may induce deformation of soft particles undergoing diffusiophoresis, hence suggesting applications in terms of particle separation based on capillary diffusiophoresis.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
The present study focused on parents’ social cue use in relation to young children's attention. Participants were ten parent–child dyads; all children were 36 to 60 months old and were either typically developing (TD) or were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children wore a head-mounted camera that recorded the proximate child view while their parent played with them. The study compared the following between the TD and ASD groups: (a) frequency of parent's gesture use; (b) parents’ monitoring of their child's face; and (c) how children looked at parents’ gestures. Results from Bayesian estimation indicated that, compared to the TD group, parents of children with ASD produced more gestures, more closely monitored their children's faces, and provided more scaffolding for their children's visual experiences. Our findings suggest the importance of further investigating parents’ visual and gestural scaffolding as a potential developmental mechanism for children's early learning, including for children with ASD.
In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
We study runaway stellar collisions in primordial star clusters and formation of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using cosmological simulations, we identify eight atomic-cooling halos in which the star clusters form. We follow stellar and dark matter (DM) dynamics for 3Myr using hybrid N-body simulations. We find that the runaway stellar collisions occur in all star clusters and IMBHs with masses ∼400–1900M⊙ form. Performing additional N-body simulations, we explore evolutions of the IMBHs in the star clusters for 15 Myr. The IMBH masses grow via stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) to ∼700–2500 M⊙. The TDE rates are ∼0.3–1.3 Myr−1. DM motions affect the star cluster evolutions and reduce the TDE rates. The IMBHs may subsequently grow to SMBHs by gas supply through galaxy mergers or large-scale gas inflows, or they may remain within or around the clusters.
In order to investigate the distinguishability about the progenitors of FeCCSNe and ECSNe, we calculate the luminosities and spectra of their pre-SN neutrinos and estimate the number of events at neutrino detectors.
Little is known about the economic benefits of cognitive remediation and supported employment (CR + SE). The present study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of CR + SE compared with traditional vocational services (TVS).
Individuals with mental illness and low cognitive function were recruited at six sites in Japan. A total of 111 participants were randomly allocated to the CR + SE group or the TVS group. Clinical and vocational outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Service utilization data were collected monthly. The data on outcomes and costs were combined to examine cost-effectiveness.
The data were obtained from a total of 92 participants. The CR + SE group resulted in better vocational and clinical outcomes (employment rate, 62.2%; work tenures, 78.6 days; cognitive improvement, 0.5) than the TVS group (19.1%, 24.9 days and 0.2). There was no significant difference in mean total costs between the groups (CR + SE group: $9823, s.d. = $6372, TVS group: $11 063, s.d. = $11 263) with and without adjustment for covariates. However, mean cost for medical services in the CR + SE group was significantly lower than that in the TVS group after adjusting covariates (Β = −$3979, 95% confidence interval −$7816 to −$143, p = 0.042). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for vocational outcomes illustrated the high probabilities (approximately 70%) of the CR + SE group being more cost-effective than TVS when society is not willing to pay additional costs.
CR + SE appears to be a cost-effective option for people with mental illness who have low cognitive functioning when compared with TVS.
In this paper we present the results of spectroscopic observations for 34 emission-line stars (ELSs) in the Orion belt region, which were detected in an extensive survery. Spectral classification and the intensities of Hα and Hβ emission have revealed that the observed ELSs are probably T-Tauri type stars.
Ideal magnetohydrodynamics (IMHD) is strongly constrained by an infinite number of microscopic constraints expressing mass, entropy and magnetic flux conservation in each infinitesimal fluid element, the latter preventing magnetic reconnection. By contrast, in the Taylor relaxation model for formation of macroscopically self-organized plasma equilibrium states, all these constraints are relaxed save for the global magnetic fluxes and helicity. A Lagrangian variational principle is presented that leads to a new, fully dynamical, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (RxMHD), such that all static solutions are Taylor states but also allows state with flow. By postulating that some long-lived macroscopic current sheets can act as barriers to relaxation, separating the plasma into multiple relaxation regions, a further generalization, multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) is developed.
