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This Element examines the concept of reflective practice in language teaching. It includes a brief description of what reflective practice is and how it is operationalized by two of its main protagonists, John Dewey and Donald Schön, as well as some of the limitations of their conceptions. This is used as an introduction to how the author further developed their conceptions when operationalizing reflective practice for language teachers through a five-stage framework for reflecting on practice for language teachers. The author then presents an in-depth case study of the reflections of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher working in Costa Rica as he moved through the five stages of the framework for reflecting on practice. The author then goes on to outline and discuss how reflective practice may be moved forward and calls attention to the importance of emotions in the process of reflection for language teachers.
Micronutrients are important for normal cardiovascular function. They may play a role in the increased risk of cardiovascular disease observed in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and T2D-related heart failure. The aims of this study were to (1) examine micronutrient status in people with T2D v. healthy controls; (2) assess any changes following a nutritionally complete meal replacement plan (MRP) compared with routine care; (3) determine if any changes were associated with changes in cardiovascular structure/function. This was a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point trial of people with T2D, with a nested case–control [NCT02590822]. Anthropometrics, cardiac resonance imaging and fasting blood samples (to quantify vitamins B1, B6, B12, D and C; and iron and ferritin) were collected at baseline and 12 weeks following the MRP or routine care. Comparative data in healthy controls were collected at baseline. A total of eighty-three people with T2D and thirty-six healthy controls were compared at baseline; all had micronutrient status within reference ranges. Vitamin B1 was higher (148⋅9 v. 131⋅7; P 0⋅01) and B6 lower (37⋅3 v. 52⋅9; P 0⋅01) in T2D v. controls. All thirty participants randomised to routine care and twenty-four to the MRP completed the study. There was an increase in vitamins B1, B6, D and C following the MRP, which were not associated with changes in cardiovascular structure/function. In conclusion, changes in micronutrient status following the MRP were not independently associated with improvements in cardiovascular structure/function in people with T2D.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the necessary social isolation and distancing measures – that were adopted to prevent spreading the virus, including the suspension of university classes – negatively impacted the mental health of young adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether returning to online classes, even not presential, during the social isolation of the COVID-19 pandemic, affected the mental health of university students.
Forty students (10 men and 30 women) (age, 22.3 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 62.5 ± 17.8 kg; height, 165.6 ± 8.7 cm) from undergraduate health courses participated in the study. The students answered a self-administered questionnaire designed to gather personal and quarantine information as well as information about the frequency of depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) symptoms. The questionnaire was answered before and after the return to online classes.
There was a significantly lower frequency of depression symptoms after the return to online classes (Z = −2.27; p = 0.02). However, there was no difference in anxiety symptoms before and after returning to online classes (Z = −0.51; p = 0.61).
Return to online classes positively impacted the mental health (decrease of frequency of depression symptoms) of university students. Future studies are needed to observe whether the changes observed after returning to school are maintained over time.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
To investigate temporal trends in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related outcomes and to evaluate whether the impacts of potential risk factors and disparities changed over time, we conducted a retrospective cohort study with 249 075 patients tested or treated for COVID-19 at Michigan Medicine (MM), from 10 March 2020 to 3 May 2021. Among these patients, 26 289 were diagnosed with COVID-19. According to the calendar time in which they first tested positive, the COVID-19-positive cohort were stratified into three-time segments (T1: March–June, 2020; T2: July–December, 2020; T3: January–May, 2021). Potential risk factors that we examined included demographics, residential-level socioeconomic characteristics and preexisting comorbidities. The main outcomes included COVID-19-related hospitalisation and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The hospitalisation rate for COVID-positive patients decreased from 36.2% in T1 to 14.2% in T3, and the ICU admission rate decreased from 16.9% to 2.9% from T1 to T3. These findings confirm that COVID-19-related hospitalisation and ICU admission rates were decreasing throughout the pandemic from March 2020 to May 2021. Black patients had significantly higher (compared to White patients) hospitalisation rates (19.6% vs. 11.0%) and ICU admission rates (6.3% vs. 2.8%) in the full COVID-19-positive cohort. A time-stratified analysis showed that racial disparities in hospitalisation rates persisted over time and the estimates of the odds ratios (ORs) stayed above unity in both unadjusted [full cohort: OR = 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.79, 2.19); T1: OR = 1.70, 95% CI (1.36, 2.12); T2: OR = 1.40, 95% CI (1.17, 1.68); T3: OR = 1.55, 95% CI (1.29, 1.86)] and adjusted analysis, accounting for differences in demographics, socioeconomic status, and preexisting comorbid conditions (full cohort: OR = 1.45, 95% CI (1.25, 1.68); T1: OR = 1.26, 95% CI (0.90, 1.76); T2: OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.01, 1.64); T3: OR = 1.29, 95% CI (1.00, 1.67)).
