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Every year in the month of September, National Suicide Prevention Week is celebrated. The goal of suicide prevention week is to inform the public about suicide prevention, primarily the warning signs of suicide. However, the impact of this month on the general population is unknown. The Google trends show how frequent web searches have been performed for a particular search-term, which provide an approximation of the people’s interest.
To evaluate public interest in suicide prevention by analyzing the google trends of “Suicide Prevention” search-term.
We estimated the interest in such topics by running the google trends data of the last decade by using the filter [Search Term:“Suicide Prevention”, Locations: “United States” and Time Ranges “ 2010 to 2020”].
During this specific interval, people have searched “Suicide Prevention” most frequently during the month of September (month of National Suicide Prevention week). Conversely, in the other months, interest in “suicide prevention” fluctuated between little to none. The only other time people have shown interest in Suicide prevention, other than the month of September, was with suicide news in the media, such as the death of a celebrity by suicide, or suicide-related TV shows. [Figure]
Although it is not definitive, it gives some idea that National Suicide Prevention week has a considerable impact on population interest. Since we did not observe sufficient public interest in other months, there should be frequent and systematic efforts to spread suicide prevention awareness among the general population.
Substance use disorders are highly prevalent, affecting millions of Americans directly (social, occupational, and health problems) and indirectly (billions of dollars in health care costs and lost revenues due to disability). This section briefly introduces the chemical classification and neurobehavioral properties of the most commonly misused substances.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), poverty, violence and harmful alcohol/substance are associated with poor mental health outcomes in the general population. These risks are likely to be exacerbated among Female Sex Workers (FSWs), however there are few studies examining risks factors for mental health problems among FSWs. We examine the prevalence and correlates of common mental health problems including suicidal behaviour among FSWs in Kenya.
Maisha Fiti is a longitudinal study among FSWs randomly selected from Sex Worker Outreach Programme (SWOP) clinics across Nairobi. Baseline data were collected from June-December 2019. Mental health problems were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, the Generalised Anxiety Disorder tool (GAD-7) for anxiety, and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ-17) for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Recent suicidal behaviour was defined as reported suicide attempt or suicidal ideation in the past 30 days. Other measurement tools included the WHO Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) score, WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, and the WHO ASSIST tool (to measure harmful alcohol/substance use in the past 3 months). Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were conducted in Stata 16.1.
Of 1039 eligible FSWs, 1003 FSWs took part in the study (response rate: 96%) with a mean age of 33.7 years. The prevalence of moderate/severe depression was 23.2% (95%CI: 20.7–25.9%), moderate/severe anxiety 11.0% (95%CI: 9.3–13.1%), PTSD 14.0% (95% CI: 12.2–16.5%) and recent suicidal behaviour 10.2% (95%CI: 8.5–12.2%) (2.6% suicide attempt; 10.0% suicidal ideation). Among women with any mental health problem 63.0% also had a harmful alcohol/substance use problem. One in four women (25%; 95%CI: 22.5–27.8%) had depression and/or anxiety and this was independently associated with higher ACE scores, hunger (skipped a meal in last week due to financial difficulties), death of a child, perceived sex work stigma and recent sexual/physical violence. PTSD was associated with higher ACE scores, hunger, increased STI prevalence (chlamydia trachomatis) and recent violence. Recent suicidal behaviour was associated with higher ACE scores, low literacy, hunger, and recent violence. Mental health problems and suicidal behaviour were less prevalent among women reporting social support.
The high burden of mental problems among FSWs indicates a need for accessible services tailored for FSWs alongside broader structural interventions addressing poverty, harmful alcohol/substance use and violence. High rates of ACEs among this population indicates the need to consider early childhood and family interventions to prevent poor mental health outcomes.
Funding: Medical Research Council and the UK Department of International Development
The study examined the diagnosis experience of midlife family caregivers of a patient with a blood cancer, exploring similarities and differences between parent caregivers and adult-child caregivers.
Participants were between 30 and 65 years old and were family caregivers of a living patient with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or lymphoma. We conducted semi-structured interviews with parent caregivers (n = 20) and adult-child caregivers (n = 19) and a thematic analysis of the interview data.
Both types of caregivers report the patient experiencing (1) mis- and missed diagnosis (facing delayed diagnosis or treatment and having symptoms dismissed or overlooked) and (2) emotional distress (being in shock and survival mode, struggling with uncertainty, and confronting mortality). Adult-child caregivers also experienced relational shifts in assuming control of their parent's care, sometimes despite geographic distance, and struggled to distribute the care burden among family members.
