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The effect of environmental enrichment on the welfare of stabled horses was estimated on the basis of positive and negative behavioural indicators. Six stabled horses were exposed for seven days to each of two conditions in early spring: i) a window at the back of the loose box was opened, but no horses were within the view of the subject horses (OW) and ii) the window in the loose box was opened and two horses that had been in the same stable as the subject horses were turned out to the paddock next to the stable and were within view of the subject horses (OWH). The window in the loose box had been closed prior to the start of the study for protection against the cold during winter months (CW condition) but horses could see outside the loose box through the grille door. The behaviour of the subject horses was recorded by video camera from 1300 to 1530h, firstly, in the CW condition for the three days prior to treatment as the control condition, and then for the last three days of each week in the OW and OWH conditions. The behaviour was focal- and instantaneous-sampled at 30-s intervals. Significant differences between the effects of the loose box conditions on the mean percentage of time spent in standing behaviour, looking behaviour, and bedding investigation behaviour (which may be an indicator of frustration) were observed but no significant difference in the mean percentage of time spent in standing-sleep behaviour (which may be an indicator of behavioural satisfaction) was observed. When the window was opened, bedding investigation and standing behaviour decreased and, when the conspecifics were within view, bedding investigation behaviour decreased and looking behaviour increased. The results suggested that the OW and OWH treatments suppressed the frustration of stabled horses which did not perform any abnormal behaviour, but may not increase the behavioural satisfaction of stabled horses.
The Animal Needs Index (ANI) is used for on-farm assessment of welfare in Austria. However, no synthetic welfare assessment system exists in Japan. We performed a welfare assessment of Japanese dairy farms using the ANI scoring system. On 25 farms, 36 dairy herds were assessed using the ANI35L/2000-cattle survey. On 10 dairy farms, 16 herds were housed in free-stall barns. The other 20 herds of 15 dairy farms were housed in tie-stall barns. This study was conducted between December 2004 and January 2005. The ANI scores ranged from 6.0 to 40.0 points (mean 17.8 points). The four high ranking herds on ANI value were housed in free-stalls and allowed the use of outside areas. The 13 low ranking herds were housed in tie-stalls and were not allowed the use of outside areas. The free-stall herds had significantly higher ANI scores than tie-stall herds. The ANI scores of herds having access to outside areas were significantly higher than those of herds having no outside access. This scoring system might be useful for Japanese dairy farms. However, some assessment parameters contain subjective criteria such as cleanliness, floor slipperiness, and animal health. Further studies are necessary to improve the scoring system, in particular clarifying criteria related to those parameters.
The Brazilian Cerrado, a Neotropical savanna, is a fire-prone ecosystem where the ground layer biomass consists mainly of graminoids. However, as for other savannas, the effects of fire cues (such as smoke) on Cerrado grasses do not present a clear pattern, either for germination or seedling development. Smoke can stimulate different stages of the plant life cycle, which can alter the community and invasion processes. So far, most research on the subject focuses on germination, not addressing post-germinative phases, a sensitive stage of plant development. Here, we investigated the effect of smoke on a native (Echinolaena inflexa) and an invasive (Urochloa decumbens) grass species common in the Cerrado. We analysed germinative parameters and seedling mass and length after exposing the seeds to dry smoke for 5, 10, 15 or 20 min. Seedling development was assessed by measuring shoot and root systems after cultivating germinated seeds for 3, 7 or 15 d. Smoke did not affect germination percentages. However, fumigation reduced the mean germination time of both species and the germination onset of E. inflexa. U. decumbens had higher length values in all periods of cultivation, whereas mass values only surpassed that of E. inflexa at 15 d. Smoke exposure reduced the aboveground length of 7-d seedlings of U. decumbens, and mass of 15-d plants of both species. Also, smoke enhanced the root investment of the native and invasive species in different cultivation periods. Therefore, studying post-germinative parameters on seedling development may bring further insights into the smoke effects.
