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Excessive antimicrobial use is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. In our cohort of 27,163 infants born at <33 weeks gestational age, the first week after birth accounted for the highest rates of antimicrobial use, and variability across sites persisted after adjustment for patient characteristics correlated with illness severity.
Every year in the month of September, National Suicide Prevention Week is celebrated. The goal of suicide prevention week is to inform the public about suicide prevention, primarily the warning signs of suicide. However, the impact of this month on the general population is unknown. The Google trends show how frequent web searches have been performed for a particular search-term, which provide an approximation of the people’s interest.
To evaluate public interest in suicide prevention by analyzing the google trends of “Suicide Prevention” search-term.
We estimated the interest in such topics by running the google trends data of the last decade by using the filter [Search Term:“Suicide Prevention”, Locations: “United States” and Time Ranges “ 2010 to 2020”].
During this specific interval, people have searched “Suicide Prevention” most frequently during the month of September (month of National Suicide Prevention week). Conversely, in the other months, interest in “suicide prevention” fluctuated between little to none. The only other time people have shown interest in Suicide prevention, other than the month of September, was with suicide news in the media, such as the death of a celebrity by suicide, or suicide-related TV shows. [Figure]
Although it is not definitive, it gives some idea that National Suicide Prevention week has a considerable impact on population interest. Since we did not observe sufficient public interest in other months, there should be frequent and systematic efforts to spread suicide prevention awareness among the general population.
The coronavirus pandemic continues to impact all aspects of the daily life of the public worldwide. With decreased economic activity, the sports industry faces significant challenges of maintaining athletes’ mental health while seeking the best strategies for eventual return to sports competition.
We aim to evaluate COVID-19 related factors impacting on the mental health of athletes and provide appropriate management steps.
We examined MeSH terms “Athletes,” “Sports,” “COVID-19,” in the context of “Mental Health,” “Mental Disorders,” “Behavioral Medicine,” “Risk Factors.” We identified seven studies for the qualitative synthesis per the PRISMA guidelines, searching Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central, and PsychInfo databases until July 2020.
The pandemic has negatively impacted athletes’ mental wellbeing due to decreased physical activities, limited resources, fears, and delays or cancellations of the sporting event. The negative psychological impact on athletes is due to self-isolation measures leading to worries of less preparedness for the lockdown, reduced physical activity, loss of competitive advantages, fear of being infected, social isolation, and loneliness. During this period, athletes struggled to maintain baseline routine and engaged in excessive calorie intake, eating low-quality food, substance use, and sleep disruption. It has caused anxiety, depression, PTSD, and mood disorder at varying degrees of severity in athletes.
Limited resources during a pandemic have caused adverse mental impact on athletes. We recommend improving physical activity through confined or virtual training programs with colleagues. A collaborative approach is required by clinicians, psychologists, coaches, sports organizations, government bodies to limit the pandemic’s mental health impact.
Anticholinergic medications block cholinergic transmission. The central effects of anticholinergic drugs can be particularly marked in patients with dementia. Furthermore, anticholinergics antagonise the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, the main dementia treatment.
This study aimed to assess anticholinergic drug prescribing among dementia patients before and after admission to UK acute hospitals.
352 patients with dementia were included from 17 hospitals in the UK. All were admitted to surgical, medical or Care of the Elderly wards in 2019. Information about patients’ prescriptions were recorded on a standardised form. An evidence-based online calculator was used to calculate the anticholinergic drug burden of each patient. The correlation between two subgroups upon admission and discharge was tested with Spearman’s Rank Correlation.
Table 1 shows patient demographics. On admission, 37.8% of patients had an anticholinergic burden score ≥1 and 5.68% ≥3. At discharge, 43.2% of patients had an anticholinergic burden score ≥1 and 9.1% ≥3. The increase was statistically significant (rho 0.688; p=2.2x10-16). The most common group of anticholinergic medications prescribed at discharge were psychotropics (see Figure 1). Among patients prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors, 44.9% were also taking anticholinergic medications.
This multicentre cross-sectional study found that people with dementia are frequently prescribed anticholinergic drugs, even if also taking cholinesterase inhibitors, and are significantly more likely to be discharged with a higher anticholinergic drug burden than on admission to hospital.
