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In this paper the defects generated by ion implantation in 4H-SiC DIMOSFET (Double Implanted MOSFETs), and their evolution after annealing process, have been studied in detail. The point defects generated by the source or body implantation process have been detected by micro-photoluminescence (µPL) and the effect of these defects on the electrical characteristics of the DIMOSFET has been studied. The role of the annealing process has been carefully investigated by using different temperatures. It appears fundamental for the restoring of the crystal damage. The effect of the ion implantation dose has been investigated as well. By reducing the source ion implanted dose a large decrease of point defects has been detected and a considerable improvement of the electrical characteristic of the DIMOSFET has been observed.
Silicon Nanowires (Si-NWs) are obtained by vapor-liquid-solid growth using an inductively coupled chemical vapor deposition system which works at temperatures lower than 400 °C. Gold nanodots are used as metal catalyst. The selective growth of Si-NWs on the gold nanodots is obtained by controlling the contribution coming from the uncatalyzed growth on the bare Si substrate. In this way the final NW length can be controlled, and it is not influenced by the thickness of the uncatalyzed layer. The important parameter ruling the NW growth is found to be the plasma power which governs the dissociation of the Si precursor gas. Final NW lengths of 1 μm are obtained at temperatures of 380 °C with a thickness of uncatalyzed layer equal to zero. Also the NW density is addressed in this work and it is optimised by increasing the gold equivalent thickness. The NW density is increased from 2.9×108 to 1.3×1010 cm-2, when the gold equivalent thickness passes from 1.8 nm to 2.2 nm.
Equilibrium geometries and formation energies of neutral and charged In complexes with silicon native defects (vacancy (V) and self-interstitials (I)) and with C impurities are investigated within density functional theory, using the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package. We determine formation energies and ionization levels of different complexes and discuss the contribution of I and V to indium diffusion. We also identify the In-C defect responsible for the increased electrical activation in In+C-doped silicon samples. The ab initio energetics is then implemented in a continuum diffusion code in order to simulate the diffusion of as-implanted In profiles under different thermal treatments.
An experimental study on In implantation in Si was performed, considering some factors that affect its electrical activation. One of the critical issues concerning In is represented by its outdiffusion, during the post-implantation annealing, a limiting factor to get active In concentration suitable for applications in microelectronics. The use of different thermal processes was evaluated, aimed to achieve a reduction of the outdiffusion and an increase of the electrical activation of In in silicon. The influence of the substrate purity on the electrical activation was shown to be of great importance: in particular, it was shown that C., present in the silicon substrate as a contaminant or as a co-implanted species, has a key-role in the electrical activation and diffusion of In in silicon. Furthermore, for the first time at our knowledge, the behaviour of In implanted in Si1−xGex layers grown by CVD on Si wafers was investigated, for Ge concentration of 0.5% and 1%. An enhancement in the electrical activation was observed with increasing the Ge content in the alloy.
The amorphous-to-polycrystal transition has been studied in Ge2+xSb2Te5 (x = 0.0 and 0.5) films through X ray diffraction analysis and in situ electrical measurements. Phase separation has been observed in samples with excess of Ge, which cannot be completely converted into thence phase at temperatures lower than 170 °C.By using in situ transmission electron microscopy, the growth velocity and the nucleation rate in Ge2Sb2Te5 films have been measured at different annealing temperatures. Activation energies of 2.8 eV and 2.4 eV have been obtained for the nucleation rate and the growth velocity, respectively. The barrier energy for the nucleation of a critical nucleus ΔG* has been evaluated.
Formation of ultra-shallow junctions by excimer laser annealing (ELA) of ultra-low energy (1keV –250 eV) B implanted in Si has been investigated. High resolution TEM has been used to assess the as-implanted damage and the crystal recovery following ELA. The electrical activation and redistribution of B in Si during ELA has been studied as a function of the laser energy density (melt depth), the implant dose and the number of laser pulses (melt duration). Under appropriate ELA conditions, ultra-shallow profiles, extending to a depth as low as 35 nm with an abrupt profile (2.5 nm/dec), have been achieved. A significant amount of the implanted dopant was lost from the sample following ELA. However, the dopant that was retained in crystal material was fully activated following rapid re-solidification. We developed a theoretical model, that considers the dopant redistribution during melting and regrowth, showing that the fraction of the implanted dopant not activated during ELA was lost from the sample through out diffusion. The lateral distribution of the implanted B following laser annealing has been studied with 2-D measurements, using selective etching and cross-section TEM on samples where the implanted dopant was confined by using test structures including windows opened in silicon dioxide masks and patterned gate stack structures.
