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Rapid increase in the hectarage and agricultural systems that use cover cropping for soil conservation and improvement, soil moisture retention, and weed management has highlighted the need to develop formal breeding programs for cover crop species. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) is preferred by many growers due to high biomass production and weed suppression potential, which is believed to be partially due to allelopathy. Rye germplasm exhibits large variability in allelopathic activity, which could be used to breed rye with enhanced weed suppression. Here, we provide an overview of rye history and breeding and describe a strategy to develop rye lines with increased allelopathic activity. The discussion focuses on ways to deal with important challenges to achieve this goal including obligate cross pollination and its consequent high segregation levels, and the need to quantify allelopathic activity under field conditions. This review seeks to encourage weed scientists to collaborate with plant breeders and promote the development of cover crop cultivars better suited to reduce weed populations.
People who inject drugs are at risk of acute bacterial and fungal injecting-related infections. There is evidence that incidence of hospitalizations for injecting-related infections are increasing in several countries, but little is known at an individual level. We aimed to examine injecting-related infections in a linked longitudinal cohort of people who inject drugs in Melbourne, Australia. A retrospective descriptive analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence and incidence of injecting-related infections using administrative emergency department and hospital separation datasets linked to the SuperMIX cohort, from 2008 to 2018. Over the study period, 33% (95%CI: 31–36%) of participants presented to emergency department with any injecting-related infections and 27% (95%CI: 25–30%) were admitted to hospital. Of 1,044 emergency department presentations and 740 hospital separations, skin and soft tissue infections were most common, 88% and 76%, respectively. From 2008 to 2018, there was a substantial increase in emergency department presentations and hospital separations with any injecting-related infections, 48 to 135 per 1,000 person-years, and 18 to 102 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The results emphasize that injecting-related infections are increasing, and that new models of care are needed to help prevent and facilitate early detection of superficial infection to avoid potentially life-threatening severe infections.
The law concerning limitation periods has long been recognised to be unsatisfactory. One area which poses particular problems concerns whether a limitation period can apply to equitable claims “by analogy” under section 36 of the Limitation Act 1980. This article considers three relatively recent decisions of the Court of Appeal – P & O Nedlloyd BV v Arab Metals Co. (The UB Tiger)  EWCA Civ 1717,  1 W.L.R. 2288, The Commissioners for Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs v IGE USA Investments Ltd.  EWCA Civ 534,  Ch. 423 and The Claimants in the Royal Mail Group Litigation v Royal Mail Group Limited  EWCA Civ 1173 – which illustrate that very different approaches have been taken. It is argued that The UB Tiger was wrongly decided, or at least should be limited to specific performance, and revives calls for legislative reform.
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment for COVID-19 has been underutilized due to logistical challenges, lack of access and variable treatment awareness among patients and healthcare professionals. The use of telehealth during the pandemic provides an opportunity to increase access to COVID-19 care.
This is a single-center descriptive study of telehealth-based patient self-referral for mAb therapy between March 1, 2021, to October 31, 2021 at Baltimore Convention Center Field Hospital (BCCFH).
Among the 1001 self-referral patients, the mean age was 47, and most were female (57%) white (66%), and had a primary care provider (62%). During the study period, self-referrals increased from 14 per month in March to 427 in October resulting in a 30-fold increase. About 57% of self-referred patients received a telehealth visit, and of those 82% of patients received mAb infusion therapy. The median time from self-referral to onsite infusion was 2 days (1-3 IQR).
Our study shows the integration of telehealth with a self-referral process improved access to mAb infusion. A high proportion of self-referrals were appropriate and led to timely treatment. This approach helped those without traditional avenues for care and avoided potential delay for patients seeking referral from their PCPs.
An experimental study to investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the propagation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) has been carried out in hydrogen plasma containing two-temperature electrons and dust grains. It is a first step in understanding the propagation properties of IAWs in such an environment. A low-pressure hot cathode discharge method is chosen for plasma production. The desired two-electron groups with distinct temperatures are achieved by inserting two magnetic cages with a cusp-shaped magnetic field of different surface field strengths in the same chamber. The dust grains are dropped into the plasma with the help of a dust dropper, which gain negative charges by interacting with the plasma. The IAWs are excited with the help of a mesh grid inserted into the plasma. A planar Langmuir probe is used as a detector to detect the IAWs. The time-of-flight technique has been applied to measure the phase velocity of the IAWs. The results suggest that in the presence of a magnetic field, the phase velocity of IAWs increases, whereas introducing the dust particles leads to the lower phase velocity. The magnetic field is believed to have a significant effect on the wave damping. This study will aid in utilising IAWs as a diagnostic tool to estimate plasma parameters in the presence of an external magnetic field.