Conflict of interest
This project was planned and executed by the authors on behalf of SPARC (Student Psychiatry Audit and Research Collaborative). We thank the National Student Association of Medical Research for allowing us use of the Enketo platform. Judith Harrison was su
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), poverty, violence and harmful alcohol/substance are associated with poor mental health outcomes in the general population. These risks are likely to be exacerbated among Female Sex Workers (FSWs), however there are few studies examining risks factors for mental health problems among FSWs. We examine the prevalence and correlates of common mental health problems including suicidal behaviour among FSWs in Kenya.
Maisha Fiti is a longitudinal study among FSWs randomly selected from Sex Worker Outreach Programme (SWOP) clinics across Nairobi. Baseline data were collected from June-December 2019. Mental health problems were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression, the Generalised Anxiety Disorder tool (GAD-7) for anxiety, and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ-17) for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Recent suicidal behaviour was defined as reported suicide attempt or suicidal ideation in the past 30 days. Other measurement tools included the WHO Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) score, WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, and the WHO ASSIST tool (to measure harmful alcohol/substance use in the past 3 months). Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were conducted in Stata 16.1.
Of 1039 eligible FSWs, 1003 FSWs took part in the study (response rate: 96%) with a mean age of 33.7 years. The prevalence of moderate/severe depression was 23.2% (95%CI: 20.7–25.9%), moderate/severe anxiety 11.0% (95%CI: 9.3–13.1%), PTSD 14.0% (95% CI: 12.2–16.5%) and recent suicidal behaviour 10.2% (95%CI: 8.5–12.2%) (2.6% suicide attempt; 10.0% suicidal ideation). Among women with any mental health problem 63.0% also had a harmful alcohol/substance use problem. One in four women (25%; 95%CI: 22.5–27.8%) had depression and/or anxiety and this was independently associated with higher ACE scores, hunger (skipped a meal in last week due to financial difficulties), death of a child, perceived sex work stigma and recent sexual/physical violence. PTSD was associated with higher ACE scores, hunger, increased STI prevalence (chlamydia trachomatis) and recent violence. Recent suicidal behaviour was associated with higher ACE scores, low literacy, hunger, and recent violence. Mental health problems and suicidal behaviour were less prevalent among women reporting social support.
The high burden of mental problems among FSWs indicates a need for accessible services tailored for FSWs alongside broader structural interventions addressing poverty, harmful alcohol/substance use and violence. High rates of ACEs among this population indicates the need to consider early childhood and family interventions to prevent poor mental health outcomes.
Funding: Medical Research Council and the UK Department of International Development
To determine the impact of electronic health record (EHR)–based interventions and test restriction on Clostridioides difficile tests (CDTs) and hospital-onset C. difficile infection (HO-CDI).
Quasi-experimental study in 3 hospitals.
957-bed academic (hospital A), 354-bed (hospital B), and 175-bed (hospital C) academic-affiliated community hospitals.
Three EHR-based interventions were sequentially implemented: (1) alert when ordering a CDT if laxatives administered within 24 hours (January 2018); (2) cancellation of CDT orders after 24 hours (October 2018); (3) contextual rule-driven order questions requiring justification when laxative administered or lack of EHR documentation of diarrhea (July 2019). In February 2019, hospital C implemented a gatekeeper intervention requiring approval for all CDTs after hospital day 3. The impact of the interventions on C. difficile testing and HO-CDI rates was estimated using an interrupted time-series analysis.
C. difficile testing was already declining in the preintervention period (annual change in incidence rate [IR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72–0.87) and did not decrease further with the EHR interventions. The laxative alert was temporally associated with a trend reduction in HO-CDI (annual change in IR from baseline, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75–0.96) at hospitals A and B. The gatekeeper intervention at hospital C was associated with level (IRR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.42-0.60) and trend reductions in C. difficile testing (annual change in IR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85–0.98) and level (IRR 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22–0.81) and trend reductions in HO-CDI (annual change in IR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50–0.92) relative to the baseline period.
Test restriction was more effective than EHR-based clinical decision support to reduce C. difficile testing in our 3-hospital system.