Bone contouring is currently the best treatment for fibro-osseous lesions after bone growth arrest. Navigation systems available for this surgery allow intra-operative visualisation with improved cosmetic outcomes. However, conventional navigation systems using superficial skin registration cannot prevent subtle discrepancies.
To address this problem, we used a non-invasive cranial bone registration that uses patient-specific dental templates to maintain exact registration. We created the preset goal using the mirror image of the unaffected side for unilateral lesions, and using images obtained before the onset of symptoms for bilateral lesions. This system achieved precise pre-operative simulation. A sound aid in the navigation system provided information regarding proximity to critical structures and to the preset goal.
We used this system to contour fibro-osseous lesions in three patients. All patients achieved good facial contours and improvement in symptoms.
This method offers a safe, rapid surgical aid in treating orbital fibro-osseous lesions.
Alumina matrix solidification is a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique used to immobilize radioactive iodine (129I) in the form of silver iodide. In the present study, an alumina matrix solidification sample with a porosity of 12.9% was obtained by performing HIP at 175 MPa and 1200°C for 3 hours on a simulated spent silver-sorbent saturated with stable iodine. Material Characterization Centre-1 (MCC-1) leaching tests for the simulated waste form were performed using hydrosulfide (HS-) as a reductant at concentrations ranging from 3 × 10-7 M to 3 × 10-3 M and at pH values ranging from 8.0 to 12.5. Leached iodine concentrations were below the detection limit for ICP-MS measurements at HS- concentrations of 3 × 10-7 M and 3 × 10-5 M. This result was due to the stability of AgI. At an HS- concentration of 3 × 10-3 M, iodine leaching rapidly increased within 10 days. The maximum iodine concentration in the solution was 4.33 × 10-3 M, which corresponds to 85% dissolution of the initial iodine. This value was measured after 552 days under an HS- concentration of 3 × 10-3 M at pH 11. An analysis of specimen cross-sections suggested the following reaction: 2AgI + HS- = Ag2S + 2I- + H+. The pH affected matrix aluminum dissolution but did not significantly affect the iodine leaching behavior. Furthermore, the normalized mass loss of iodine was larger than that of aluminum by a factor greater than 104, which is due to the large porosity and the dissolution of interior AgI of the solid.
To report magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with an SLC26A4 gene mutation who had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss.
A 13-year-old girl had bilateral and symmetric low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Upon genetic testing, a heterozygous c.1105A > G (p.K369E) mutation of the SLC26A4 gene was detected. Mild endolymphatic hydrops in the right cochlea and marked endolymphatic hydrops in the left vestibulum were seen by magnetic resonance imaging 4 hours after an intravenous gadolinium injection.
This is the first reported case of a patient with the SLC26A4 gene mutation c.1105A > G (p.K369E) who had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Co-occurrence of cochlear and vestibular endolymphatic hydrops suggests an association with that pathology.
To decrease the amount of precious metal usage for Pd-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation, various amount of Cu-contained Pd bimetallic nanoparticle-supported solid base hydrotalcite catalyst (PdxCuy-PVP/HTs) were prepared and applied for aerobic benzyl alcohol oxidation. It was found that the addition of Cu atoms into Pd in the range of 0-40% provided a similar or a little superior activity to that of Pd100-PVP catalyst, whereas a large quantity of co-existence Cu (>40%) gradually decreased their activity of the catalyst. The aerobic benzyl alcohol oxidation over Pd80Cu20-PVP/HT served 77% yield and 95% selectivity towards benzaldehyde at 313 K for 5 h in toluene under O2 flow. X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies and scanning transmission electron microscopy-high angle annuar dark field (STEM-HAADF) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses suggested that Cu atoms doping into Pd(0) NP influenced not only localized nanostructure but also oxidation state around Pd atoms. We suggested that substitution of precious metal with small amount of transition metals such as Cu lead to geometric/electronic changes in active sites would be one of nice strategies for reducing the cost for the catalyst in the oxidation process.