The optimal timing of functional endoscopic sinus surgery for odontogenic infections precipitated by retention cysts of the maxillary sinus was investigated.
Five adults who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery were examined.
The root apexes of all teeth that had odontogenic infection protruded into the maxillary sinus. All teeth with odontogenic infections precipitated by the retention cysts had percussion pain, indicating they had periodontitis and pulpitis around the root apex. They were vital teeth, indicating they did not have pulp necrosis. The small area of cyst wall attached to the floor of the maxillary sinus and root apex were left intact. The teeth that had odontogenic infections precipitated by retention cysts continued to be vital with no symptoms.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery should be performed before periodontitis and pulpitis of the root apex progress to ascending pulpitis and pulp necrosis. In other words, functional endoscopic sinus surgery should be performed while the affected tooth is still vital.
Background. Middle-ear carcinoid tumour is a rare malignant tumour with an indolent course occasionally causing regional or distant metastasis. This paper presents a case of middle-ear carcinoid tumour metastasising to the parapharyngeal space and the parotid gland 20 years after the first surgery.
Case report. A 35-year-old woman who underwent multiple tympanomastoidectomies for middle-ear carcinoid presented with tumours of both the parapharyngeal space and parotid gland, detected by regular imaging. Based on the clinical course, metastatic relapse of middle-ear carcinoid was suspected. This was treated with subtotal parotidectomy with elective neck dissection (levels II and III), leading to the pathological diagnosis of carcinoid tumour. A cervico-parotid approach was selected to avoid complications associated with parapharyngeal space tumour removal. Transient facial palsy (House–Brackmann grade III) occurred, which completely recovered two months after surgery.
Conclusion. Awareness of parapharyngeal space tumours possibly caused by metastasis from a middle-ear tumour is necessary.
In June 2020, a large-scale food poisoning outbreak involving about 3000 elementary and junior high school students occurred in Yashio, Saitama, Japan. A school lunch was the only food stuff ingested by all of the patients. Escherichia coli serotype O7:H4 carrying the astA gene for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) was detected in faecal specimens from the patients, and sample inspection revealed its presence in a seaweed salad and red seaweed (Gigartina tenella) as one of the raw materials. Analysis of the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates revealed resistance to ampicillin and cefotaxime. All isolates were confirmed to be of the same origin by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with the restriction enzyme XbaI, and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis using whole genome sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a large-scale food poisoning caused by E. coli O7:H4, which lacks well-characterized virulence genes other than astA.
This study aimed to determine the requirements of standardized ileal digestible (SID) methionine (Met) + cysteine (Cys) of 15–30 kg barrows, maintaining or increasing the 1:1 ratio between SID Met and SID Cys. Seventy crossbred barrows averaging 15.2 ± 0.54 kg of live weight were allotted in a randomized block design 2 × 3 + 1 factorial scheme, with five replicates and two animals per pen. Treatments consisted of maintaining or increasing the 1:1 ratio between SID Met and SID Cys, three levels of SID Met + Cys (5.8, 6.4 and 7.0 g/kg) and a basal diet containing the lowest SID Met + Cys level (5.2 g/kg), formulated to provide a 1:1 ratio of SID Met (2.6 g/kg) and SID Cys (2.6 g/kg). Performance, blood parameters, longissimus dorsi muscle depth, backfat thickness and S–S linkages in the bristles were evaluated. The best average daily gain was estimated at 6.61 g/kg of SID Met + Cys, without maintaining the 1:1 ratio between sulphur amino acids (SAA). The daily intake of SID Met + Cys increased due to dietary SID Met + Cys levels, maintaining or increasing the same ratio between SAA. Plasma glucose increased and total cholesterol decreased according to SID Met + Cys levels, without maintaining the same ratio between the SAA. The requirement of SID Met + Cys for 15–30 kg barrows was 6.61 g/kg (7.88 g/day) for an optimum average daily gain, with no need to maintain the same ratio between the SAA.