In this work we investigate the diffusion and the electrical activation of In atoms implanted in silicon with different energies, in the range 80-360 keV, after rapid thermal processing. Our investigation shows a clear dependence of In out-diffusion and electrical activation on the implant depth, being the electrically active fraction higher with increasing the implant energy for a fixed dose. The data are explained considering the balance between the local In concentration and the C background inside the silicon substrate and the formation of C-In complexes, which play a role in the enhanced electrical activation due to the shallower level they introduce into the Si band gap (Ev+0.111 eV), with respect to the rather deep level (Ev+0.156 eV) of In alone. In and C co-implantation has also been studied within this work, in order to confirm the key role of C in the increase of the electrical activation. A large increase of the electrical activation has been detected in the co-implanted samples, up to a factor of about 8 after annealing at 900°C. However, C precipitation occurs at 1100°C, with dramatic effects on the carrier concentration.
When a Ta layer is deposited at the Si/Ti interface a new phase has been detected, i.e. theTiSi2C40. The C40-C54 transformation kinetics and the film morphology are consistent with an increase of the nucleation density with respect to the C49-C54 transition. The activation energies for the nucleation rate (4.2±0.3 eV) and the growth velocity (4.0±0.4 eV) have been obtained from the in situ sheet resistance and the Transmission Electron Microscopy results. These results show that the process with a Ta layer at the Ti/Si interface has a greater scalability with respect to the standard TiSi2 process.
To form crystalline Si dots embedded in SiO2, we have deposited thin films of silicon rich oxide (SRO) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiH4 and O2. Then the materials wereannealed in N2 ambient at temperatures between 950 and 1100 °C. Under such processing, the supersaturation of Si in the amorphous SRO film produces the formation of crystalline Si dots embedded in SiO2. The narrow dot size distributions, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, are characterized by average grain radii and standard deviations down to about 1 nm. The memory function of such structures has been investigated in metal-oxidesemiconductor (MOS) capacitors with a SRO film sandwiched between two thin SiO2 layers as insulator and with an n+ polycrystalline silicon gate. The operations of write and storage are clearly detected by measurements of hysteresis in capacitance-voltage characteristics and they have been studied as a function of bias.
The transient enhanced diffusion (TED) during activation annealing of ultra low energy implanted boron (0.5 keV & 1 keV, 1×1013/cm2 & 1×1014/cm2) in silicon is investigated in detail. Annealing in the temperature range from 450°C to 750°C is either performed directly after implantation or after the removal of a surface layer before annealing. The kinetics revealed two regimes of enhanced diffusion ruled by different decay constants and different activation energies. The dependence of these two processes on implantation energy and annealing temperature is described and explained from the microscopical point of view. The annealings performed after surface layer removal, revealed that the defects responsible for the faster diffusion are located deeper than the defects responsible for the slower process.
We investigated the atomic transport properties and electrical activation of boron in crystalline epitaxial silicon after ultra-low energy ion implantation (0.25–1 keV) and rapid thermal annealing (750–1100 °C). A wide range of implant doses was investigated (3×1012-1×105/cm2). A fast Transient Enhanced Diffusion (TED) pulse is observed involving the tail of the implanted Boron, the profile displacement being dependent on the implant dose. The excess of interstitials able to promote enhanced diffusion of implanted boron occurs, provided the implant dose is high enough to generate a significant total number of point defects. The Boron diffusion following the fast initial TED pulse can be described by the equilibrium diffusion equations.
The electrical activation of ultra-shallow implants is hard to achieve, due to the high concentration of dopant and point defects confined in a very shallow layer that significantly contributes to the formation of clusters and complex defects. Provided a correct combination of annealing temperatures and times for these ultra-shallow implants is chosen, however, a sheet resistance 500 Δ/square with a junction depth below 0.1μm can be obtained, which has a noteworthy technological relevance for the future generations of semiconductor devices.
The kinetics of the C49-C54 polymorphic transformation in titanium disilicides thin films grown on amorphous Si substrate has been followed by sheet resistance and Infrared Spectroscopy measurements on both blanket samples and submicron lines. The transformation of a fine grained C49 films (davg=30 nm) into the C54 phase was complete after annealing for ∼300 s at a temperature of 700 °C in blanket samples and of 730 °C in submicron lines. The Avrami exponent decreases from n=3 in blanket films to n=l in stripes. The transformation time at a given temperature increases with decreasing linewidth in agreement with the nucleation density model. Infrared Spectroscopy shows no shift of the peaks of the C49 phonons going from blanket to patterned films, suggesting the lack of strain on TiSi2 patterned films. The different behavior between blanket and laterally limited samples has been explained in terms of the different surface energies.
The results of several recent experiments aimed at assessing the room temperature migration properties of interstitials (D) and vacancies (V) in ion implanted crystalline Si are reviewed. We show that combining the results of ex-situ techniques (deep level transient spectroscopy and spreading resistance profilometry) and in-situ leakage current measurements new and interesting information can be achieved. It has been found that at room temperature I and V, generated by an ion beam, undergo fast long range migration (with diffusivities higher than 10−1 cm2/sec) which is interrupted by trapping at impurities (C, O) or dopant atoms and by recombination at surface. Analysis of two-dimensional migration of point defects injected through a photolithographically defined mask shows that a strong I recombination (characterized by a coefficient of 30 μm−1) occurs at the sample surface. Moreover, we have found that the strain field induced by an oxide or a nitride mask significantly affects defect migration and produces a strong anisotropy of the defect diffusivity tensor. Finally, using in-situ leakage current measuremens, performed both during and just after ion irradiation, the time scale of point defect evolution at room temperature has been determined and defect diffusivities evaluated. The implications of these results on our current understanding of defect and diffusion phenomena in Si are discussed.