Significance of results
Differences between the caregivers’ experiences emerged based on the relational role and the patient's place in the lifespan. Findings can be used to inform the development of support resources to address the needs of each group.
Recently developed quantitative models of psychopathology (i.e., Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology) identify an Antagonistic Externalizing spectrum that captures the psychological disposition toward criminal and antisocial behavior. The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between Antagonistic psychopathology (and associated Five-Factor model Antagonism/Agreeableness) and neural functioning related to social-cognitive Theory of Mind using a large sample (N = 973) collected as part of the Human Connectome Project (Van Essen et al., 2013a). No meaningful relations between Antagonism/Antagonistic Externalizing and Theory of Mind-related neural activity or synchrony were observed (p < .005). We conclude by outlining methodological considerations (e.g., validity of social cognition task and low test–retest reliability of functional biomarkers) that may account for these null results, and present recommendations for future research.
There are two major forms of long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, which require activation of either N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In synapses in the perirhinal cortex we have directly compared the Ca2+ signalling mechanisms involved in NMDAR-LTD and mGluR-LTD. Whilst both forms of LTD involve Ca2+ release from intracellular stores the Ca2+ sensors involved are different; NMDAR-LTD involves calmodulin, whilst mGluR-LTD involves the neuronal Ca2+ sensor (NCS) protein NCS-1. In addition, there is a specific requirement for IP3 and PKC as well as protein interacting with C-kinase (PICK-1) in mGluR-LTD. NCS-1 binds directly to PICK1, via its BAR domain, in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Furthermore, the NCS-1-PICK1 association is stimulated by activation of mGluRs, but not NMDARs, and introduction of a PICK1 BAR domain fusion protein specifically blocks mGluR-LTD. Thus, NCS-1 is a component of a novel mechanism involved in mGluR-LTD.
This paper describes a tri-trophic analysis of the ecological dynamics of a crop, an insect pest, and a natural enemy of the insect pest. Worldwide wheat (Triticum Linnaeus) (Poaceae) production in 2018–2019 was estimated at over 700 million metric tons in 2018–2019. Wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a serious insect pest of wheat, is widely distributed in many parts of the world where wheat production occurs. Macroglenes penetrans (Kirby) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of S. mosellana, has successfully established in most wheat midge-infested areas. Mechanistic, or process-based, population models were used in this study to assess the interactive population dynamics of the three species, based on their respective life cycles and meteorological factors. The models were validated with survey data from multiple sites over numerous years (1991–2016). These simulation models helped to detail our understanding of the tri-trophic population dynamics and will help guide pest management decisions both prior to the growing season and until wheat heading, when wheat is no longer susceptible to S. mosellana. The associated models also help identify gaps in system knowledge, provide a foundation for evaluating future innovative management options, and evaluate the potential impact of a changing climate.
Postgraduate medical trainees experience high rates of burnout, but evidence regarding psychiatric trainees is missing. We aim to determine burnout rates among psychiatric trainees, and identify individual, educational and work-related factors associated with severe burnout.
In an online survey psychiatric trainees from 22 countries were asked to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS) and provide information on individual, educational and work-related parameters. Linear mixed models were used to predict the MBI-GS scores, and a generalized linear mixed model to predict severe burnout.
This is the largest study on burnout and training conditions among psychiatric trainees to date. Complete data were obtained from 1980 out of 7625 approached trainees (26%; range 17.8–65.6%). Participants were 31.9 (SD 5.3) years old with 2.8 (SD 1.9) years of training. Severe burnout was found in 726 (36.7%) trainees. The risk was higher for trainees who were younger (P < 0.001), without children (P = 0.010), and had not opted for psychiatry as a first career choice (P = 0.043). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, years in training and country differences in burnout, severe burnout remained associated with long working hours (P < 0.001), lack of supervision (P < 0.001), and not having regular time to rest (P = 0.001). Main findings were replicated in a sensitivity analysis with countries with response rate above 50%.
Besides previously described risk factors such as working hours and younger age, this is the first evidence of negative influence of lack of supervision and not opting for psychiatry as a first career choice on trainees’ burnout.