The chapter focuses on people’s experiences of natural places and changes in their sense of place through the use of social media. It explores how social media are linked to senses of place and experiences of nature from a social–ecological–technological systems perspective. This is illustrated through four empirical cases representing specific people–place–tech systems, i.e. systems where different social, ecological and tech contexts interact. From a system perspective, those couplings are integrated parts of people’s experiences of nature that bridge virtual and physical worlds, thereby facilitating and communicating cognitive, affective and behavioural social-ecological interactions. These interactions foster novel individual and co-constructed meanings of place and thus plural senses of place; they can also mobilise people around shared meanings of place that are used to question dominant views. Thus, it is argued that social media can mediate and proliferate plural meanings of place, leading to new conceptualisations of senses of place.
Estimating the case fatality ratio (CFR) for COVID-19 is an important aspect of public health. However, calculating CFR accurately is problematic early in a novel disease outbreak, due to uncertainties regarding the time course of disease and difficulties in diagnosis and reporting of cases. In this work, we present a simple method for calculating the CFR using only public case and death data over time by exploiting the correspondence between the time distributions of cases and deaths. The time-shifted distribution (TSD) analysis generates two parameters of interest: the delay time between reporting of cases and deaths and the CFR. These parameters converge reliably over time once the exponential growth phase has finished. Analysis is performed for early COVID-19 outbreaks in many countries, and we discuss corrections to CFR values using excess-death and seroprevalence data to estimate the infection fatality ratio (IFR). While CFR values range from 0.2% to 20% in different countries, estimates for IFR are mostly around 0.5–0.8% for countries that experienced moderate outbreaks and 1–3% for severe outbreaks. The simplicity and transparency of TSD analysis enhance its usefulness in characterizing a new disease as well as the state of the health and reporting systems.
Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most problematic weeds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. The commercialization of herbicide-resistant (HR) rice nearly two decades ago provided an effective tool to manage weedy rice; however, resistance evolution and volunteer HR hybrid rice kept weedy rice at the forefront of rice weed control needs. This research aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of weedy rice infestations, identify production practices that may have contributed to an increase in weedy rice, and determine control strategies that may still be effective on weedy rice across Arkansas and adjacent U.S. Midsouth locales. Two questionnaires, one for rice growers and consultants and one for County Extension agents (CEAs), were distributed through email and physical copies in 2020. Thirty-three respondents returned the rice grower (25) and consultant (8) survey, representing 26 and 7 counties in Arkansas and the Missouri Bootheel area, respectively, as well as four parishes in northeast Louisiana. Eighteen respondents returned the CEA survey. Respondents ranked weedy rice the third most problematic weed in rice, behind Echinochloa spp. and Cyperus spp. The most common infestation levels reported in 78% of fields was less than 12 m−2. Crop rotation (64% growers/consultants, 50% CEAs) and HR rice technology (27% growers/consultants, 50% CEAs) were the top two most-effective methods for weedy rice management, respectively. Tillage and crop rotation practices significantly influenced weedy rice infestation. Rice–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation had the lowest weedy rice infestation compared with rice monoculture and other crop rotation practices. Crop rotation was not practiced on 26% of reported fields, primarily due to poor drainage. The imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant rice technology was still effective (>70% control) in 60% of fields, but quizalofop-resistant rice is needed to control IMI-resistant weedy rice. Overall, weedy rice remains a challenging weed in rice production.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
Abrupt depth transitions (ADTs) have recently been identified as potential causes of ‘rogue’ ocean waves. When stationary and (close-to-) normally distributed waves travel into shallower water over an ADT, distinct spatially localized peaks in the probability of extreme waves occur. These peaks have been predicted numerically, observed experimentally, but not explained theoretically. Providing this theoretical explanation using a leading-order-physics-based statistical model, we show, by comparing to new experiments and numerical simulations, that the peaks arise from the interaction between linear free and second-order bound waves, also present in the absence of the ADT, and new second-order free waves generated due to the ADT.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. However, extracting this information requires complex analysis pipelines that include data wrangling, calibration, analysis, and visualization, all while maintaining robustness against imaging distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we present py4DSTEM, an analysis toolkit for measuring material properties from 4D-STEM datasets, written in the Python language and released with an open-source license. We describe the algorithmic steps for dataset calibration and various 4D-STEM property measurements in detail and present results from several experimental datasets. We also implement a simple and universal file format appropriate for electron microscopy data in py4DSTEM, which uses the open-source HDF5 standard. We hope this tool will benefit the research community and help improve the standards for data and computational methods in electron microscopy, and we invite the community to contribute to this ongoing project.
