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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders are highly comorbid, but the shared course of symptoms and associated risks remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine joint symptom trajectories, temporal precedence, risk factors, and population attributable fractions (PAFs) in a community sample of adolescents, using a developmental psychopathology and psychosocial framework.
Across five years (age 14–18 years), adolescents (n = 544, 56% girls) reported on BPD features and disordered eating behavior. Sociodemographic, interpersonal, and clinical risks were assessed in childhood (age 10–13 years). We used a person-centered approach to examine latent class growth analyses, joint trajectory models, and calculated PAFs.
Three-class solutions were found for both disordered eating and BPD features (low, moderate, high), creating nine joint trajectories. High levels of disordered eating were a stronger indicator of high levels of BPD features than was the reverse. Girls and LGBTQ+ youth were most likely to be in a high symptom trajectory. Bullying perpetration and clinical hyperactivity were unique risks for BPD features. Bullying victimization contributed the largest PAF to disordered eating and BPD features.
We identified several novel and clinically relevant findings related to temporality, risks, screening, and the treatment of adolescent eating problems and BPD.
Mental health problems are elevated in autistic individuals but there is limited evidence on the developmental course of problems across childhood. We compare the level and growth of anxious-depressed, behavioral and attention problems in an autistic and typically developing (TD) cohort.
Latent growth curve models were applied to repeated parent-report Child Behavior Checklist data from age 2–10 years in an inception cohort of autistic children (Pathways, N = 397; 84% boys) and a general population TD cohort (Wirral Child Health and Development Study; WCHADS; N = 884, 49% boys). Percentile plots were generated to quantify the differences between autistic and TD children.
Autistic children showed elevated levels of mental health problems, but this was substantially reduced by accounting for IQ and sex differences between the autistic and TD samples. There was small differences in growth patterns; anxious-depressed problems were particularly elevated at preschool and attention problems at late childhood. Higher family income predicted lower base-level on all three dimensions, but steeper increase of anxious-depressed problems. Higher IQ predicted lower level of attention problems and faster decline over childhood. Female sex predicted higher level of anxious-depressed and faster decline in behavioral problems. Social-affect autism symptom severity predicted elevated level of attention problems. Autistic girls' problems were particularly elevated relative to their same-sex non-autistic peers.
Autistic children, and especially girls, show elevated mental health problems compared to TD children and there are some differences in predictors. Assessment of mental health should be integrated into clinical practice for autistic children.
Background: In patients with acute hip fracture, a fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) has been shown to provide effective non-opioid analgesia, reduce the incidence of pneumonia, and potentially decrease the rate of delirium . However, this procedure was infrequently used in the St. Michael's Hospital (SMH) emergency department (ED). Aim Statement: Our aim was to increase the proportion of patients with hip fracture receiving FICB in the ED to 50% in six months. Measures & Design: We completed two Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, measuring rates of FICB before and after each cycle. The first was a departmental rounds presentation with information about the process and benefits of FICB, addressing barriers identified by surveying the group. The second cycle included a bundle of interventions comprising of an “instruction card” with the steps required to do the procedure, access to a video tutorial, and a list of experienced physicians willing to help less experienced providers perform FICB. Evaluation/Results: In the three months prior to the project, the rate of FICB in the ED was 12.5% (3/24). For the three months after the first PDSA cycle, the rate increased to 22.2% (8/36). Then, the second cycle was performed. In the following two months the rate further increased to 36.8% (7/19). Discussion/Impact: Despite the clear increase in FICB rate, these changes were not statistically significant (p = 0.063). Our methodology was shown to be safe and effective, and our model can be applied to other ED groups looking to increase their rates of FICB.
