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ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our implementation model translates two evidence-based nutritional and behavioral interventions to lower blood pressure, into a community-based intervention program for seniors receiving congregate meals. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Rockefeller University, Clinical Directors Network, and Carter Burden Network received an Administration for Community Living Nutrition Innovation grant to test whether implementation of DASH-concordant meals and health education programs together lower blood pressure among seniors aging in place. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: n=200, >60 yr, >4 meals/week at CBN; engagement of seniors/stakeholders in planning and conduct; Advisory Committee to facilitate dissemination; menus aligned with Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and NYC Department for the Aging nutritional guidelines; interactive sessions for education in nutrition, BP management, medication adherence. Training in use of automated daily home BP monitors (Omron 20). Validated surveys at M0, M1, M3, M6. Taste preference and cost assessed through Meal Satisfaction (Likert scale) and Plate Waste measures. Primary Outcome: Change in Systolic BP (SBP) at Month 1; change in %BP controlled. Secondary: validated cognitive, behavioral, nutritional measures (SF-12, PQH-2), economics; staff/client satisfaction, trends and significant associations. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: n=94, x2 age =73 +/- 8 years, 65% female, 50% White, 32% Black/African American, 4% Asian, 1% American Indian, Alaskan Native, 13% Other, 32% Latino/a, 43% with income <$20,000. Mean SBP at Baseline was 137.87 +18.8 mmHg (range 98-191). Menus were adapted to provide 20% daily DASH requirements at breakfast, 50% at lunch. Participants attended classes in nutrition and medication management and were provided with and trained to use an automated home BP monitor. Meal satisfaction scores dipped briefly then met or exceed pre-DASH levels. Home BP data was downloaded every 2-4 weeks with social/behavioral support. The COVID-19 closures interfered with BP outcome data collection and meal service ceased. Primary outcome: x2 change in SBP at Month 1 = -4.41 mmHg + 18 (n=61) (p=0.713). Significant associations will be reported. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our community-academic research partnership implemented the DASH diet in congregate-meal settings to address uncontrolled hypertension in seniors. COVID-19 interrupted the study, but encouraging trends were observed that may inform refinement to this community-based health intervention for seniors.
Recognition of faces of family members, friends, and colleagues is an important skill essential for everyday life. Individuals affected by prosopagnosia (face blindness) have difficulty recognizing familiar individuals. The prevalence of prosopagnosia has been estimated to be as high as 3%. Prosopagnosia can severely impact the quality of life of those affected, and it has been suggested to co-occur with conditions such as depression and anxiety.
To determine real-world diagnostic frequency of prosopagnosia and the spectrum of its comorbidities, we utilized a large database of more than 7.5 million de-identified electronic health records (EHRs) from patients who received care at major academic health centers and Federally Qualified Health Centers in New York City. We designed a computable phenotype to search the database for diagnosed cases of prosopagnosia, revealing a total of n = 902 cases. In addition, data from a randomly sampled matched control population (n = 100,973) were drawn from the database for comparative analyses to study the condition’s comorbidity landscape. Diagnostic frequency of prosopagnosia, epidemiological characteristics, and comorbidity landscape were assessed.
We observed prosopagnosia diagnoses at a rate of 0.012% (12 per 100,000 individuals). We discovered elevated frequency of prosopagnosia diagnosis for individuals who carried certain comorbid conditions, such as personality disorder, depression, epilepsy, and anxiety. Moreover, prosopagnosia diagnoses increased with the number of comorbid conditions.
Results from this study show a wide range of comorbidities and suggest that prosopagnosia is vastly underdiagnosed. Findings imply important clinical consequences for the diagnosis and management of prosopagnosia as well as its comorbid conditions.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Irreproducible and incompletely reported research lead to misallocated resources, wasted effort in pursing inappropriate avenues of investigation, and loss of public trust. To address this challenge, we employed a Team Science approach to create a multi-modal program to support Rigor, Reproducibility, and Reporting in Translational Science. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted literature searches to reveal sources of irreproducibility and recommended corrective actions, invited leaders in the field to give lectures on opportunities to support reproducible science, and worked with the Rockefeller team science leadership group to instill an overarching rigor approach, infused into all training efforts. This multifaceted program was labeled R3 (R-cubed) for Enhancing Scientific Rigor, Reproducibility, and Reporting. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Didactic Courses:
Introduction to Biostatistics and Critical Thinking – focus on pitfalls in inferential statistics, consequences of poor research, and errors in published research.
Scientific Writing – teaches methods and procedures in writing to ensure reproducibility. Lecture Series
Established nine lectures on topics related to R3, including Data Management, Statistical Methods, Genomic Analyses, Data Repositories, Data Sharing, Pharmacy Formulation, and e-lab notebooks. Website
Creating a comprehensive website as repository for research, methods, programs, updates, and improvements related to R3. KL2 Clinical Scholars Seminars and Navigation
Scholars participate in seminars and tutorials to discuss opportunities to improve R3 across the research life-course.
DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Striving for research reproducibility takes focused energy, discipline, and vigilance, but the effort is worthwhile as rigorous and reproducible science is the prerequisite for successful translation of great discoveries into improved health. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: none
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We have developed a comprehensive Translational Research Navigation Program to guide investigators all the way from protocol development through study closure. As the program evolved, we initially developed organizational tools and then restructured them into a series of checklists to ensure that critical elements were not excluded or duplicated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A series of checklists to assure that all research elements, including regulatory, scientific, and institutional, are addressed from protocol inception through study closure were developed by clinical research coordinators/navigators. The checklists are periodically updated and modified to reflect changing local and national regulations and policies. The first tool became the “Protocol Development Checklist” and then additional tools were developed and modified into a suite of navigation checklists that include “Protocol Implementation Checklist,” “Protocol Conduct Checklist,” and “Protocol Completion Checklist.” RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The checklists have been incorporated into the Translational Research Navigation Program and have enhanced the organization and quality of protocols throughout their lifespan. For example, implementation of the Protocol Development Checklist resulted in a reduction in time to IRB approval (currently 10 days), and implementation of the Protocol Implementation Checklist has impacted the time from IRB approval to study start-up. The Protocol Conduct Checklist has aided investigators in being better prepared and more organized for study conduct activities and the Protocol Closure Checklist has assured timely protocol closure and regulatory compliance, including reporting to ClinicalTrials.gov. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Protocol checklists are powerful tools to enhance thoroughness, organization, and quality of the clinical research process. The Rockefeller University protocol checklists are available to the CTSA and Scientific Communities. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: NA.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To facilitate the development of innovative injection products by providing translational researchers with a regulatory and manufacturing road map for producing small batch sterile products for Phase 1 research use. To leverage recent AMC investments in facility improvements and pharmacy training in the areas of sterile product production, testing, and environmental controls, that can be used to support production of phase 1 clinical trial supplies METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Searching and organizing relevant data and information from web portals and databases in the following: areas: FDA, EMA, USP regulations, regulatory science, pharmaceutical formulation and analytics, supply vendors, analytical testing laboratories, and product testing laboratories. Present the information using a user friendly format including flow charts and development timelines, taking the perspective of the translational investigator. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS:
Choosing AMC resources vs outside consultants and vendors, leveraging local resources where possible
Qualifying and monitoring suppliers, testing laboratories, in-house departments, and Contract Drug Manufacturing Organizations (CDMO)
Bringing together the deliverables for the IND CMC section
Where and how to leverage available products and science to simplify safe and reliable production
DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Use and utility of injectable drug products, both small molecule and biologics, is growing rapidly, and is projected to continue to escalate well into the next decade. This is due not only to advances in medicine, but also to improvements in AMC-based sterile product production, and a better understanding of small batch manufacturing methods. All three trends align in academic medical centers (AMC) and can be utilized by translational researchers, if they can understand the potential and regulatory requirements.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: There is universal recognition of the importance of team science and team leadership. We have developed a semi-quantitative translational science specific team leadership competency assessment tool and have begun implementation studies to assess the impact of personalized feedback on the team science leadership skills of KL2 Clinical Scholars. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To create the instrument, we employed a modified Delphi approach by conducting a thorough literature review on Leadership to concretize the relevant constructs, then used these extracted constructs as a springboard for the Rockefeller Team Science Educators (TSE’s) to discuss and refine the leadership domain areas, collectively create domain-specific survey items. Further discussion helped refined the number, grouping, and wording. Scholars also contributed feedback in item development. We piloted the Leadership Survey by having all of the Rockefeller TSEs rate Clinical Scholars, and having each Scholar rate themselves. Each item was answered using a six-point Likert scale where a low score indicated poor expression and a high score represented excellent expression of the specific leadership attribute. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Incorporation into a REDCap data base made consenting and rating process by TSE’s and the Scholars straightforward. The a priori domains (Foundational Leadership Competencies, Professionalism, Team Building and Team Sustainability, Appropriate Resource Use and Study Execution, and Regulatory Accountability) had high internal validity and good internal factor structure. The congruence between TSE and Scholar self-ratings were uniformly high, and discordance was often a function of “confidence” and “modesty” on the part of the scholar, rather than deficiency. Supporting comments were informative about performance barriers and mechanisms for improvement. Return of results allowed for the exploration of training gaps. Scholars were surveyed to gauge their reaction to the formal feedback. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This quantification of team science leadership constructs has allowed for A)- the articulation of constructs essential for successful Translational Scientists to acquire during their training, B)- identification of gaps in that training and skill set, and C)- mechanisms for bolstering any identified gaps in these essential leadership constructs. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: None
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a psychotherapeutic intervention that has been shown effective in several clinical conditions. Nevertheless, research is still needed on its effectiveness on cognition.