We present a theoretical and experimental study of the dynamics of two-layer viscous fluid flows on inclined surfaces, motivated by natural and industrial phenomena involving the interactions between two fluid layers. A general model describing the evolution of two fluids on an inclined substrate is developed and explored to reveal a rich variety of flow regimes for different modes of release. The asymptotic reduction of this problem due to the dominance of the along-slope component of gravity is shown to yield considerable analytical inroads compared with previous studies of multi-layer flow configurations, which have focused exclusively on the case of horizontal beds. For the canonical example in which two fluids are introduced at a constant flux, the flow forms two regions: an upstream region containing both fluids, and a downstream region comprised purely of the lighter fluid, with a sharp intervening jump in thicknesses between the two. By constructing similarity solutions, we establish a full regime diagram of the possible configurations over all asymptotic limits of the viscosity, flux and density ratios. For the release of two fixed volumes of fluid, the layers separate completely into two disjoint but connected regions, contrasting in essential structure from the constant flux case. Even a small volume of the heavier fluid is able to significantly accelerate the propagation of the lighter fluid in front of it. Excellent agreement is found between our theoretical predictions and the results of a series of laboratory experiments.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a persistent and potentially disabling movement disorder associated with prolonged exposure to antipsychotics and other dopamine receptor blocking agents. Long-term safety of the approved TD medication, valbenazine, was demonstrated in 2 clinical trials (KINECT 3 [NCT02274558], KINECT 4 [NCT02405091]). Data from these trials were analyzed post hoc to evaluate the onset and resolution of adverse events (AEs).
Participants in KINECT 3 and KINECT 4 received up to 48 weeks of once-daily valbenazine (40 or 80 mg). Data from these studies were pooled and analyzed to assess the incidence, time to first occurrence, and resolution for the following AEs of potential clinical interest: akathisia, balance disorder, dizziness, parkinsonism, somnolence/sedation, suicidal behavior/ideation, and tremor.
In the pooled population (N=314), all AEs of potential clinical interest occurred in <10% of participants, with somnolence (9.6%), suicidal behavior/ideation (6.4%), and dizziness (5.7%) being the most common AEs. Mean time to first occurrence ranged from 36 days (akathisia [n=9]) to 224 days (parkinsonism [n=2]). By end of study (or last study visit), resolution of AEs was as follows: 100% (suicidal ideation/behavior, parkinsonism); >85% (somnolence/sedation, dizziness); >70% (akathisia, balance disorder, tremor).
In long-term clinical trials, the incidence of AEs of potential clinical interest was low (<10%) and most were resolved by end of treatment (>70–100%). All patients taking valbenazine should be routinely monitored for AEs, particularly those that may exacerbate the motor symptoms associated with TD.
We assessed long-term incidence and prevalence trends of dementia and parkinsonism across major ethnic and immigrant groups in Ontario.
Linking administrative databases, we established two cohorts (dementia 2001–2014 and parkinsonism 2001–2015) of all residents aged 20 to 100 years with incident diagnosis of dementia (N = 387,937) or parkinsonism (N = 59,617). We calculated age- and sex-standardized incidence and prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism by immigrant status and ethnic groups (Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population). We assessed incidence and prevalence trends using Poisson regression and Cochran–Armitage trend tests.
Across selected ethnic groups, dementia incidence and prevalence were higher in long-term residents than recent or longer-term immigrants from 2001 to 2014. During this period, age- and sex-standardized incidence of dementia in Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population increased, respectively, among longer-term immigrants (by 41%, 58%, and 42%) and long-term residents (28%, 7%, and 4%), and to a lesser degree among recent immigrants. The small number of cases precluded us from assessing parkinsonism incidence trends. For Chinese, South Asian, and the General Population, respectively, prevalence of dementia and parkinsonism modestly increased over time among recent immigrants but significantly increased among longer-term immigrants (dementia: 134%, 217%, and 117%; parkinsonism: 55%, 54%, and 43%) and long-term residents (dementia: 97%, 132%, and 71%; parkinsonism: 18%, 30%, and 29%). Adjustment for pre-existing conditions did not appear to explain incidence trends, except for stroke and coronary artery disease as potential drivers of dementia incidence.