Introduction: An increasing number of Canadian paramedic services are creating Community Paramedic programs targeting treatment of long-term care (LTC) patients on-site. We explored the characteristics, clinical course and disposition of LTC patients cared for by paramedics during an emergency call, and the possible impact of Community Paramedic programs. Methods: We completed a health records review of paramedic call reports and emergency department (ED) records between April 1, 2016 and March 31, 2017. We utilized paramedic dispatch data to identify emergency calls originating from LTC centers resulting in transport to one of the two EDs of the Ottawa Hospital. We excluded patients with absent vital signs, a Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) score of 1, and whose transfer to hospital were deferrable or scheduled. We stratified remaining cases by month and selected cases using a random number generator to meet our apriori sample size. We collected data using a piloted standardized form. We used descriptive statistics and categorized patients into groups based on the ED care received and if the treatment received fit into current paramedic medical directives. Results: Characteristics of the 381 included patients were mean age 82.5 years, 58.5% female, 59.7% hypertension, 52.6% dementia and 52.1% cardiovascular disease. On arrival at hospital, 57.7% of patients waited in offload delay for a median time of 45 minutes (IQR 33.5-78.0). We could identify 4 groups: 1) Patients requiring no treatment or diagnostics in the ED (7.9%); 2) Patients receiving ED treatment within current paramedic medical directives and no diagnostics (3.2%); 3) Patients requiring diagnostics or ED care outside current paramedic directives (54.9%); and 4) patients requiring admission (34.1%). Most patients were discharged from the ED (65.6%), and 1.1% died. The main ED diagnoses were infection (18.6%) and musculoskeletal injury (17.9%). Of the patients that required ED care but were discharged, 64.1% required x-rays, 42.1% CT, and 3.4% ultrasound. ED care included intravenous fluids (35.7%), medication (67.5%), antibiotics (29.4%), non-opioid analgesics (29.4%) and opioids (20.7%). Overall, 11.1% of patients didn't need management beyond current paramedic capabilities. Conclusion: Many LTC patients could receive care by paramedics on-site within current medical directives and avoid a transfer to the ED. This group could potentially grow using Community Paramedics with an expanded scope of practice.
Introduction: Time-to-treatment plays a pivotal role in survival from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Every minute delay in defibrillation results in a 7-10% reduction in survival. This is particularly problematic in rural and remote regions, where bystander and EMS response is often prolonged and automated external defibrillators (AED) are often not available. Our objective was to examine the feasibility of a novel AED drone delivery method for rural and remote SCA. A secondary objective was to compare times between AED drone delivery and ambulance response to various mock SCA resuscitations. Methods: We conducted 6 simulations in two different rural communities in southern Ontario. During phase 1 (4 simulations) a “mock” call was placed to 911 and a single AED drone and an ambulance were simultaneously dispatched from the same location to a pre-determined destination. Once on scene, trained first responders retrieved the AED from the drone and initiated resuscitative efforts on a manikin. The second phase (2 scenarios) were done in a similar manner save for the drone being dispatched from a regionally optimized location for drone response. Results: Phase 1: The distance from dispatch location to scene varied from 6.6 km to 8.8 km. Mean (SD) response time from 911 call to scene arrival was 11.2 (+/- 1.0) minutes for EMS compared to 8.1 (+/- 0.1) for AED drone delivery. In all four simulations, the AED drone arrived before EMS, ranging from 2.1 to 4.4 minutes faster. The mean time for trained responders to retrieve the AED and apply it to the manikin was 35 (+/- 5) sec. No difficulties were encountered in drone activation by dispatch, drone lift off, landing or removal of the AED from the drone by responders. Phase 2: The ambulance response distance was 20km compared to 9km for the drone. Drones were faster to arrival at the scene by 7 minutes and 8 minutes with AED application 6 and 7 minutes prior to ambulance respectively. Conclusion: This implementation study suggests AED drone delivery is feasible with improvements in response time during a simulated SCA scenario. These results suggest the potential for AED drone delivery to decrease time to first defibrillation in rural and remote communities. Further research is required to determine the appropriate distance for drone delivery of an AED in an integrated EMS system as well as optimal strategies to simplify bystander application of a drone delivered AED.