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Every year in the month of September, National Suicide Prevention Week is celebrated. The goal of suicide prevention week is to inform the public about suicide prevention, primarily the warning signs of suicide. However, the impact of this month on the general population is unknown. The Google trends show how frequent web searches have been performed for a particular search-term, which provide an approximation of the people’s interest.
To evaluate public interest in suicide prevention by analyzing the google trends of “Suicide Prevention” search-term.
We estimated the interest in such topics by running the google trends data of the last decade by using the filter [Search Term:“Suicide Prevention”, Locations: “United States” and Time Ranges “ 2010 to 2020”].
During this specific interval, people have searched “Suicide Prevention” most frequently during the month of September (month of National Suicide Prevention week). Conversely, in the other months, interest in “suicide prevention” fluctuated between little to none. The only other time people have shown interest in Suicide prevention, other than the month of September, was with suicide news in the media, such as the death of a celebrity by suicide, or suicide-related TV shows. [Figure]
Although it is not definitive, it gives some idea that National Suicide Prevention week has a considerable impact on population interest. Since we did not observe sufficient public interest in other months, there should be frequent and systematic efforts to spread suicide prevention awareness among the general population.
Pharmacogenetic studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) primarily focussing on serotonergic and dopaminergic polymorphisms, provided inconsistent findings. There is recent evidence for glutamatergic abnormalities in OCD.
Examine the association glutamatergic genes with serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) response in OCD.
To study pharmacogenetic association between SLC1A1 and GRIN2B polymorphisms with SRI response in OCD.
DSM-IV OCD patients were recruited from a specialty OCD clinic and evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (YBOCS), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) plus, Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI). They were subsequently reassessed with YBOCS and CGI. To study extreme phenotypes, we included only full responders (> 35% YBOCS improvement and CGI-I score of 1 or 2) to any SRI (n = 191) and non-responders (< 25% YBOCS improvement and CGI-I score ≥ 4) to adequate trial of at least two SRIs (n = 84). Partial responders were excluded. Genotyping was performed using an ABI9700 PCR machine.
Genotype frequencies did not deviate significantly from the values predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. Case-control association analyses revealed no significant association between genotype/allele frequencies with SRI response.
Our data does not show any association between polymorphisms in glutamatergic genes and SRI response in OCD though such associations have been found in other studies. More SNP's in the same gene could be responsible for the pharmacogenetic associations. More homogenous sample considering symptom dimensions and other phenotypic variables may be needed. It may be critical to go beyond “usual suspect” candidate gene research. In this regard, a novel approach to identify SRI response biomarkers is the use of cellular models.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is mainly clinical, based on longitudinal history and clinical criteria due to lack of specific biochemical tests and neuroimaging studies. Deficient central cholinergic activity of AD pathology is said to be reflected as decreased peripheral cholinergic activity. Assessing peripheral cholinergic function with pupillometer for diagnostic and prognostic purpose may be beneficial, as it may be a non-invasive, acceptable, and easily administered diagnostic tool if proven so.
This is a single point case control pilot study with sample size of 45 (25 AD patient and 20 controls). CAMDEX-R based interview, HMSE, and DSM-IV criteria were used for detailed assessment and diagnosis. The pupillometric parameters (Horizontal and vertical diameters of pupil) were measured by Oasis Colvard pupillometer (SKU-0401A) under three conditions namely after 5 minute of dark adaptation in dark room (PD-5min-DA i.e. Baseline PD); after 5 minutes (PD-5min-T) and 15 minutes (PD-15min-T) of instillation of 2–3 drops of 1.0% Tropicamide.
There was no difference in baseline pupil diameter (horizontal + vertical) of AD patients and age matched healthy controls. 1% tropicamide induced significant increment in pupil diameters from baseline to after 5 (‘PD-5min-T’) and 15 minutes (‘PD-15min-T’) of its instillation in both AD patients and age matched healthy controls. But tropicamide induced increment in pupil diameters were approximately equal in cases and controls.
The study did not find the role of 1% tropicamide induced pupillary hypersensitivity in AD patients for diagnostic purpose.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In preparation for a multisite antibiotic stewardship intervention, we assessed knowledge and attitudes toward management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) plus teamwork and safety climate among providers, nurses, and clinical nurse assistants (CNAs).
Prospective surveys during January–June 2018.
All acute and long-term care units of 4 Veterans’ Affairs facilities.
The survey instrument included 2 previously tested subcomponents: the Kicking CAUTI survey (ASB knowledge and attitudes) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).
A total of 534 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 65%. Cognitive biases impacting management of ASB were identified. For example, providers presented with a case scenario of an asymptomatic patient with a positive urine culture were more likely to give antibiotics if the organism was resistant to antibiotics. Additionally, more than 80% of both nurses and CNAs indicated that foul smell is an appropriate indication for a urine culture. We found significant interprofessional differences in teamwork and safety climate (defined as attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety), with CNAs having highest scores and resident physicians having the lowest scores on self-reported perceptions of teamwork and safety climates (P < .001). Among providers, higher safety-climate scores were significantly associated with appropriate risk perceptions related to ASB, whereas social norms concerning ASB management were correlated with higher teamwork climate ratings.