Our recent work on the room temperature migration and trapping phenomena of self-interstitials and vacancies in crystalline Si is reviewed. Spreading resistance profiling and deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were used to monitor the interaction of ion beam generated defects with dopant atoms, intrinsic impurities (i.e. O and C), pre-existing defect marker layers and sample surface. We have found that both interstitials and vacancies undergo fast long range migration which is interrupted by trapping at impurities and by recombination at defects or at the surface. Effective defect migration lengths as large as 5 μm at room temperature have been observed in highly pure, defect free epitaxial Si samples. A lower limit of 1×10−10 cm2/sec for the room temperature diffusivity of self-interstitials has been determined. Furthermore, by monitoring the migration and interaction processes of point defects injected through a mask, we have established that surface acts as an effective sink for the migrating Si self interstitials.
Our recent work on the room temperature migration and trapping phenomena of ion beam generated point defects in crystalline Si is reviewed. It is shown that a small fraction (˜10−6) of the defects generated at the surface by a shallow implant is injected into the bulk. These defects undergo a long range trap-limited diffusion and interact with both impurities, dopants and preexisting defects along their path. In particular, these interactions result in dopant deactivation and/or partial annihilation of pre-existing vacancy-type defect markers. It is found that in highly pure, epitaxial Si layers, these effects extend to several microns from the surface, demonstrating a long range migration of point defects at room temperature. By a detailed analysis of the experimental evidences we have identified the Si self-interstitials as the major responsible for the observed phenomena. This allowed us to give a lower limit of 6 × 10−11 cm2/s for the room temperature diffusion coefficient of the Si self-interstitials. Room temperature trap-limited migration of vacancies is also detected as a broadening in the divacancy profile of as implanted samples. In this case the room temperature diffusion coefficient of vacancies has been found to be ≥3 × 10−12 cm2/s. These data are presented and their implications discussed.
We used deep level transient spectroscopy to determine the concentration and depth profile of the defects introduced by MeV He and Si implants in n-type crystalline Si. We have found that only ∼ 16% of the Frenkel pairs generated by the ion escapes recombination and is stored into room temperature stable defects such as divacancies and oxygen vacancy complexes. For a light ion (He), the depth distribution of these defect complexes is strongly dependent on the O content of the substrate: it mirrors the initial distribution of I-V pairs, as calculated by TRIM (a Monte Carlo Code) when the O content is high (∼ 1018/cm3) while it can be much wider (up to 2 μm) in a highly pure (low O content) epitaxial substrate. This effect is due to a long range migration of vacancies before clustering or trapping at impurities. This migration is strongly inhibited for an ion of higher mass (such as Si) since in a denser collision cascade direct clustering is strongly favoured with respect to agglomeration of migrating defects.
Our recent work on the room temperature migration and trapping phenomena of ion beam generated point defects in crystalline Si is reviewed. It is shown that a small fraction (∼ 10−6) of the defects generated at the surface by a shallow implant is injected into the bulk. These defects undergo a long range trap-limited diffusion and interact with both impurities, dopants and preexisting defects along their path. In particular, these interactions result in dopant deactivation and/or partial annihilation of pre-existing vacancy-type defect markers. It is found that in highly pure, epitaxial Si layers, these effects extend to several microns from the surface, demonstrating a long range migration of point defects at room temperature. By a detailed analysis of the experimental evidences we have identified the Si self-interstitials as the major responsible for the observed phenomena. This allowed us to give a lower limit of 6×10−11-cm2/s for the room temperature diffusion coefficient of the Si self-interstitials. Room temperature trap-limited migration of vacancies is also detected as a broadening in the divacancy profile of as implanted samples. In this case the room temperature diffusion coefficient of vacancies has been found to be ≥3 × 10−12 cm 2/s. These data are presented and their implications discussed.
We used deep level transient spectroscopy to determine the concentration and depth profile of the defects introduced by MeV He and Si implants in n-type crystalline Si. We have found that only ˜ 16% of the Frenkel pairs generated by the ion escapes recombination and is stored into room temperature stable defects such as divacancies and oxygen vacancy complexes. For a light ion (He), the depth distribution of these defect complexes is strongly dependent on the O content of the substrate: it mirrors the initial distribution of I–V pairs, as calculated by TRIM (a Monte Carlo Code) when the O content is high (˜1018/cm3) while it can be much wider (up to 2 μm) in a highly pure (low O content) epitaxial substrate. This effect is due to a long range migration of vacancies before clustering or trapping at impurities. This migration is strongly inhibited for an ion of higher mass (such as Si) since in a denser collision cascade direct clustering is strongly favoured with respect to agglomeration of migrating defects.
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