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) crowding, long waits for care, and paramedic offload delay are of increasing concern. Older adults living in long-term care (LTC) are more likely to utilize the ED and are vulnerable to adverse events. We sought to identify existing programs that seek to avoid ED visits from LTC facilities where allied health professionals are the primary providers of the intervention and, to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Methods: We completed this systematic review based on a protocol we published apriori and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. We systematically searched Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE with terms relating to long-term care, emergency services, hospitalization and allied health personnel. Two investigators independently selected studies and extracted data using a piloted standardized form and evaluated the risk of bias of included studies. We report a narrative synthesis grouped by intervention categories. Results: We reviewed 11,176 abstracts and included 22 studies. Most studies were observational and few assessed patient safety. We found five categories of interventions including: 1) use of advanced practice nursing; 2) a program called Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers (INTERACT); 3) end-of-life care; 4) condition specific interventions; and 5) use of extended care paramedics. Of the 13 studies that reported ED visits, all (100%) reported a decrease, and of the 16/17 that reported hospitalization, 94.1% reported a decrease. Patient adverse events such as functional status and relapse were seldom reported (6/22) as were measures of emergency system function such as crowding/inability of paramedics to transfer care to the ED (1/22). Only 4/22 studies evaluated patient mortality and 3/4 found a non-statistically significant worsening. When measured, studies reported decreased hospital length of stay, more time spent with patients by allied health professionals and cost savings. Conclusion: We found five types of programs/interventions which all demonstrated a decrease in ED visits or hospitalization. Many identified programs focused on improved primary care for patients. Interventions addressing acute care issues such as those provided by community paramedics, patient preferences, and quality of life indicators all deserve more study.
Introduction: Prehospital field trauma triage (FTT) standards were reviewed and revised in 2014 based on the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The FTT standard allows a hospital bypass and direct transport, within 30 min, to a lead trauma hospital (LTH). Our objectives were to assess the impact of the newly introduced prehospital FTT standard and to describe the emergency department (ED) management and outcomes of patients that had bypassed closer hospitals. Methods: We conducted a 12-month multi-centred health record review of paramedic and ED records following the implementation of the 4 step FTT standard (step 1: vital signs and level of consciousness (physiologic), step 2: anatomical injury, step 3: mechanism and step 4: special considerations) in nine paramedic services across Eastern Ontario. We included adult trauma patients transported as urgent that met FTT standard, regardless of transport time. We developed and piloted a data collection tool and obtained consensus on all definitions. The primary outcome was the rate of appropriate triage to a LTH which was defined as: ISS ≥12, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), non-orthopedic surgery, or death. We have reported descriptive statistics. Results: 570 patients were included: mean age 48.8, male 68.9%, falls 29.6%, motor vehicle collisions 20.2%, stab wounds 10.5%, transported to a LTH 76.5% (n = 436). 72.2% (n = 315) of patients transported to a LTH had bypassed a closer hospital and 126/306 (41.2%) of those were determined to be an appropriate triage to LTH (9 patients had missing outcomes). ED management included: CT head/cervical spine 69.9%, ultrasound 53.6%, xray 51.6%, intubation 15.0%, sedation 11.1%, tranexamic acid 9.8%, blood transfusion 8.2%, fracture reduction 6.9%, tube thoracostomy 5.9%. Outcomes included: ISS ≥ 12 32.7%, admitted to ICU 15.0%, non-orthopedic surgery 11.1%, death 8.8%. Others included: admission to hospital 57.5%, mean LOS 12.8 days, orthopedic surgery 16.3% and discharged from ED 37.3%. Conclusion: Despite a high number of admissions, the majority of trauma patients bypassed to a LTH were considered over-triaged, with a low number of ED procedures and non-orthopedic surgeries. Continued work is needed to appropriately identify patients requiring transport to a LTH.
Emergency medical services (EMS) is called for a 65-year-old man with a 1-week history of cough, fever, and mild shortness of breath now reporting chest pain. Vitals on scene were HR 110, BP 135/90, SpO2 88% on room air. EMS arrives at the emergency department (ED). As the patient is moved to a negative pressure room, he becomes unresponsive with no palpable pulse. What next steps should be discussed in order to protect the team and achieve the best possible patient outcome?