Our survey revealed substantial misunderstanding regarding management of ASB among providers, nurses, and CNAs. Educating and empowering these professionals to discourage unnecessary urine culturing and inappropriate antibiotic use will be key components of antibiotic stewardship efforts.
We surveyed resident physicians at 2 academic medical centers regarding urinary testing and treatment as they progressed through training. Demographics and self-reported confidence were compared to overall knowledge using clinical vignette-based questions. Overall knowledge was 40% in 2011 and increased to 48%, 55%, and 63% in subsequent years (P<.001).
Spiking Neural Networks propose to mimic nature’s way of recognizing patterns and making decisions in a fuzzy manner. To develop such networks in hardware, a highly manufacturable technology is required. We have proposed a silicon-based leaky integrate and fire (LIF) neuron, on a sufficiently matured 32 nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. The floating body effect of the partially depleted (PD) SOI transistor is used to store “holes” generated by impact ionization in the floating body, which performs the “integrate” function. Recombination or equivalent hole loss mimics the “leak” functions. The “hole” storage reduces the source barrier to increase the transistor current. Upon reaching a threshold current level, an external circuit records a “firing” event and resets the SOI MOSFET by draining all the stored holes. In terms of application, the neuron is able to show classification problems with reasonable accuracy. We looked at the effect of scaling experimentally. Channel length scaling reduces voltage for impact ionization and enables sharper impact ionization producing significant designability of the neuron. A circuit equivalence is also demonstrated to understand the dynamics qualitatively. Three distinct regimes are observed during integration based on different hole leakage mechanism.
Extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare but distinct clinical entity, different from juvenile angiofibroma.
This clinical record elucidates the only case of extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma arising from the septum in a female child, who presented with epistaxis.
The histopathological diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and the case was managed surgically with no recurrence.
In a female paediatric patient presenting with epistaxis, extra-nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (of the inferior turbinate) is a rare albeit important differential diagnosis, as it challenges the hormonal theory of angiofibroma aetiopathogenesis.
Designing bioactive materials, with controlled metal ion release, exerting significant bioactivity and associated low toxicity for humans, is nowadays one of the most important challenges for the scientific community. In this work, we propose a new material combining the well-known antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) with those of bioactive chitosan (CS), a cheap natural polymer widely exploited for its biodegradability and nontoxicity. Here, we used ultrafast femtosecond laser pulses to finely fragment, via laser ablation, a Cu solid target immersed into aqueous CS solutions. Homogeneously dispersed copper-chitosan (Cu-CS) colloids were obtained by tuning the Cu/CS molar ratios, according to the initial chitosan concentration, as well as other experimental parameters. Cu-CS colloids were characterized by several techniques, like UV-Vis and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to morphologically characterize the novel nanocomposites.
Solution-based fabrication methods have been widely used for depositing uniform functional coatings. These coatings can be utilized in a variety of applications such as optoelectronics, biomedical, and energy. However, such fabrication techniques are not appropriate for directly depositing patterned micro/nano-scale features, which are required in many contact-based applications such as in MEMS.
In this work we propose the direct writing of hydrophobic silica-based sol-gel patterns with sustained functionality and their subsequent tribological characterization. Such an approach may be an advantageous alternative to current lithography-based methods due to the relative ease of processing and low material waste. This investigation involves the abrasive wear and frictional analysis of patterned fluorinated silica sol-gel coatings that are directly printed onto glass substrates with a robotically controlled pneumatic nozzle system. Such work sheds light on the tribological properties of lithography-free processed hydrophobic patterns for applications spanning from micromotors to biomedical fluidic devices.
The optimization of the figure of merit of thermoelectric materials requires the simultaneous control of the material composition and microstructure. Assembly of nanoparticles obtained by a solution route is an attractive bulk fabrication method because size and shape of the nanoparticles can be tuned by variation of the synthesis conditions. Recently, new synthetic pathways were reported among which reducing agent assisted, surfactant free processes. We report here the evaluation of this method for the synthesis of Bi2TexSe3-x alloyed nanoparticles with varying selenium concentrations. X-ray diffraction studies conducted on powder and pellet samples show that two alloyed phases are present in the sample even at low selenium content. The careful study of the position of the diffraction peaks as function of the formulation shows that this behaviour could arise from the difference in reactivity of selenium and tellurium. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of the samples is shown to increase upon selenium addition while the Seebeck coefficient is reduced. Power factor shows an optimum value around 20% selenium content with a large tolerance in composition.
A PbSe film was grown by chemical bath deposition on a thermally oxidized Si (111) substrate. Morphological change of the PbSe film during sensitization under the oxygen and iodine atmospheres was studied by SEM. The as-grown polycrystalline PbSe film consists of clusters of about 200nm in diameter. By the oxidation treatment for 30 min at 380°C, the clusters became joined together. On the other hand, recrystallization of new PbSe crystals with faceted surfaces occurred during the iodination treatment under an iodine plus nitrogen atmosphere at 380°C for different durations. This morphological change during the sensitization treatment might affect the electro-optical properties of the PbSe film.