To analyze possible effects on cognition of the addition of MBCT intervention versus a brief structured group psycho-education to the standard treatment of subsyndromal bipolar depression. Our hypothesis was that MBCT could improve some aspects of cognitive function to a higher degree than psycho-education and treatment as usual (TAU).
A randomized, multicenter, prospective, versus active comparator, evaluator-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Forty patients with BD and subclinical or mild depressive symptoms were randomly allocated to:
– MBCT added to psychopharmacological treatment (n = 16);
– a brief structured group psycho-educational intervention added to psychopharmacological treatment (n = 17);
– standard clinical management, including psychopharmacological treatment (n = 7).
Assessments were conducted at screening, baseline, post-intervention (8 weeks) and 4-month follow-up.
Cognition results point to significant improvement in Stroop Color test as well as processing speed in TMT A test (P < 0.05) in the two psychological intervention groups versus TAU.
These preliminary findings suggest that the addition of MBCT or psycho-education to usual treatment could improve some cognitive dimensions in subsyndromal bipolar depressive patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create the instrument, we employed a modified Delphi approach by conducting a thorough literature review on Leadership to help concretize the relevant constructs, and then usied these extracted constructs as a springboard for the Rockefeller Team Science Educators (TSE’s) to discuss and refine the leadership domain areas, collectively creating domain-specific survey items, and then further discussed and refining the number, grouping, and wording of the items. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We piloted the Leadership Survey by having all of the Rockefeller TSEs rate Clinical Scholars. Each item was answered using a six-point Likert scale where a low score indicated poor expression of the specific leadership attribute and a high score represented excellent expression of the specific leadership attribute. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Means, medians, standard deviations, and ranges of each item were calculated and tabulated. A complete (Pearson) correlation matrix was computed so that the raw inter-item relationships can be observed. For each a priori Domain an equal weighted summary scale was created and tabulated for review. The internal consistency of each a priori scale was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s Alpha (α). Items with low Item to Construct coefficients were candidates for elimination or modification, and overall scales with low’s will undergo further discussion. To challenge our assumptions of the construction and integrity of each domain, we employed exploratory Principal Components Analysis (PCA), followed by orthogonally rotated Factor Analysis (FA). We also forced the PCA / FA analysis to extract the a priori dimensions that allowed us to compare if the empirical and a priori structures match. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We are partnering with the CTSA programs at Penn and Yale to assess issues of generalizability and scalability. We are working with Vanderbilt to install survey onto REDCap for ease of dissemination. Will continue to assess psychometric properties and refine as we receive more input.
The behavior of electron and hole transport in semiconductor materials is influenced by lattice-mismatch at the interface. It is well known that carrier scattering in a confined region is dramatically reduced. In this work, we studied the effects of coupling both the strain and confinement simultaneously. We report on the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale planar, wall-like, and wire-like Si/SiO2 structures. As the Si nanostructure dimensions were scaled down to the quantum regime by thermal oxidation of the Si, changes to the band structure and carrier effective mass were observed by both optical and electrical techniques. Transient-time response measurements were performed to examine the carrier generation and recombination behavior as a function of scaling. Signal rise times decreased for both carrier types by an order of magnitude as Si dimensions were reduced from 200 to 10 nm, meaning that the carrier velocity is increasing with smaller scale structures. This result is indicative of decreased Si bandgap energy and carrier effective mass. Photoluminescence measurements taken at 50K showed changes in the PL response peak energies, which illustrates changes in the band structure, as the Si/SiO2 dimensions are scaled.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To develop a KL2 curriculum on the science and art of drug formulation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Develop training materials for KL2 scholars that outline the art of formulation development. Materials will include syllabi, reading materials, and course work. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This will enhance the training of KL2 scholars by incorporating formulation development concepts into their human health enhancing research projects. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: For new chemical entities, formulation goals must be realistic and move along in a step-wise manner from the laboratory bench, through toxicology studies, and on to Phase 1 studies. By training scholars in phase-specific formulation goals, their interactions with funding agencies, formulation scientists, and regulators will be more efficient, productive, and successful. For those scholars who are working to improve existing treatments, introducing the concept of formulation improvements that can create new indications, or improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance will open up more possibilities for creative product development.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program began in 1976 and transitioned into a 3-year Master’s degree program in 2006 when Rockefeller joined the National Institute of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award program. The program consists of ∼15 trainees supported by the Clinical and Translational Science Award KL2 award and University funds. It is designed to provide an optimal environment for junior translational investigators to develop team science and leadership skills by designing and performing a human subjects protocol under the supervision of a distinguished senior investigator mentor and a team of content expert educators. This is complemented by a tutorial focused on important translational skills.
