To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previous research has demonstrated that individual differences in conflict management predict second-language (L2) reading skill. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that this relation reflects the need to manage conflict from cross-linguistic interactions (CLI). A novel model specifying the relation between L2 reading skill, CLI, and the predictors of such interactions was tested in 253 L2 English speaking adults, using structural equation modeling. In support of the hypothesis, the findings revealed that stronger CLI was related to poorer L2 reading skill. In addition, variability in non-linguistic conflict management, as measured by executive attention tasks, and relative language dominance reliably predicted CLI. Specifically, better conflict management and lower L1 dominance corresponded to fewer interactions. These results fill a crucial gap by demonstrating for the first time that the ability to manage CLI is critical to L2 reading, and that both cognitive skills and language experience contribute to variability in these interactions.
In this work, we numerically investigated the achievable fidelities when controlling an effective three-qubit system consisting of a NV- color center in diamond with a nearby strongly coupled 13C nuclear spin by means of microwave- and radio-frequency pulses in the experimentally attractive low magnetic field regime. We find that gates with straightforward square driving pulses do not achieve the fidelity currently required for the fault-tolerant quantum computing models.
Crystal structure of a long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase newly found in Mg-Al-Gd ternary alloys was investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Mg-Al-Gd LPSO phase was confirmed to be constructed with 6-layer structural blocks, which is similar to the case of the 18R-type LPSO phases in the other Mg-TM-RE alloys. Atomic resolution high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM imaging revealed that Gd atoms are enriched in four layers instead of two layers and are ordered in a long range within the 6-layer structural block.
The electron beam welding technique was used to join Zr41Ti14Cu12Ni10Be23 bulk metallic glass (BMG) to crystalline pure Zr. Compositional, microstructural, and mechanical property variations across the welded interface were evaluated. It is shown that a crystalline layer develops close to the welding interface. Transmission electron microscopy of this layer indicates the crystalline phase to be tetragonal with lattice parameters close to that reported for Zr2Ni. However, the composition of this phase is different as it contains other alloying additions. The interface layer close to the bulk metallic glass side contains nanocrystalline Zr2Cu phase embedded in the glassy matrix. Nanoindentation experiments indicate that the hardness of the crystalline layer, although less than the bulk metallic glass, is more than the Zr itself. Commensurately, tensile tests indicate that the failure of the welded samples occurs at the Zr side rather than at the weld joint.
We report magnetic properties of [Ca2CoO3-δ]0.62CoO2 (Ca349) powders with various average size and the Bi- and Sr-doping effects on thermoelectric properties for the magnetically grain-aligned and densified Ca349 thick films. Magnetic anisotropy at 300 K depended on the initial average size of Ca349 powders and decreased with the decrease in the size. This presumably suggests that distortion of crystal structure was induced by a ball-milling process and led to the change of magnetic anisotropy. On the Bi- and Sr-doping effects, an obvious enhancement of thermoelectric properties did not emerge in the case of the Sr-doping, whereas the enhancement was observed for the Bi-doped Ca349 thick films. However, a drastic decrease of magnetic anisotropy was caused by the Bi-doping. For usage of the p-type layer in multilayered thermoelectric module, tuning of the Bi-doping levels in which both enhancement of thermoelectric properties and a certain level of magnetic anisotropy are achieved is required.
An investigation was conducted to determine the distribution, virulence gene profile and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains within a dairy farm in Kolkata, India by characterizing the STEC strains isolated from healthy dairy cow and calf stool samples, raw milk and farm floor swabs from July 2001 to March 2002. Primary screening by multiplex-PCR detected stx1 and stx2, the common virulence genes of STEC, in 18·9% of cow faeces, 32·4% of calf stool samples, 21·6% of farm floor swabs and 4·5% of raw milk samples and viable STEC were recovered from 4·5, 9·9, 8·1 and 1·8% of the corresponding PCR-positive samples. Strains harbouring stx1 (63·3%) and hlyA (53·3%) were frequently detected compared to eae (13·3%). Most of the strains harboured similar sets of reported virulence genes common among isolates from diarrhoea patients. Most of the strains also exhibited multidrug resistance, sorbitol fermentation and produced enterohaemolysin. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA–PCR (RAPD–PCR) profile of the STEC strains isolated from the farm milieu revealed diverse banding patterns and clonal analysis demonstrated that the strains from different sources were not identical but showed some genetic relatedness. The study demonstrates the potential of dairy farm for housing virulent STEC.
We investigated the process of Pb center generation during silicon oxidation following oxygen termination on a clean Si surface, based on which we discuss the microscopic origin of Pb centers. We constructed a UHV-ESR system which enabled measurements to be carried out at a low temperature of around 100 – 120 K, and used the system to study the Si(111)-7×7 surface after slight exposure to O2. Based on the observed ESR spectra, we discuss the electronic structure of the Si(111)-7×7 surface.
We describe the design and current status of the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), a compact cm-wave interferometer operating at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. With 20-cm diameter primary antenna elements operating over the frequency range 26 − 36 GHz, DASI is optimized to measure the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) over the multipole range 140 − 920, (corresponding to scales of 25′ − 2°.6), as well as make high-sensitivity maps of the microwave sky. The telescope was built at the University of Chicago and deployed at the South Pole during the 1999-2000 austral summer.
While searching for Escherichia coli O157 in the aquatic environment of Calcutta using an immunodetection procedure, we fortuitously detected five strains of Citrobacter braakii, which cross-reacted with the commercially available O157 polyvalent antiserum. The five C. braakii isolates gave positive results when a sensitive dot-ELISA was performed with E. coli O157 monoclonal antibody. Further, the O157 monoclonal antibody recognized the bands of proteinase K treated whole cells of lipopolysaccharide of all the C. braakii isolates. Apart from weak reactions with two or three of the DNA probes, all the C. braakii strains did not hybridize with the other probes spanning the minimum region required for O157 O-antigen biosynthesis. These strains did not possess any of the virulence genes that are commonly found in the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) specially the serotype O157[ratio ]H7. Therefore, it appears that the serological cross-reaction between C. braakii and E. coli O157 antiserum is based on structural mimicry between the O-polysaccharide of C. braakii and E. coli O157.
An epidemiological study was carried out to find out the aetiological agent for diarrhoeal disorders in the cyclone and flood affected areas of Orissa, India. Rectal swabs collected from 107 hospitalized diarrhoea patients were bacteriologically analysed to isolate and identify the various enteropathogens. Detection of toxic genes among E. coli and V. cholerae was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Of the 107 rectal swabs analysed, 72·3% were positive for V. cholerae O1 Ogawa, 7·2% for V. cholerae O139, 1·2% for E. coli (EAggEC) and 1·2% for Shigella flexneri type 6. Using multiplex PCR assay it was found that all V. cholerae isolates were ctxA positive and El Tor biotype. Strains of V. cholerae O1 were observed to be resistant to nalidixic acid, furazolidone, streptomycin, co-trimoxazole and ampicillin. Except for nalidixic acid, the resistance pattern for O139 was identical to that of O1 strains. Representative strains of V. cholerae were further characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and ribotyping. Both O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains exhibited the R3 pattern of ribotype and belonged to a similar pattern of RAPD compared with that of Calcutta strains. Early bacteriological and epidemiological investigations have revealed the dominance of V. cholerae O1 among the hospitalized patients in cyclone affected areas of Orissa. Drinking water scarcity and poor sanitation were thought to be responsible for these diarrhoeal outbreaks. Timely reporting and implementation of appropriate control measures could contain a vital epidemic in this area.