Recent immigrants across major ethnic groups in Ontario had considerably lower rates of dementia and parkinsonism than long-term residents, but this difference diminished with longer-term immigrants.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are endemic in the Chicago region. We assessed the regional impact of a CRE control intervention targeting high-prevalence facilities; that is, long-term acute-care hospitals (LTACHs) and ventilator-capable skilled nursing facilities (vSNFs). Methods: In July 2017, an academic–public health partnership launched a regional CRE prevention bundle: (1) identifying patient CRE status by querying Illinois’ XDRO registry and periodic point-prevalence surveys reported to public health, (2) cohorting or private rooms with contact precautions for CRE patients, (3) combining hand hygiene adherence, monitoring with general infection control education, and guidance by project coordinators and public health, and (4) daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing. Informed by epidemiology and modeling, we targeted LTACHs and vSNFs in a 13-mile radius from the coordinating center. Illinois mandates CRE reporting to the XDRO registry, which can also be manually queried or generate automated alerts to facilitate interfacility communication. The regional intervention promoted increased automation of alerts to hospitals. The prespecified primary outcome was incident clinical CRE culture reported to the XDRO registry in Cook County by month, analyzed by segmented regression modeling. A secondary outcome was colonization prevalence measured by serial point-prevalence surveys for carbapenemase-producing organism colonization in LTACHs and vSNFs. Results: All eligible LTACHs (n = 6) and vSNFs (n = 9) participated in the intervention. One vSNF declined CHG bathing. vSNFs that implemented CHG bathing typically bathed residents 2–3 times per week instead of daily. Overall, there were significant gaps in infection control practices, especially in vSNFs. Also, 75 Illinois hospitals adopted automated alerts (56 during the intervention period). Mean CRE incidence in Cook County decreased from 59.0 cases per month during baseline to 40.6 cases per month during intervention (P < .001). In a segmented regression model, there was an average reduction of 10.56 cases per month during the 24-month intervention period (P = .02) (Fig. 1), and an estimated 253 incident CRE cases were averted. Mean CRE incidence also decreased among the stratum of vSNF/LTACH intervention facilities (P = .03). However, evidence of ongoing CRE transmission, particularly in vSNFs, persisted, and CRE colonization prevalence remained high at intervention facilities (Table 1). Conclusions: A resource-intensive public health regional CRE intervention was implemented that included enhanced interfacility communication and targeted infection prevention. There was a significant decline in incident CRE clinical cases in Cook County, despite high persistent CRE colonization prevalence in intervention facilities. vSNFs, where understaffing or underresourcing were common and lengths of stay range from months to years, had a major prevalence challenge, underscoring the need for aggressive infection control improvements in these facilities.
Funding: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (SHEPheRD Contract No. 200-2011-42037)
Disclosures: M.Y.L. has received research support in the form of contributed product from OpGen and Sage Products (now part of Stryker Corporation), and has received an investigator-initiated grant from CareFusion Foundation (now part of BD).
We used social network analysis (SNA) to study the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak in Karnataka, India, and to assess the potential of SNA as a tool for outbreak monitoring and control. We analysed contact tracing data of 1147 COVID-19 positive cases (mean age 34.91 years, 61.99% aged 11–40, 742 males), anonymised and made public by the Karnataka government. Software tools, Cytoscape and Gephi, were used to create SNA graphics and determine network attributes of nodes (cases) and edges (directed links from source to target patients). Outdegree was 1–47 for 199 (17.35%) nodes, and betweenness, 0.5–87 for 89 (7.76%) nodes. Men had higher mean outdegree and women, higher mean betweenness. Delhi was the exogenous source of 17.44% cases. Bangalore city had the highest caseload in the state (229, 20%), but comparatively low cluster formation. Thirty-four (2.96%) ‘super-spreaders’ (outdegree ⩾ 5) caused 60% of the transmissions. Real-time social network visualisation can allow healthcare administrators to flag evolving hotspots and pinpoint key actors in transmission. Prioritising these areas and individuals for rigorous containment could help minimise resource outlay and potentially achieve a significant reduction in COVID-19 transmission.
To determine the prevalence and predictors of hypocalcaemia in under-five children (1–59 months) hospitalised with severe acute malnutrition (SAM).
A cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypocalcaemia among children hospitalised with SAM. Serum Ca and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-(OH)D) were estimated. Hypocalcaemia was defined as serum Ca (albumin-adjusted) <2·12 mmol/l. To identify the clinical predictors of hypocalcaemia, a logistic regression model was constructed taking hypocalcaemia as a dependent variable, and sociodemographic and clinical variables as independent variables.
A tertiary care hospital in Delhi, between November 2017 and April 2019.
One-hundred and fifty children (1–59 months) hospitalised with SAM were enrolled.
Hypocalcaemia was documented in thirty-nine (26 %) children hospitalised with SAM, the prevalence being comparable between children aged <6 months (11/41, 26·8 %) and those between 6 and 59 months (28/109, 25·7 %) (P = 0·887). Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-(OH)D <30 nmol/l) and clinical rickets were observed in ninety-eight (65·3 %) and sixty-three (42 %) children, respectively. Hypocalcaemia occurred more frequently in severely malnourished children with clinical rickets (OR 6·6, 95 % CI 2·54, 17·15, P < 0·001), abdominal distension (OR 4·5, 95 % CI 1·39, 14·54, P = 0·012) and sepsis (OR 2·6, 95 % CI 1·00, 6·57, P = 0·050).