Since 2006, 40 Clinical Scholars have graduated from the programs and gone on to careers in academia (72%), government service (5%), industry (15%), and private medical practice (3%); 2 (5%) remain in training programs; 39/40 remain in translational research careers with 23 National Institute of Health awards totaling $23 million, foundation and philanthropic support of $20.3 million, and foreign government and foundation support of $6 million. They have made wide ranging scientific discoveries and have endeavored to translate those discoveries into improved human health.
The Rockefeller Clinical Scholars (KL2) program provides one model for translational science training.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope is equipped with a transient event monitoring system which operates during normal synthesis observations. The device is designed to respond to impulsive signals which occur within the passband (843.0 ± 1.5 MHz) with time scales between 0.001 ms and 800 ms. The multiple beam facility of the telescope provides some discrimination against local interference. An upper limit of 1.7 × 10−2 events s−1 sr−1 has been placed on celestial events with durations between 1 ms and 25 ms and energy density ≥ 10−28 J m−2 Hz−1. The monitoring system has been recently reconfigured to improve the recognition and rejection of impulsive signals of non-celestial origin.
We describe bright microwave events that were first detected with the Parkes 64-m telescope at 8.4 or 22 GHz from six active-chromosphere stars. In some flares spectral data were obtained over a large frequency range from simultaneous measurements with the Parkes reflector (8.4 or 22 GHz), the Tidbinbilla interferometer (8.4 and 2.29 GHz), the Fleurs synthesis telescope (1.42 GHz) and the Molonglo Observatory synthesis telescope (0.843 GHz). Data on circular polarization were obtained from the Parkes observations at 8.4 GHz.
The stars were in a wide variety of evolutionary states, ranging from a single pre-main-sequence star (HD 36705), two RS CVn binaries (HD 127535, HD 128171), an Algol (HD 132742) and two apparently single K giants (HD 32918 and HD 196818). Their high brightness temperatures, positive spectral indices and low polarization are consistent with optically thick gyrosynchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons with average energies 0.5 to 3 MeV gyrating in inhomogeneous magnetic fields of 5 to 100 G.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing dementia and early diagnosis is vital in enhancing quality of life. Our aim was to compare our practice to consensus recommendations on evaluation, diagnosis and pharmacological treatment of individuals with DS who develop dementia. We also aimed to establish the average time taken to make a diagnosis of dementia and to commence pharmacotherapy, and to assess tolerability to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Retrospective chart review in an exhaustive sample containing all current service users attending our service with DS and a diagnosis of dementia (n=20).
The sample was 75% female and 70% had a moderate intellectual disability. The average age at diagnosis of dementia was 52.42 years old. The average time to diagnosis from first symptom was 1.13 years and the average time to commence pharmacotherapy was 0.23 years. A total of 17 patients commenced on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and of these seven discontinued medication due to side-effects or lack of efficacy.
The results on anticholinesterases add to the limited pool of data on treatment of dementia in DS. There was an identified need to improve the rates of medical, vision and hearing assessments, and prospective screening. Deficiencies in screening and diagnosis may be addressed by implementing a standardised dementia assessment pathway to include prospective screening and longitudinal assessment using easily administered scales. We highlight the importance of improving the diagnostic process, as a vital window of opportunity to commence a comprehensive care plan may be lost.
Created in London c. 1340, the Auchinleck manuscript (Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland Advocates MS 19.2.1) is of crucial importance as the first book designed to convey in the English language an ambitious range of secular romance and chronicle. Evidently made in London by professional scribes for a secular patron, this tantalizing volume embodies a massive amount of material evidence as to London commercial book production and the demand for vernacular texts in the early fourteenth century. But its origins are mysterious: who were its makers? its users? how was it made? what end did it serve? The essays in this collection define the parameters of present-day Auchinleck studies. They scrutinize the manuscript's rich and varied contents; reopen theories and controversies regarding the book's making; trace the operations and interworkings of the scribes, compiler, and illuminators; tease out matters of patron and audience; interpret the contested signs of linguisticand national identity; and assess Auchinleck's implied literary values beside those of Chaucer. Geography, politics, international relations and multilingualism become pressing subjects, too, alongside critical analyses of literary substance.
Susanna Fein is Professor of English at Kent State University (Kent, Ohio) and editor of The Chaucer Review.
Contributors: Venetia Bridges, Patrick Butler, Siobhain Bly Calkin, A. S. G. Edwards, Ralph Hanna, Ann Higgins, Cathy Hume, Marisa Libbon, Derek Pearsall, Helen Phillips, Emily Runde, Timothy A. Shonk, M-l F. Vaughan.