Anxiety, depression and somatization (the internalizing cluster) are highly comorbid, prevalent and associated with significant individual and societal costs. Although prior studies have examined their natural course, there has been a little investigation into how symptoms unfold at the individual level. We examined the intraindividual (within-person) temporal patterning of symptom development and the impact of risk factors (sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic indicators, bullying victimization, child maltreatment) on symptom means and trajectories (between-person), comparing youth and parent reports.
Over a 7-year interval from age 11 to 17, children (n = 669; 54% girls; 79% White) and parents (89% mothers) reported on symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 11 and somatization from age 13. Autoregressive latent trajectory models with structured residuals were used to uncouple within- and between-person sources of variance.
According to self-reports, generalized anxiety consistently predicted depression, while anxiety and depression consistently predicted somatization. Anxiety also had an indirect effect on somatization via depression. According to parent reports, there were several bidirectional effects between anxiety and depression and between depression and somatization. Experiences of abuse were consistent risk factors for self-reported internalizing symptoms, and across informants, girls had higher symptom means and rising trajectories compared to boys.
Generalized anxiety plays an important role in adolescent depressive and somatic symptoms. Primary prevention of anxiety may be warranted to curb symptom continuity and the development of comorbidity. Research is needed to determine whether self-reports of anxiety should be prioritized over parent reports and continued efforts are needed to reduce bullying and child maltreatment.
Introduction: Accurate forecasting of emergency department (ED) patient visits can inform better resource matching. Calendar variables such as day of week and time of day are routinely used as predictors of ED volume. Further improvement in forecasting will likely come from dynamic variables. The effect of snowfall on ED volumes in colder climates remains poorly understood. We sought to determine whether accounting for snowfall improves ED patient volume forecasting. Our secondary objective was to characterize the magnitude of effect of snowfall on ED volume. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study using historical patient volume data and local snowfall records from April 1st, 2011 to March 31st, 2018 (2,542 days) at a single urban ED. We fit a series of four generalized linear models: a baseline model which included calendar variables and three different snowfall models which contained the variables in the baseline model plus an indicator variable for modelling snowfall. Each snowfall model had a different daily threshold for its indicator variable: any snowfall ( >0cm), moderate snowfall ( > = 1 cm), or high snowfall ( > = 5 cm). We modeled daily ED volume as the dependent variable using a Poisson distribution. To evaluate model fit, we examined the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in each of the four models. In both cases, a lower number indicates better model fit. Incident rate ratios were calculated to determine the effect of snowfall. We used the delta method to calculate confidence intervals. Results: A total of 2542 days were used to develop the model. All three snowfall models demonstrated improved model fit compared to the baseline model with lower AIC and BIC values. The best fitting model included a binary variable for moderate snowfall ( > = 1cm/day). This model showed a statistically significant decrease in ED volume of 2.65% (95% CI: 1.23% -4.00%) on snowfall days, representing 5.4 (95% CI: 2.5 -8.2) patients per day at our hospital with an average daily volume of 205 patients. Conclusion: The addition of a snowfall variable results in improved forecasting model performance in ED volume forecasting with optimal threshold set at 1 cm of snow in our setting. Snowfall is associated with a modest, but statistically significant reduction in ED volume.
Introduction: Email and text messaging holds the potential to not only contact patients after emergency department (ED) care for clinically important communications such as appointment reminders, but also to solicit feedback for quality improvement and/or participation in research. A necessary first step though is the collection of electronic contact information, but little is known about current practice in Ontario EDs. In this study, we sought to characterize current collection, consent and use of patient email and texting to communicate with ED patients at academic and community hospitals across Ontario. Methods: We developed a questionnaire, with a blend of multiple choice and open-ended questions, targeted at ED registration administrators. The questions focused on if and how EDs collect, store and consent for patient emails, how and what they utilize those emails for and if they text patients. The questionnaire was administered both online and by phone. Participants were recruited through snowball sampling, including facilitated dissemination of the questionnaire via an existing listserv of the Patient Registration Network of Ontario (PRNO). Results: Twenty-two respondents (41% response rate) completed the questionnaire. Seven of the 22 institutions were academic health centres (32%). Nine institutions (41%) collected patient email addresses in the ED and none collected or used text message technology. In all 9, registration staff were tasked with asking, consenting, collecting and storing patient details within their hospital admissions, discharge and transfer system (ADT). For sites with email address collection, respondents estimated 40-60% of ED patients shared an email address. Seven of 9 institutions had a verbal consent process, while 2 used implied consent. Only 2 institutions used email to send patients post-discharge feedback questionnaires and four used email to facilitate access to patient portals. Four institutions were looking at using text messages to direct patients at triage, sometime in the future. Conclusion: Engagement in optimized care and feedback requires communication which is quickly shifting to electronic format. Collection of electronic contact information continues to be slow and uneven in Ontario. There is an immediate need for clearer guidance to accelerate collection, storage, consent and use of email and text messaging technology.