The meso-scale hexagonally packed order structures were obtained by solvent casting from the immiscible polymer blend solutions. The order structures were the result of phase separation occurred at the evaporation front during the solvent casting, the so-called dissipative system. The order domains were flat spheres or ellipses on the matrix surface depending on the combination of polymer blends and solvent, the diameter of spheres were tunable from 0.5 to 3 μm by the casting condition, such as the solvent used for mixing and the evaporation rate. Three blend systems, NBR/SBR, NBR/BR and PMMA/BR, formed two dimensional order structures with the domain size in μm-scale by solvent casting from those homogeneous solutions. The conditions to obtain the two dimensional meso-scale order structure were evaluated.
In the previous investigation, piezoelectric properties of the ‘Aligned-type’ in which the piezoelectric-ceramic particles are formed in linear aggregates in the rubber, remarkable piezoelectric properties were confirmed. In this investigation, to further enhance the piezoelectric properties of the Aligned-type, the influence of the matrix properties was investigated. The properties on which we focused were the dielectric constant and the Young’s modulus. Four kinds of matrix materials whose dielectric constant and Young’s modulus are different from each other; Silicone gel, Silicone rubber, Urethane rubber and Poly-methyl-methacrylate were investigated. As a result of measurement of the piezoelectric strain constant d33 of the Aligned-Type, it was confirmed that though the influence of the dielectric constant of the matrix material was small, the lower the Young’s modulus of the matrix was, the higher d33 was.
Hydroxyapatite-chondroitin sulfate (HAp/ChS) composites were synthesized with calcium hydroxide suspension and phosphoric acid solution containing ChS through a precipitation method, and the microparticles were then fabricated by a spray dry method with the suspension of the composites. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) with negative charge or lysozyme (LYZ) with positive charge at pH7.0 was adsorbed onto the HAp/ChS microparticles. However, the HAp/ChS microparticles adsorbed LYZ more than the HAp microparticles compared with BSA due to the electrostatic interaction from negatively-charged sulfate or carboxyl group of ChS in the composites. The release property of BSA from the HAp/ChS microparticles was evaluated in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline (pH7.2). The HAp/ChS microparticles released quickly 100% of the adsorbed BSA, while HAp microparticles released 45% of BSA. These results indicated that incorporation of ChS in the microparticles controls the adsorption and release properties of protein due to the electrostatic interaction. The HAp/ChS microparticles therefore are a candidate of a carrier for drugs like vaccines.
A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted during January to August 2001 to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira serovars in five species of livestock in Thailand and to identify associations between seropositivity and sex, age, species and geographical locations. Sera from 14188 livestock (9288 cattle, 1376 buffaloes, 1898 pigs, 1110 sheep, 516 goats) from 36 provinces were tested for antibodies against 24 Leptospira serovars with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for which the criterion for a positive result was set at a titre of ⩾1:50. A total of 1635 [11·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11·0–12·0] animals were seropositive and the highest prevalence (30·4%, 95% CI 28·2–32·5) of evidence of infection was recorded in the northeast region followed by the central region (22·2%, 95% CI 20–24·6). Seroprevalences recorded for cattle, buffaloes, pigs, sheep and goats were 9·9% (95% CI 9·3–10·5), 30·5% (95% CI 28·1–32·9), 10·8% (95% CI 9·5–12·3), 4·7% (95% CI 3·6–6·1) and 7·9% (95% CI 5·8–10·5), respectively. Buffaloes were 3·1 (95% CI 2·8–3·4) times more likely than cattle to be seropositive. The most commonly detected antibodies were against L. interrogans serovars Ranarum, Sejroe, and Mini in cattle, Mini, Sejroe, and Bratislava in buffaloes, Ranarum, Pomona, and Bratislava in pigs and Mini, Shermani, and Ranarum in sheep and goats. Seroprevalences in cattle and buffaloes trended upwards with increasing age and there was no difference in the risk of seropositivity between males and females.