To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Violent behaviours such as aggression or self-harming are commonly observed in persons with autistic disorders. They constitute the main reason for emergency admissions of these patients to the hospital and can sometimes result in substantial physical injuries toward the patients themselves or towards others. Atypical antipsychotics have been emerging for some years as the first-line pharmacologic treatment for violence in children with autism or other pervasive development disorders. in particular, the anti aggressive effect of risperidone and olanzapine has been found significant in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and North American and European agencies recently approved the use of risperidone for the treatment of aggressiveness in children with autism. by contrast, clozapine has received very little attention so far.
Here we report the case of a 15-years old adolescent with autism whose severe tantrums and violent behaviours were not improved by risperidone or haloperidol but were drastically improved with clozapine (more than 40% reduction of violent events). the anti aggressive effect of clozapine has been sustained for one year of follow-up. No significant side effects were reported in this patient and co prescription was reduced by 50%. This case report suggests the importance to conduct controlled trials assessing the efficiency of clozapine for the treatment of aggressiveness in patients with autism. More generally, specific anti aggressive properties of clozapine are discussed in the light of the relevant literature.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious childhood-onset disorder that affects all areas of development and is associated with disruptive symptoms including aggression and self injury. In ASD, risperidone and aripiprazole are the only second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGA) that have shown to decrease disruptive behaviours in controlled double-blind studies. However, some patients are not improved by these drugs. Clozapine, a SGA known to be effective to treat aggressiveness in schizophrenia, has received little attention in ASD. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the changes in disruptive for all patients with ASD who were treated with clozapine from 2002 to 2010. Disruptive behaviours were monitored during the 4 to 6 months before and after the initiation of clozapine, and long term tolerance (10 months to 7 years) was also assessed. The relationship between disruptive behaviours and periods of treatment was studied with a generalized linear marginal model. Clozapine resulted in a significant 2 fold decrease in the number of the days with aggression, a decrease of the number of psychotropic drugs and the dose of the antipsychotic drugs. The long term tolerance (white blood cell count, extrapyramidal effects) was good with the exception for a significant weight gain (of 22.3% +/- 18,2%), the occurence of metabolic syndrome in one patient and tachycardia in another patient.
These results suggest that clozapine should be considered for the management of disruptive behaviours in patients with ASD not improved by first line antipsychotic drugs.
We conducted a matched case-control (MCC), test-negative case-control (TNCC) and case-cohort study in 2016 in Lusaka, Zambia, following a mass vaccination campaign. Confirmed cholera cases served as cases in all three study designs. In the TNCC, control-subjects were cases with negative cholera culture and polymerase chain reaction results. Matched controls by age and sex were selected among neighbours of the confirmed cases in the MCC study. For the case-cohort study, we recruited a cohort of randomly selected individuals living in areas considered at-risk of cholera. We recruited 211 suspected cases (66 confirmed cholera cases and 145 non-cholera diarrhoea cases), 1055 matched controls and a cohort of 921. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness of one dose of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was 88.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42.7–97.8) in the MCC study, 80.2% (95% CI: 16.9–95.3) in the TNCC design and 89.4% (95% CI: 64.6–96.9) in the case-cohort study. Three study designs confirmed the short-term effectiveness of single dose OCV. Major healthcare-seeking behaviour bias did not appear to affect our estimates. Most of the protection among vaccinated individuals could be attributed to the direct effect of the vaccine.
Ten economically important species belonging to the Tephritidae have been recorded in Union of the Comoros (an island nation off the coast of East Africa). Little is known about the distribution of these species and how they are affected by climatic factors in the Comoros archipelago. The main objectives of this study were to characterize: (i) the population dynamics of tephritid fruit flies in relation to season and host fruit availability and (ii) the geographic distribution of tephritids in relation to temperature and rainfall. The study was conducted during 2 years at 11 sites on three islands (Grande Comore, Anjouan, and Mohéli) in the archipelago. The site elevations ranged from 55 to 885 m a.s.l. At each site, flies were collected weekly in eight traps (four different lures, each replicated twice). Fruit phenology was also recorded weekly. The dominant tephritid species detected was the invasive Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel followed by Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann. Tephritid species were generally more abundant during the hot and rainy seasons than during the cold and dry seasons. Bactrocera dorsalis numbers were higher on Grande Comore than on the two other islands. On Anjouan and Mohéli, B. dorsalis numbers were very low in 2014 but sharply increased in 2015, suggesting a recent invasion of these islands. Abundances were significantly related to the fruiting of mango, strawberry guava, and guava for B. dorsalis and to the fruiting of mango, guava, and mandarin for C. capitata. Bactrocera dorsalis was more abundant in hot and humid low-altitude areas, while C. capitata was more abundant in dry medium-altitude areas, suggesting the occurrence of climatic niche partitioning between the two species.