Introduction: Trauma and injury play a significant role in the population's burden of disease. Limited research exists evaluating the role of trauma bypass protocols. The objective of this study was to assess the impact and effectiveness of a newly introduced prehospital field trauma triage (FTT) standard, allowing paramedics to bypass a closer hospital and directly transport to a trauma centre (TC) provided transport times were within 30 minutes. Methods: We conducted a 12-month multi-centred health record review of paramedic call reports and emergency department health records following the implementation of the 4 step FTT standard (step 1: vital signs and level of consciousness, step 2: anatomical injury, step 3: mechanism and step 4: special considerations) in nine paramedic services across Eastern Ontario. We included adult trauma patients transported as an urgent transport to hospital, that met one of the 4 steps of the FTT standard and would allow for a bypass consideration. We developed and piloted a standardized data collection tool and obtained consensus on all data definitions. The primary outcome was the rate of appropriate triage to a TC, defined as any of the following: injury severity score ≥12, admitted to an intensive care unit, underwent non-orthopedic operation, or death. We report descriptive and univariate analysis where appropriate. Results: 570 adult patients were included with the following characteristics: mean age 48.8, male 68.9%, attended by Advanced Care Paramedic 71.8%, mechanisms of injury: MVC 20.2%, falls 29.6%, stab wounds 10.5%, median initial GCS 14, mean initial BP 132, prehospital fluid administered 26.8%, prehospital intubation 3.5%, transported to a TC 74.6%. Of those transported to a TC, 308 (72.5%) had bypassed a closer hospital prior to TC arrival. Of those that bypassed a closer hospital, 136 (44.2%) were determined to be “appropriate triage to TC”. Bypassed patients more often met the step 1 or step 2 of the standard (186, 66.9%) compared to the step 3 or step 4 (122, 39.6%). An appropriate triage to TC occurred in 104 (55.9%) patients who had met step 1 or 2 and 32 (26.2%) patients meeting step 3 or 4 of the FTT standard. Conclusion: The FTT standard can identify patients who should be bypassed and transported to a TC. However, this is at a cost of potentially burdening the system with poor sensitivity. More work is needed to develop a FTT standard that will assist paramedics in appropriately identifying patients who require a trauma centre.
Introduction: 9-1-1 telecommunicators receive minimal education on agonal breathing, often resulting in unrecognized out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We successfully piloted an educational intervention that significantly improved telecommunicators’ OHCA recognition and bystander CPR rates in Ottawa. We sought to better understand the operations of Canadian 9-1-1 communications centers (CC) in preparation for a multi-centre study of this intervention. Methods: We conducted a National survey of all Canadian CCs. Survey domains included information on organizational structure, dispatch system used, education curriculum, and performance monitoring. It was peer-reviewed, translated in French, pilot-tested, and distributed electronically using a modified Dillman method. We designated respondents in each CC before distribution and used targeted follow-up and small incentives to increase response rate. Respondents also described functioning of neighboring CCs if known. Results: We received information from 51/51 provincial and 1/25 territorial CCs, representing 99.7% of the Canadian population. CCs largely utilize the Medical Dispatch Priority System (MPDS) platform (93%), many are Province/Ministry regulated (50%) and most require a High School diploma as minimum entry level education (78%). Telecommunicators receive initial in-class training (median 1.3 months, IQR 0.3-1.9; range 0.1-2.2), often followed by a preceptorship (84.4%) (median 1.0 months, IQR 0.7-1.7; range 0.4-6.0). Educational curriculum includes information on agonal breathing in 41% of CC, without audio examples in 34%. Among responding CCs, over 39,000 suspected OHCA 9-1-1 calls are received annually. Few CCs maintain local performance statistics on OHCA recognition (25%), bystander CPR rates (25%) or survival rates (50%). Most (97%) expressed interest in future research collaborations. Conclusion: Most Canadian telecommunicators receive no or minimal education in recognizing agonal breathing. Further training and improved OHCA monitoring may assist recognition and enhance outcomes.