Cells in the vocal fold of maculae flavae are likely to be tissue stem cells. Energy metabolism of the cells in newborn maculae flavae was investigated from the aspect of mitochondrial microstructure.
Five normal newborn vocal folds were investigated under transmission electron microscopy.
Mitochondria consisted of a double membrane bounded body containing matrices and a system of cristae. However, these membranes were ambiguous. In each mitochondrion, the lamellar cristae were sparse. Intercristal space was occupied by a mitochondrial matrix. Some mitochondria had fused to lipid droplets and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and both the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes had incarcerated and disappeared.
The features of the mitochondria of the cells in the newborn maculae flavae showed that their metabolic activity and oxidative phosphorylation were low. The metabolism of the cells in the newborn maculae flavae seems to be favourable to maintain the stemness and undifferentiation of the cells.
Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence fetal growth; however, the available evidence is controversial. We aimed to assess whether maternal diet of Japanese women in mid-pregnancy can affect their offspring’s birth size via collection of questionnaire and medical record data. The studied sample was a large cohort of paired mothers and their singleton offspring (n 78 793) from fifteen areas all over Japan who participated in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. The mid-pregnancy intakes of total energy, macronutrients and vitamins were lower than the recommended intakes for pregnant Japanese women. Maternal total energy intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth weight; there was a 10-g mean difference in the offspring’s birth weight of mothers in the lowest (3026 g) v. highest (3036 g) quartiles of energy intake. Carbohydrate intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth length (mean difference of 0·7 cm) and inversely associated with the ponderal index (mean difference of 0·8 g/cm3). Offspring of mothers in the highest v. lowest quartiles of total dietary fibre intake were on average 9 g heavier and had 0·3 cm longer birth length and 0·2 cm longer head circumference. The highest in reference to lowest intake quartile of vitamin C was associated with 13 g and 0·7 cm mean differences in the offspring’s birth weight and length, respectively. Several other associations were evident for maternal intakes of vitamins and the offspring’s birth size. In conclusion, maternal dietary intakes of energy, dietary fibre, carbohydrate and vitamins during pregnancy were associated with the offspring’s birth size.
Studies on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) related to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in Asia are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and microbiological determinants of hospitalised CAP and PP after PCV13 was introduced in Japan. This observational hospital-based surveillance study included children aged ⩽15 years, admitted to hospitals in and around Chiba City, Japan. Participants had bacterial pneumonia based on a positive blood or sputum culture for bacterial pathogens. Serotype and antibiotic-susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with bacterial pneumonia were assessed. The CAP hospitalisation rate per 1000 child-years was 17.7, 14.3 and 9.7 in children aged <5 years and 1.18, 2.64 and 0.69 in children aged 5–15 years in 2008, 2012 and 2018, respectively. There was a 45% and 41% reduction in CAP hospitalisation rates, between the pre-PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively. Significant reductions occurred in the proportion of CAP due to PP and PCV13 serotypes. Conversely, no change occurred in the proportion of CAP caused by H. influenzae. The incidence of hospitalised CAP in children aged ⩽15 years was significantly reduced after the introduction of PCV13 in Japan. Continuous surveillance is necessary to detect emerging PP serotypes.
Attention bias (AB) is a biased information processing towards threat among competing stimuli occurred in early stage of sensory input. Substantial evidence indicates that AB is involved in the development and maintenance of anxiety and depressive disorders. However, little is known about the relationships between AB and individual differences of endocrine and neuropsychological functions.
Thirty healthy participants without major physical illness or axis I/II mental disorders as evaluated with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were enrolled. Participants completed a dot-probe task, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, and the Trail Making Test (TMT). Salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points per day for consecutive 2 days: immediately and 30 min after awaking in the morning and before sleep at night. Correlation analyses were performed between AB and psychological measures, cortisol levels, and attention measures.