Fruit flies have evolved mechanisms using olfactory and visual signals to find and recognize suitable host plants. The objective of the present study was to determine how habitat patterns may assist fruit flies in locating host plants and fruit. The tomato fruit fly, Neoceratitis cyanescens (Bezzi), was chosen as an example of a specialized fruit fly, attacking plants of the Solanaceae family. A series of experiments was conducted in an outdoor field cage wherein flies were released and captured on sticky orange and yellow spheres displayed in pairs within or above potted host or non-host plants. Bright orange spheres mimicking host fruit were significantly more attractive than yellow spheres only when placed within the canopy of host plants and not when either within non-host plants or above both types of plants. Additional experiments combining sets of host and non-host plants in the same cage, or spraying leaf extract of host plant (bug weed) on non-host plants showed that volatile cues emitted by the foliage of host plants may influence the visual response of flies in attracting mature females engaged in a searching behaviour for a laying site and in assisting them to find the host fruit. Moreover, the response was specific to mature females with a high oviposition drive because starved mature females, immature females and males showed no significant preference for orange spheres. Olfactory signals emitted by the host foliage could be an indicator of an appropriate habitat, leading flies to engage in searching for a visual image.
Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are the most damaging pests on fruit crops on Réunion Island, near Madagascar. Survival and development of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitiscapitata (Wiedemann), the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch and the Mascarenes fruit fly, C. catoirii Guérin-Mèneville were compared at five constant temperatures spanning 15 to 35°C. Durations of the immature stages of C. capitata, C. rosa and C catoirii ranged from 14.5–63.8, 18.8–65.7 and 16.8–65.8 days, respectively, at 30–15°C. The lower developmental threshold and thermal constant were calculated using the temperature summation model. The thermal constant for total development of the immature stages of C. capitata, C. rosa and C. catoirii were 260, 405 and 356 DD, respectively. Species differed mainly during the larval stages and ovarian maturation period, with smaller differences in the egg stage. Ceratitis rosa appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than the two other species as it showed a lower larval developmental threshold of 3.1°C compared to 10.2°C for C. capitata and 8.9°C for C. catoirii. Overall, C. catoirii had a low survival rate within the range of temperatures studied. The different responses of the three Ceratitis species to various temperatures explain to some extent their distribution on the island. The results obtained will be used for optimizing laboratory rearing procedures and for constructing computer simulation models to predict fruit fly population dynamics.
A finite element 3D polycrystalline aggregate made of 216 grains is subjected
to a mean axial deformation up to 1%. The heterogeneities inside the polycrystal
are due to the crystallographic orientations of the grains - this appears at the
scale of the mean responses per grain - and to the local interaction between
neighbouring grains - this appears at the intragranular scale. The intragranular
heterogeneity is measured as a function of the distance to the grain boundary,
inside a single grain and for all the points of the microstructure. It is characterized
by dispersions of the local responses due to grain boundaries. These measurements
correspond to dispersions - variances -; the statistical errors have also been determined.
The effect of a thin Ta layer at the Ti/Si interface on the kinetic of the C49-C54 transition will be shown in detail. The transformation kinetic has been monitored by in situ sheet resistance measurements that, coupled to structural characterisation, allowed to evidence the presence of an intermediate phase before the C54 formation. The temperature of the C54 phase formation decreases with a Ta concentration of 4.5·1015 cm−2 and μ-Raman images of partially transformed samples indicates that the density of C54 grains in presence of Ta is about one order of magnitude higher with respect to pure Ti/Si samples.
Mania with chronic course has been overlooked in the recent literature. Our aim was clinically to characterise and validate this form of mania.
We evaluated 155 people with DSM–III–R mania and assessed their family history, temperament, symptomatology and course. We used a semi-structured interview for mood disorders, as well as the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms.
Twenty (13%) had a chronic course arising from a background of hyperthymic temperament and recurrent mania, with a deteriorative pattern. Clinically, they were characterised by a significantly high rate of almost constant euphoria, grandiose delusions and related delusions, but had relatively low rates of sleep disturbance, psychomotor agitation and hypersexuality.
Even with current therapies a significant number of people with bipolar disorders have a deteriorative outcome associated with the gradual disappearance of acute mania with an increase in mregalomanic delusions, alienation from loved ones and decreased likelihood of medical and psychiatric care.
MicroRaman measurements on titanium silicide films grown on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon substrates doped with As, BF2 and P have been performed. The data collected on patterns of different areas and shapes, but comparable doping level show that the doping has negligible effects both on C54 nucleation center density and on activation energy for the C49/C54 phase transition. On the contrary, substrate strongly affects the C54 growth rate, ruling the ability of the C54 phase to propagate after the nucleation.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.