Rickets and hypocalcaemia are common in children with SAM. Routine supplementation of vitamin D should be considered for severely malnourished children. Ca may be empirically prescribed to severely malnourished children with clinical rickets, abdominal distension and/or sepsis.
The pervasive problem of irreproducibility of preclinical research represents a substantial threat to the translation of CTSA-generated health interventions. Key stakeholders in the research process have proposed solutions to this challenge to encourage research practices that improve reproducibility. However, these proposals have had minimal impact, because they either 1. take place too late in the research process, 2. focus exclusively on the products of research instead of the processes of research, and/or 3. fail to take into account the driving incentives in the research enterprise. Because so much clinical and translational science is team-based, CTSA hubs have a unique opportunity to leverage Science of Team Science research to implement and support innovative, evidence-based, team-focused, reproducibility-enhancing activities at a project’s start, and across its evolution. Here, we describe the impact of irreproducibility on clinical and translational science, review its origins, and then describe stakeholders’ efforts to impact reproducibility, and why those efforts may not have the desired effect. Based on team-science best practices and principles of scientific integrity, we then propose ways for Translational Teams to build reproducible behaviors. We end with suggestions for how CTSAs can leverage team-based best practices and identify observable behaviors that indicate a culture of reproducible research.
Presently, evidence guiding clinicians on the optimal approach to safely screen patients for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a nonemergent hospital procedure is scarce. In this report, we describe our experience in screening for SARS-CoV-2 prior to semiurgent and urgent hospital procedures.
Retrospective case series.
A single tertiary-care medical center.
Our study cohort included patients ≥18 years of age who had semiurgent or urgent hospital procedures or surgeries.
Overall, 625 patients were screened for SARS-CoV-2 using a combination of phone questionnaire (7 days prior to the anticipated procedure), RT-PCR and chest computed tomography (CT) between March 1, 2020, and April 30, 2020.
Of the 625 patients, 520 scans (83.2%) were interpreted as normal; 1 (0.16%) had typical features of COVID-19; 18 scans (2.88%) had indeterminate features of COVID-19; and 86 (13.76%) had atypical features of COVID-19. In total, 640 RT-PCRs were performed, with 1 positive result (0.15%) in a patient with a CT scan that yielded an atypical finding. Of the 18 patients with chest CTs categorized as indeterminate, 5 underwent repeat negative RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab 1 week after their initial swab. Also, 1 patient with a chest CT categorized as typical had a follow-up repeat negative RT-PCR, indicating that the chest CT was likely a false positive. After surgery, none of the patients developed signs or symptoms suspicious of COVID-19 that would indicate the need for a repeated RT-PCR or CT scan.
In our experience, chest CT scanning did not prove provide valuable information in detecting asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) in our low-prevalence population.
Chronic aflatoxin exposure has been associated with childhood stunting (length-for-age/height-for-age < –2 sd), while data lacks for Bangladesh, a country with substantial burden of childhood stunting. This paper examined the association between aflatoxin exposure and childhood stunting in a slum setting of Dhaka city.
In this MAL-ED aflatoxin birth cohort study, plasma samples were assayed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) by MS at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months of age for 208, 196, 173 and 167 children to assess chronic aflatoxin exposure. Relationship between aflatoxin exposure and anthropometric measures was examined by mixed-effects logistic regression models.
Setting and participants:
The study was conducted in Mirpur, Dhaka, where children were followed from birth to 36 months.
Prevalence of stunting increased from 21 % at 7 months to 49 % at 36 months of age. Mean AFB1-lys concentrations at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months were 1·30 (range 0·09–5·79), 1·52 (range 0·06–6·35), 3·43 (range 0·15–65·60) and 3·70 (range 0·09–126·54) pg/mg albumin, respectively, and the percentage of children with detectable AFB1-lys was 10, 21, 18 and 62 %, respectively. No association was observed between aflatoxin exposure and stunting in multivariable analyses. Factors associated with childhood stunting were age, low birth weight, maternal height, stool myeloperoxidase and number of people sleeping in one room.
A relatively lower exposure to aflatoxin may not influence the linear growth of children. This finding indicates a threshold level of exposure for linear growth deficit and further investigation in other areas where higher concentrations of aflatoxin exposure exist.