Quantitative models of psychopathology (i.e., HiTOP) propose that personality and psychopathology are intertwined, such that the various processes that characterize personality traits may be useful in describing and predicting manifestations of psychopathology. In the current study, we used data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 1050) to investigate neural activation following receipt of a reward during an fMRI task as one shared mechanism that may be related to the personality trait Extraversion (specifically its sub-component Agentic Extraversion) and internalizing psychopathology. We also conducted exploratory analyses on the links between neural activation following reward receipt and the other Five-Factor Model personality traits, as well as separate analyses by gender. No significant relations (p < .005) were observed between any personality trait or index of psychopathology and neural activation following reward receipt, and most effect sizes were null to very small in nature (i.e., r < |.05|). We conclude by discussing the appropriate interpretation of these null findings, and provide suggestions for future research that spans psychological and neurobiological levels of analysis.
We investigated a large multistate outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2015–2016. Epidemiologic, laboratory, and traceback studies were conducted to determine the source of the infections. We identified 907 case-patients from 40 states with illness onset dates ranging from July 3, 2015 to March 2, 2016. Sixty-three percent of case-patients reported consuming cucumbers in the week before illness onset. Ten illness sub-clusters linked to events or purchase locations were identified. All sub-clusters investigated received cucumbers from a single distributor which were sourced from a single grower in Mexico. Seventy-five cucumber samples were collected, 19 of which yielded the outbreak strain. Whole genome sequencing performed on 154 clinical isolates and 19 cucumber samples indicated that the sequenced isolates were closely related genetically to one another. This was the largest US foodborne disease outbreak in the last ten years and the third largest in the past 20 years. This was at least the fifth multistate outbreak caused by contaminated cucumbers since 2010. The outbreak is noteworthy because a recall was issued only 17 days after the outbreak was identified, which allowed for the removal of the contaminated cucumbers still available in commerce, unlike previous cucumber associated outbreaks. The rapid identification and response of multiple public health agencies resulted in preventing this from becoming an even larger outbreak.
We describe an algorithm that can fit the properties of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of a tidal stream, given the properties of that stream. We show that under ideal conditions (the Milky Way potential, the orbit of the dwarf galaxy progenitor, and the functional form of the dwarf galaxy progenitor are known exactly), the density and angular width of stars along the stream can be used to constrain the mass and radial profile of both the stellar and dark matter components of the progenitor dwarf galaxy that was ripped apart to create the stream. Our provisional fit for the parameters of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of the Orphan Stream indicates that it is less massive and has fewer stars than previous works have indicated.
Objectives: A growing body of research suggests that regular participation in long-term exercise is associated with enhanced cognitive function. However, less is known about the beneficial effects of acute exercise on semantic memory. This study investigated brain activation during a semantic memory task after a single session of exercise in healthy older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 26 participants (ages, 55–85 years) underwent two experimental visits on separate days. During each visit, participants engaged in 30 min of rest or stationary cycling exercise immediately before performing a Famous and Non-Famous name discrimination task during fMRI scanning. Results: Acute exercise was associated with significantly greater semantic memory activation (Famous>Non-Famous) in the middle frontal, inferior temporal, middle temporal, and fusiform gyri. A planned comparison additionally showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral hippocampus after exercise compared to rest. These effects were confined to correct trials, and as expected, there were no differences between conditions in response time or accuracy. Conclusions: Greater brain activation following a single session of exercise suggests that exercise may increase neural processes underlying semantic memory activation in healthy older adults. These effects were localized to the known semantic memory network, and thus do not appear to reflect a general or widespread increase in brain blood flow. Coupled with our prior exercise training effects on semantic memory-related activation, these data suggest the acute increase in neural activation after exercise may provide a stimulus for adaptation over repeated exercise sessions. (JINS, 2019, 25, 557–568)
Let M be a smooth compact manifold with boundary. Under some geometric conditions on M, a homotopical model for the pair (M, ∂M) can be recovered from the configuration category of M \ ∂M. The grouplike monoid of derived homotopy automorphisms of the configuration category of M \ ∂M then acts on the homotopical model of (M, ∂M). That action is compatible with a better known homotopical action of the homeomorphism group of M \ ∂M on (M, ∂M).
An epitaxial NdFeAs(O,F) thin film of 90 nm thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MgO single crystal with Tc = 44.2 K has been investigated regarding a possible vortex glass–liquid transition. The voltage–current characteristics show excellent scalability according to the vortex-glass model with a static critical exponent ν of around 1.35 and a temperature-dependent dynamic exponent z increasing from 7.8 to 9.0 for the investigated temperature range. The large and non-constant z values are discussed in the frame of 3D vortex glass, thermally activated flux motion, and inhomogeneity broadening.
Foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the USA. In April 2015, we investigated a multistate outbreak of 65 Salmonella Paratyphi B variant L(+) tartrate(+) infections associated with frozen raw tuna imported from Indonesia, which was consumed raw in sushi. Forty-six (92%) of 50 case-patients interviewed ate sushi during the week before illness onset, and 44 (98%) of 45 who specified ate sushi containing raw tuna. Two outbreak strains were isolated from the samples of frozen raw tuna. Traceback identified a single importer as a common source of tuna consumed by case-patients; this importer issued three voluntary recalls of tuna sourced from one Indonesian processor. Four Salmonella Weltevreden infections were also linked to this outbreak. Whole-genome sequencing was useful in establishing a link between Salmonella isolated from ill people and tuna. This outbreak highlights the continuing foodborne illness risk associated with raw seafood consumption, the importance of processing seafood in a manner that minimises contamination with pathogenic microorganisms and the continuing need to ensure imported foods are safe to eat. People at higher risk for foodborne illness should not consume undercooked animal products, such as raw seafood.
Background: Registered EEG technologists (RETs) are trained in both the technical aspects of EEG and in preliminary EEG interpretation. However, there is little research evaluating the accuracy of EEG interpretation by RETs. Methods: Retrospective study of consecutive routine EEG recordings performed at SickKids Hospital. Preliminary reports by RETs and final reports by neurophysiologists were compared in 5 domains: background activity, focal abnormalities, ictal and inter-ictal epileptiform discharges and summary. Results: 500 EEG recordings were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of RET reports was high for the assessment of background (85%, 93%), focal slowing (84%, 93%) and inter-ictal epileptiform discharges (92%, 90%). RET reports identified ictal EEG patterns in 32 cases vs. 29 cases identified by neurophysiologists. RET reports were 100% accurate for noting no EEG change for all of 11 cases with non-epileptic events. Conclusions: Preliminary EEG reports by RETs were sensitive and specific for all EEG domains analyzed. In the majority of cases, the preliminary interpretation made by the RET was concordant with the final report of the neurophysiologist. Given these findings, RETs may be able to participate in the screening of routine EEG recordings in order to enhance the productivity of busy EEG laboratories.
Common mental health problems experienced by survivors of systematic violence include trauma, depression, and anxiety. A trial of mental health interventions by community mental health workers for survivors of systematic violence in southern Iraq showed benefits from two psychotherapies on trauma, depression, anxiety, and function: Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT). This study assessed whether other non-predetermined changes reported by intervention participants were more common than in the control group.
The trial involved 342 participants (CETA: 99 intervention, 50 control; CPT: 129 intervention, 64 control). Sixteen intervention-related changes since enrollment were identified from free-listing interviews of 15 early therapy completers. The changes were then added as a new quantitative module to the follow-up questionnaire. The changes were organized into eight groupings by thematic analysis – family, social standing, anger management, interest in regular activities, optimism, feeling close to God, avoiding smoking and drugs, and physical health. All participants were interviewed with this module and responses were compared between intervention and control participants.
Multi-level, multi-variate regression models showed CETA intervention subjects with significant, positive changes relative to CETA controls on most themes. CPT intervention subjects showed little to no change compared with CPT controls in most themes.
Participants receiving CETA reported more positive changes from therapy compared with controls than did participants receiving CPT. This study suggests differential effects of psychotherapy beyond the predetermined clinical outcome measures and that identification of these effects should be part of intervention evaluations.
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013–March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female. The median age was 62 years (range 30–91). Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates revealed two main clusters and marked genetic diversity. Environmental samples from distributors yielded NTM though not M. marinum. We compared 56 case-patients with 185 control subjects who shopped in Chinese markets, frequency-matched by age group and sex. Risk factors for infection included skin injury to the finger or hand (odds ratio [OR]: 15·5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6·9–37·3), hand injury while preparing fish or seafood (OR 8·3; 95% CI 3·8–19·1), and purchasing tilapia (OR 3·6; 95% CI 1·1–13·9) or whiting (OR 2·7; 95% CI 1·1–6·6). A definitive environmental outbreak source was not identified.
Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.