Quality improvement (QI) and patient safety are two areas that have grown into important operational and academic fields in recent years in health care, including in emergency medicine (EM). This is the third and final article in a series designed as a QI primer for EM clinicians. In the first two articles we used a fictional case study of a team trying to decrease the time to antibiotic therapy for patients with sepsis who were admitted through their emergency department. We introduced concepts of strategic planning, including stakeholder engagement and root cause analysis tools, and presented the Model for Improvement and Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles as the backbone of the execution of a QI project. This article will focus on the measurement and evaluation of QI projects, including run charts, as well as methods that can be used to ensure the sustainability of change management projects.
Introduction: The 2015 CanMEDS framework requires all residency programs to increase their focus on Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (QIPS). We created a longitudinal (4-year), modular QIPS curriculum for FRCP emergency medicine residents at the University of Toronto (UT) using multiple educational methods. The curriculum addresses three levels of QIPS training: knowledge, practical skills at the microsystem level, and practical skills at the organization level. Aim Statement: To increase the UT FRCP emergency medicine residents absolute score on the QIKAT-R (Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool Revised) by 10% after the completion of the QIPS curriculum. Methods: Physicians and other healthcare professionals with QI expertise collaboratively designed and taught the curriculum. We used the QIKAT-R as the outcome measure to evaluate QI knowledge and its applicability. The QIKAT-R is a validated measure that assesses an individuals ability to decipher a QI issue within the healthcare context, and propose a change initiative to address it. The first cohort of residents completed the QIKAT-R prior to the first session in 2014 (pre) and at the completion of the curriculum in 2017 (post). Each response was anonymized and scored by physicians with QI expertise. The QIKAT-R scores and comments from course evaluations are used to make yearly iterative curriculum changes. Results: The QIPS curriculum was implemented in September 2014. All nine residents in the first cohort completed the curriculum; they demonstrated an absolute increase of 19.6% (5.3/27) in the mean QIKAT-R score (13.0 +/− 3.3 pre vs. 18.3 +/− 3.8 post, p=0.001). Of the pre-test responses, 26% were categorized as poor, 70% as good, and 4% as excellent, whereas of the post-test 11% of responses were categorized as poor, 37% as good, and 52% as excellent (p<0.001). Two iterative curriculum changes were made at the end of each academic year since 2014: (1) The time between sessions were decreased to promote knowledge retention, and (2) different PGY3 QI practical project options were provided to suit residents individual QI interests. QIKAT-R scores and resident feedback were used to evaluate the impact of the curriculum changes. Conclusion: A collaborative, modular, longitudinal QIPS curriculum for UT FRCP emergency medicine residents that met CanMEDS requirements was created using multiple educational methods. The first resident cohort that completed the curriculum demonstrated an absolute increase in QI knowledge and its applicability (as measured by the QIKAT-R) by 19.6%. Two PDSA cycles were completed to improve the curriculum with the change ideas generated from resident feedback. Ongoing challenges include limited staff availability to teach and supervise resident QI projects. Future directions include incentivising staff participation and providing mentorship for residents with a career interest in QI beyond what is offered by the curriculum.