The Chronos 14Carbon-Cycle Facility is a new radiocarbon laboratory at the University of New South Wales, Australia. Built around an Ionplus 200 kV MIni-CArbon DAting System (MICADAS) Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) installed in October 2019, the facility was established to address major challenges in the Earth, Environmental and Archaeological sciences. Here we report an overview of the Chronos facility, the pretreatment methods currently employed (bones, carbonates, peat, pollen, charcoal, and wood) and results of radiocarbon and stable isotope measurements undertaken on a wide range of sample types. Measurements on international standards, known-age and blank samples demonstrate the facility is capable of measuring 14C samples from the Anthropocene back to nearly 50,000 years ago. Future work will focus on improving our understanding of the Earth system and managing resources in a future warmer world.
We surveyed infectious disease specialists about early coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination preparedness. Almost all responding institutions rated their facility’s preparedness plan as either excellent or adequate. Vaccine hesitancy and concern about adverse reactions were the most commonly anticipated barriers to COVID-19 vaccination. Only 60% believed that COVID-19 vaccination should be mandatory.
We performed secondary analyses of a postdischarge decolonization trial of MRSA carriers that reduced MRSA infection and hospitalization by 30%. Hospitalized MRSA infection was associated with 7.9 days of non-MRSA antibiotics and CDI in 3.9%. Preventing MRSA infection and associated hospitalization may reduce antibiotic use and CDI incidence.
This study focuses on Ravenna during the period from its fall into the hands of the Lombards in 751 to the decline of Byzantine power in the West from the mid-eleventh century. It argues that Ravenna shared common features with a number of other cities in the upper Adriatic, for example Comacchio, Venice and Zadar. The city maintained its earlier economic and artistic ties with Istria and Dalmatia, but also with Constantinople. The ties to Byzantium were based on admiration, nostalgia or identity and were used as part of strategy of resistance to threatening outside forces. However, the increasing dominance of local landowning elite led to the local autonomy and the strongest Byzantine influence remained the social and cultural cachet of the empire.
Northern and southern hemispheric influences—particularly changes in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SSW) and Southern Ocean ventilation—triggered the stepwise atmospheric CO2 increase that accompanied the last deglaciation. One approach for gaining potential insights into past changes in SWW/CO2 upwelling is to reconstruct the positions of the northern oceanic fronts associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Using two deep-sea cores located ~600 km apart off the southern coast of Australia, we detail oceanic changes from ~23 to 6 ka using foraminifer faunal and biomarker alkenone records. Our results indicate a tight coupling between hydrographic and related frontal displacements offshore South Australia (and by analogy, possibly the entire Southern Ocean) and Northern Hemisphere (NH) climate that may help confirm previous hypotheses that the westerlies play a critical role in modulating CO2 uptake and release from the Southern Ocean on millennial and potentially even centennial timescales. The intensity and extent of the northward displacements of the Subtropical Front following well-known NH cold events seem to decrease with progressing NH ice sheet deglaciation and parallel a weakening NH temperature response and amplitude of Intertropical Convergence Zone shifts. In addition, an exceptional poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere fronts occurs during the NH Heinrich Stadial 1. This event was likely facilitated by the NH ice maximum and acted as a coup-de-grâce for glacial ocean stratification and its high CO2 capacitance. Thus, through its influence on the global atmosphere and on ocean mixing, “excessive” NH glaciation could have triggered its own demise by facilitating the destratification of the glacial ocean CO2 state.