In here we depict the morphogenesis and associated properties of TiO2-based macroscopic fibers designed for the photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOC). We employed a continuous industrially scalable extrusion-based process making the use of hybrid sols of amorphous titania nanoparticles, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and occasionally latex nanoparticles. This process allowed for the continuous generation of hybrid TiO2/latex/PVA or TiO2/PVA macroscopic fibers. Upon thermal treatment, biphasic porous fibers are obtained containing the anatase phase of TiO2 with 10-15% of brookite. These fibers, which can be manufactured under several hundred meter of length, are offering significantly improved phototocatalytic efficiency now comparable to the commercial Quartzel®PCO photocatalyst for gas-phase acetone mineralization.
The present work focuses on the polyol-mediated synthesis of pure and Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The synthesized samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence techniques. The Standard Plate Count was used to assess the bactericidal properties of the nanoparticles against E. coli at 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm of concentration. The capacity of the Zn-Mg oxides to generate singlet oxygen (SO) species was also evaluated. X-ray diffraction information evidenced the formation of ZnO-wurtzite; no diffraction peaks corresponding to isolated Mg-phases were detected. The average crystallite size of the Zn-Mg oxide nanocrystals was estimated in the 6nm - 7nm range. Infrared spectroscopy measurements confirmed the formation of the oxide with a Metal-Oxygen band centered on 536 cm-1; other bands associated to the functional groups of polyol by product were also observed. The exciton peak of UV spectrum suggests similarity in the particle size with the dopant addition. The effect of particle composition (i.e. doping level) on the corresponding generation of SO and bactericidal capacity is presented and discussed.
We have developed a new method for controlling the size, crystallinity, and polydispersity of 100–2000 nm tetrafluoride phosphor particles. Five polyol-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were downselected out of a set of more than 130 candidates. We analyzed their benefits in synthesizing phosphor matrix particles of β-NaYF4, β-NaYbF4, and β-NaGdF4. We produced green (λmax = 540 nm) and blue/UV (λmax = 450 nm) upconverting phosphors in DES using Yb,Er and Yb,Tm codopants, respectively. The blue/UV phosphor reaction was scaled the up to 25 L, yielding nearly 400 g of high-quality, bright photoluminescent, β-phase product under mild conditions. We conclude that polyol-based DES systems offer a uniquely specialized and useful toolkit for phosphor synthesis.
Polarization force (acting on a dust grain) and its modification by polarity of dust, non-isothermal (viz. non-thermal and trapped) ions, adiabaticity of electrons and ions, etc. have been investigated theoretically. It has been found that the polarization force is significantly modified by these effects, i.e. the magnitude of the polarization force is significantly decreased by the presence of non-thermal ions and by the adiabaticity of electrons and ions. On the other hand, it is significantly increased by the presence of trapped ions. It has been also shown that the magnitude of the polarization force is increased (decreased) by electric potential in the case of positively (negatively) charged dust. The relevance of our investigation to some space and astrophysical plasma situations is discussed.
Waves in a dusty plasma over the lunar dayside are considered. It is shown that the relative motion of the solar wind with respect to the photoelectrons over the lunar surface leads to the excitation of high-frequency oscillations with frequencies in the range of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves. The dust acoustic wave excitation is possible in the vicinity of the lunar terminator.
This paper describes the establishment of a test setup for measurement of passive inter-modulation (PIM) products generated by various device(s) under test (DUT(s)) (filters, coaxial cables etc.) at ultra high frequency (UHF) band. The paper begins with a brief discussion of an ideal PIM test setup using a quiet load. It then discusses the establishment of the setup in the absence of quiet load and demonstrates a PIM level of −192 dBc of the test setup. Finally it shows the PIM performance of a band-stop filter, a flexible cable, cascade of band-stop filter, and flexible cable, measured using the established test setup. These components are required for UHF payload of a communication satellite.
More than 50% of the global population already lives in urban settlements and urban areas are projected to absorb almost all the global population growth to 2050, amounting to some additional three billion people. Over the next decades the increase in rural population in many developing countries will be overshadowed by population flows to cities. Rural populations globally are expected to peak at a level of 3.5 billion people by around 2020 and decline thereafter, albeit with heterogeneous regional trends. This adds urgency in addressing rural energy access, but our common future will be predominantly urban. Most of urban growth will continue to occur in small-to medium-sized urban centers. Growth in these smaller cities poses serious policy challenges, especially in the developing world. In small cities, data and information to guide policy are largely absent, local resources to tackle development challenges are limited, and governance and institutional capacities are weak, requiring serious efforts in capacity building, novel applications of remote sensing, information, and decision support techniques, and new institutional partnerships. While ‘megacities’ with more than 10 million inhabitants have distinctive challenges, their contribution to global urban growth will remain comparatively small.
Energy-wise, the world is already predominantly urban. This assessment estimates that between 60–80% of final energy use globally is urban, with a central estimate of 75%. Applying national energy (or GHG inventory) reporting formats to the urban scale and to urban administrative boundaries is often referred to as a ‘production’ accounting approach and underlies the above GEA estimate.