As predicted, AB significantly correlated with BDI-II and Harm avoidance sub-dimension of the TCI. Above all, when those variables that were significantly correlated with AB were included in a step-wise multivariate regression analysis, higher cortisol level at night remained the most influential predictor for AB.
Our results suggest that AB is significantly influenced not only by anxious personality traits and depressive symptoms but also by individual differences of attention function and stress hormonal levels. Particularly, AB modification approach might have a beneficial effect on anxiety in individuals who have high cortisol levels.
Catatonia is a complication of bipolar disorder, which is a constellation of symptoms such as catalepsy, mutism, and stupor. Standard therapy for catatonia contains benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy. An uncomplicated catatonia is usually a benign condition. On the other hand, malignant catatonia is a life-threatening condition that is complicated with fever, autonomic instability, delirium, and rigidity. The syndrome is typically fulminant and progresses rapidly within a few days without appropriate intervention. Several previous reports suggested that some catatonia are associated with the overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and that amantadine may have an effectiveness for catatonia, as a NMDA receptor antagonist. We report a case of successful treatment for malignant catatonia refractory to benzodiazepines, by using amantadine.
Materials and methods/case
A 64-year-old Japanese woman with bipolar disorder was referred to our hospital because of 8-week prolonged fever. On admission, she was in febrile and stuporous states. Severe rigidity was observed in her extremities. Blood tests, lumbar puncture, and blood cultures were all negative. Brain MRI was normal. Consequently, we reached a diagnosis of malignant catatonia, and thus we gave additional benzodiazepines for her catatonic symptoms. However, there was no improvement, and we finally add a 50 mg/day amantadine for her malignant catatonic state.
Her fever resolved in a few days. Gradual dose-titration of amantadine led her clinical manifestation to completely disappeared.
Amantadine can be a potential option as one of the pharmacological therapies for refractory malignant catatonia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This study aims to create controlled fine space by electrospinning, and to develop the electrode materials for high-performance energy devices. With the popularization of mobile devices, household appliances, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and the like, the use of power storage devices is expanding, and further performance improvements are required. In this study, a novel electrode material was developed by compositing Si with carbon nanofibers derived from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) by electrospinning and heat treatment. The texture and structure of the nanofibers were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with image processing. Nano spaces were created in the CNFs and Si particles were able to be contained in the CNFs. In the second and subsequent cycles of the charge/discharge experiments of lithium ion battery (LIB) electrode made from the materials, the capacity was more than twice the theoretical capacity using graphite, and good cycle performance was obtained.
The naturalization of alien Reeves's muntjacs (Muntiacus reevesi) on Izu-Oshima Island, Tokyo, Japan, has proceeded intensively over the last five decades. To clarify whether the gastrointestinal helminths of these animals were brought from their original endemic area or were newly acquired in Japan, 32 Reeves's muntjacs trapped on the island were parasitologically examined. In addition to Gongylonema pulchrum in the oesophagus (34.4% prevalence), Chabaudstrongylus ninhae (Dróżdż, 1967) (Trichostrongylidae: Cooperiinae) and Oesophagostomum muntiacum Jian, 1989 (Chabertiidae: Oesophagostominae) were prevalent in the small (28.1%) and large (46.9%) intestines, respectively. For the first time, these trichostrongylid or chabertiid worms were genetically characterized based on partial nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox-1), and the phylogenetic relationships with other members of their family were explored. Since these two intestinal nematode species are inherent in muntjacs, this study demonstrates a new distribution of exotic helminth species in Japan in accordance with the naturalization of alien mammalian hosts. The molecular genetic data collected here could assist the taxonomic assessment of morphological variants in different Muntiacus spp. and/or of different geographical origins. Furthermore, our data may help to define the phylogenetic relationships among such isolates.