Introduction: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with high mortality, and CPR quality is one of the few modifiable factors associated with improved outcomes. Particularly, bystander CPR has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcomes in OHCA. However, the quality of CPR performed by bystanders in OHCA is unknown. We evaluated bystander CPR quality during OHCA, utilizing data stored within Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), and matched with cases enrolled in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) database. Methods: This cohort study included adult OHCA cases from the Ottawa ROC site between 2011-2016, which were of presumed cardiac etiology, not witnessed by EMS, and where an AED was utilized by a bystander with > 1 minute of CPR process data available. AED data from Ottawa Paramedic Services was matched to each case identified by the ROC database. AED data was analyzed using manufacturer software to determine overall measures of bystander CPR quality, changes in bystander CPR quality over time, and bystander adherence to existing 2010 Resuscitation Guidelines. Results: 100 cases met all inclusion criteria. 75.0% of patients were male, with a mean age of 62.3 years. 58.0% of arrests occurred in the home setting, and 24.0% were witnessed arrests. Initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia in 36.0% of cases. Overall survival rate was 42.0%, with a modified Rankin Score of 3.7 (95% CI: 2.9-4.5). Bystanders demonstrated high-quality CPR over the course of resuscitation, with a chest compression fraction (CCF) of 75.9% (73.6-78.1), a compression depth of 5.26 cm (5.03-5.49), and a compression rate of 111.2/min (107.7-114.7). Mean peri-shock pause was 26.8 seconds (24.6-29.1). Adherence rates to 2010 Resuscitation Guidelines for compression rate and depth were 66.0% (60.9-71.1) and 54.9% (48.6-61.3), respectively. CPR quality was lowest in the first minute of resuscitation, during which rhythm analysis took place (mean 40.5 sec). In cases involving a shockable rhythm, overall latency from initiation of AED to shock delivery was 59.2 sec (45.5-72.8). Conclusion: We found that bystanders perform high-quality CPR, with strong adherence rates to existing Resuscitation Guidelines. Our findings provide evidence of the quality of bystander CPR performed during OHCA.
Introduction: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) are questionnaires that can be used to elicit care outcome information from patients. We sought to develop and validate the first PROM for adult patients without a primary mental health or addictions presentation receiving emergency department (ED) care and who were not hospitalized. Methods: PROM development used a multi-phase process based on national and international guidance (FDA, NQF, ISPOR). Phase 1: ED outcome conceptual framework qualitative interviews with ED patients post-discharge informed four core domains (previously published). Phase 2: Item generation scoping review of the literature and existing instruments identified candidate questions relevant for each domain for inclusion in tool. Phase 3: Cognitive debriefing existing and newly written questions were tested with ED patients post-discharge for comprehension and wording preference. Phase 4: Field and validity testing revised tool pilot tested on a national online survey panel and then again at 2 weeks (test-retest). Phase 5: Final item reduction using a Delphi process involving ED clinicians, researchers, patients and system administrators. Phase 6: Validation - psychometric testing of PROM-ED 1.0. Results: Four core outcome domains were defined in Phase 1: (1) understanding; (2) symptom relief; (3) reassurance and (4) having a plan. The domains informed a review of existing relevant questionnaires and instruments and the writing of additional questions creating an initial long-form questionnaire. Eight patients participated in cognitive debriefing of the long-form questionnaire. Expert clinicians, researchers and patient partners provided input on item refinement and reduction. Four hundred forty-four patients completed a second version of the long-form questionnaire (add in retest numbers) which informed the final item reduction process by a modified Delphi method involving 21 diverse contributors. The questionnaire was validated and underwent final revisions to create the 21 questions that constitute PROM-ED 1.0. Conclusion: Using accepted PROM instrument development methodology, we developed the first outcome questionnaire for use with adult ED patients who are not hospitalized. This questionnaire can be used to systematically gather patient-reported outcome information that could support and inform improvement work in ED care.
Introduction: With the current opioid crisis in Canada, presentations of acute opioid withdrawal (AOW) to emergency departments (ED) are increasing. Undertreated symptoms may result in relapse, overdose and death. Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is a partial opioid agonist/antagonist used to mitigate symptoms of AOW, approved by Health Canad in 2007 for opioid use disorder. It is superior to clonidine, and increases follow up with addiction treatment programs when initiated in the ED. Nevertheless, in our inner-city ED in 2014, bup/nal was rarely prescribed. We aimed to increase ED physician prescribing of bup/nal for AOW by 50% over a 26-month period. Methods: Commencing in 2014, an interprofessional team of ED physicians, nurses (RN), pharmacists and QI specialists collaborated to improve the care of patients with AOW. PDSA cycles included: (1) needs assessment of emergency physicians knowledge and practices in 2014; (2) Grand Rounds and a web based information sheet in 2015; (3) ED stocking of bup/nal; (4) convenience order set to standardize AOW management; (5) Grand Rounds in 2016 and (6) peer-coaching for RNs, including case-based discussions and pocket card cognitive aids. The outcome was the number of times bup/nal was prescribed per month by ED physicians between Sept, 2015 and Oct, 2017. Data included the prescriber and use of order set as the process measure. The balancing measure was the number of patients referred to the Addiction Medicine Team who subsequently received bup/nal. Results: Bup/nal was prescribed by ED physicians 70 times, and 14 times by the Addiction Medicine Team. With each PDSA cycle, there was an increase in prescribing, with no significant shifts or trends. By all physicians, the median number of prescriptions per month was 3, and increased from 2 to 4 prescriptions/month after nursing education. There was a smaller increase in the median from 2 to 3 prescriptions/month by ED physicians alone. The order set was used 97% of the time. Conclusion: Bup/nal is safe, effective, and increases follow up with addiction programs for comprehensive assessment and treatment planning. We met our goal of increasing bup/nal prescribing in the ED for AOW by 50%. Moreover, prescribing increased by 100% with the addition of patients who received bup/nal after a referral to the Addiction Medicine Team. The intervention with the greatest impact was RN education, demonstrating that peer-coaching and teaching by an interprofessional team is key to changing practice. Unfortunately, overall prescribing remains low, and ED physicians may still be hesitant to prescribe bup/nal and defer to the specialists. It is unclear if this is due to a low number of patients presenting with AOW, patients with contraindications to bup/nal, or ED physician factors. The next step is an audit of all patients with AOW to see what percentage of those eligible are treated with bup/nal. A follow up survey to determine ongoing barriers will inform further PDSA cycles.
To make pragmatic recommendations on best practices for the engagement of patients in emergency medicine (EM) research.
We created a panel of expert Canadian EM researchers, physicians, and a patient partner to develop our recommendations. We used mixed methods consisting of 1) a literature review; 2) a survey of Canadian EM researchers; 3) qualitative interviews with key informants; and 4) feedback during the 2017 Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Symposium.
We synthesized our literature review into categories including identification and engagement, patients’ roles, perceived benefits, harms, and barriers to patient engagement; 40/75 (53% response rate) invited researchers completed our survey. Among respondents, 58% had engaged patients in research, and 83% intended to engage patients in future research. However, 95% stated that they need further guidance to engage patients. Our qualitative interviews revealed barriers to patient engagement, including the need for training and patient partner recruitment.
Our panel recommends 1) an overarching positive recommendation to support patient engagement in EM research; 2) seven policy-level recommendations for CAEP to support the creation of a national patient council, to develop, adopt and adapt training material, guidelines, and tools for patient engagement, and to support increased patient engagement in EM research; and 3) nine pragmatic recommendations about engaging patients in the preparatory, execution, and translational phases of EM research.
Patient engagement can improve EM research by helping researchers select meaningful outcomes, increase social acceptability of studies, and design knowledge translation strategies that target patients’ needs.
The topics of quality improvement (QI) and patient safety have become important themes in health care in recent years, particularly in the emergency department setting, which is a frequent point of contact with the health care system for patients. In the first of three articles in this series meant as a QI primer for emergency medicine clinicians, we introduced the strategic planning required to develop an effective QI project using a fictional case study as an example. In this second article we continue with our example of improving time to antibiotics for patients with sepsis, and introduce the Model for Improvement. We will review what makes a good aim statement, the various categories of measures that can be tracked during a QI project, and the relative merits and challenges of potential change concepts and ideas. We will also present the Model for Improvement’s rapid-cycle change methodology, the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle. The final article in this series will focus on the evaluation and sustainability of QI projects.