In order to improve a large posterior glottal gap and/or aspiration, injections of augmentation substances should not only be administered at the mid-membranous vocal fold in the thyroarytenoid muscle, but also at the cartilaginous portion of the vocal fold to make adduction arytenopexy possible.
Ten adult human larynges were investigated using the whole-organ serial section technique.
Vertical thickness of the posterior aspect of the thyroarytenoid muscle was relatively thin (3.4 ± 0.4 mm), especially in females (3.2 ± 0.3 mm). Consequently, care should be taken to ensure the correct depth of needle placement. If the needle is placed too deep, augmentation substances are injected into the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, located beneath the thyroarytenoid muscle, or into the paraglottic space, located inferolateral to the thyroarytenoid muscle.
The injection location and the amount of injected material should be modified based on the pathological conditions of the voice disorder and aspiration.
The gullet worms, classical Gongylonema pulchrum and newly differentiated Gongylonema nepalensis, are prevalent in various mammals in Japan and Sardinia, Italy, respectively. The former species is cosmopolitan in distribution, dwelling in the mucosa of the upper digestive tract of a variety of domestic and wild mammals, and also humans. At present, the geographical distribution of G. nepalensis is known in Nepal and Sardinia, with the nematode having been recorded from the oesophagus of water buffaloes (Nepal), cattle, sheep, goats and wild mouflon (Sardinia). To clarify their natural transmission cycles among domestic and wild mammals, the present study analysed the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) of worms of various origins: G. pulchrum worms from sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, and feral alien Reeves's muntjacs in Japan, and G. nepalensis worms from a red fox and a wild boar in Sardinia. Although the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA and partial cox1 nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum from native wild mammals in Japan were distinct from those of the worms in cattle, the worms from feral alien Reeves's muntjacs showed the cattle-type ITS genotype and cox1 cattle-I and II haplotypes. The rDNA and cox1 nucleotide sequences of G. nepalensis from a red fox in Sardinia were almost identical to those of the worms from domestic and wild ruminants on the island. The ecological interaction between domestic and wild mammals and their susceptibility to different Gongylonema spp. must be considered when trying to elucidate this spirurid's transmission dynamics in nature.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Polycondensation reactions between amino acids and phenols are one of the pathways for the formation of humic substances, and clay minerals are able to catalyse these reactions. To investigate the catalytic power of allophane, an allophane fraction (ALF) was separated from weathered pumice (WP) that contained imogolite as an impurity by taking advantage of differences in sedimentation velocity. The iron content in the separated ALF was increased by up to 3.0% compared to that in the starting WP (1.3%), and the ALF was further treated with sodium dithionate and citric acid (ALF-DC) to remove the iron. The catalytic powers of WP, ALF and ALF-DC were evaluated, based on the degree of darkening of reaction mixtures from polycondensation reactions between catechol and tryptophan, model compounds for precursors of humic substances. The catalytic power for ALF was significantly higher than the corresponding values for WP and ALF-DC. This can be attributed to the high iron content of the ALF, which serves as a Lewis acid that can enhance nucleophilic reactions which occur during the polycondensation reactions.
To enhance the catalytic activities of zeolites for the polycondensation reactions of humic precursors, Fe was loaded into a zeolite via an ion-exchange reaction and the resulting product was subjected to calcination at 773 K. Two types iron-loaded zeolites were prepared using one equivalent (Fe-Z-1) and 10-equivalents (Fe-Z-10) of Fe2+ to the cation-exchange capacity of a natural zeolite from Niki town (Hokkaido, Japan). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed that the Fe(II) that was originally loaded into the cation-exchange sites in the zeolite became oxidized to a Fe(III) ionic species during the preparation. The catalytic activities of each zeolite were evaluated, based on the degree of darkening for reaction mixtures containing catechol, glycine and glucose as model humic precursors. The catalytic activities of Fe-Z-1 and Fe-Z-10 were higher than that for an untreated zeolite, and increased with the amount of Fe in the zeolite.