Newcastle disease (ND) is a notifiable disease affecting chickens and other avian species caused by virulent strains of Avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1). While outbreaks of ND can have devastating consequences, avirulent strains of APMV-1 generally cause subclinical infections or mild disease. However, viruses can cause different levels of disease in different species and virulence can evolve following cross-species transmission events. This report describes the detection of three cases of avirulent APMV-1 infection in Great Britain (GB). Case 1 emerged from the ‘testing to exclude’ scheme in chickens in Shropshire while cases 2 and 3 were made directly from notifiable avian disease investigations in chicken broilers in Herefordshire and on premises in Wiltshire containing ducks and mixed species, respectively). Class II/genotype I.1.1 APMV-1 from case 1 shared 99.94% identity to the Queensland V4 strain of APMV-1. Class II/genotype II APMV-1 was detected from case 2 while the class II/genotype I.2 virus from case 3 aligned closely with strains isolated from Anseriformes. Exclusion of ND through rapid detection of avirulent APMV-1 is important where clinical signs caused by avirulent or virulent APMV-1s could be ambiguous. Understanding the diversity of APMV-1s circulating in GB is critical to understanding disease threat from these adaptable viruses.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
Aerial application of an herbicide mixture of triclopyr, dicamba, picloram, and aminopyralid is used to control dense infestations of exotic conifers, notably lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon), in New Zealand. The rates of herbicide applied to control these tree weeds has the potential for off-target impacts through persistence in the forest floor, soil, and water. Persistence of three of these herbicides was investigated in cast needles, forest floor (litter, fermented humic layer [LFH]), and soil following their operational aerial application (triclopyr: 18 kg ai ha−1; dicamba: 5 kg ai ha−1; picloram: 2 kg ai ha−1) at three sites across New Zealand (KF, MD, GE) with dense invasions of P. contorta. Water was collected from a local stream at two sites (KF, MD) in the days/months after spraying. Active ingredients detected across all sites in cast needles, LFH, and mineral soil generally reflected their application rates, with total amounts comprising 81% triclopyr, 14% dicamba, and 5% picloram. Most of the active ingredients were detected in the LFH (59%), a heavy lignin-rich layer of dead needles overlaying the soil. All three herbicides persisted in this layer, at all sites, for up to 2 yr (at study termination). Only triclopyr was detected in mineral soil, where it declined to below detection levels (0.2 mg kg−1) within 1 yr. All three herbicides were detected in stream water on the day of spray application at KF, and during a rainfall event 1 mo later. However, amounts did not exceed New Zealand environmental and drinking water standards, an outcome attributed to a 30-m no-spray buffer zone used at this site. At MD, herbicides were detectable in water up to 4 mo after spraying, with amounts exceeding New Zealand drinking water standards on one occasion, 1 mo after spray application. No spray buffer zones were used at the MD site.
Parent and child mental health has suffered during the pandemic and transition phase. Structured and shared parenting may be intervention targets beneficial to families who are struggling with parent or child mental health challenges.
First, we investigated associations between structured and shared parenting and parent depression symptoms. Second, we investigated associations between structured and shared parenting and depression, hyperactivity/inattention and irritability symptoms in children.
A total of 1027 parents in two-parent households (4797 observations total; 85.1% mothers) completed online surveys about themselves and their children (aged 2–18 years) from April 2020 to July 2022. Structured parenting and shared parenting responsibilities were assessed from April 2020 to November 2021. Symptoms of parent depression, child depression, child hyperactivity and inattention, child irritability, and child emotional and conduct problems were assessed repeatedly (one to 14 times; median of four times) from April 2020 to July 2022.
Parents who reported higher levels of shared parenting responsibilities had lower depression symptoms (β = −0.09 to −0.32, all P < 0.01) longitudinally. Parents who reported higher levels of shared parenting responsibilities had children with fewer emotional problems (ages 2–5 years; β = −0.07, P < 0.05), fewer conduct problems (ages 2–5 years; β = −0.09, P < 0.01) and less irritability (ages 13–18 years; β = −0.27, P < 0.001) longitudinally. Structured parenting was associated with fewer conduct problems (ages 2–5 years; β = −0.05, P < 0.05).
Shared parenting is beneficial for parent and child mental health, even under chaotic or inflexible life conditions. Structured parenting is beneficial for younger children.
Paleoproterozoic massive Cu-Zn±Pb±Au±Ag sulphide deposits metamorphosed to the middle-upper amphibolite facies in central-south Colorado formed in a volcanic arc setting on the edge of the Yavapai crustal province. Previously published U-Pb ages on spatially related granitoids range from ∼1.9 to ∼1.1 Ga, while Pb isotope studies on galena from massive sulphides suggest mineralization formed at around 1.8–1.7 Ga. Some deposits in the Dawson-Green Mountain trend (DGMT) and the Gunnison belt are composed of Cu-Zn-Au-(Pb-Ag) mineralization that were overprinted by later Au-(Ag-Cu-Bi-Se-Te) mineralization. Sulphide mineralization is spatially related to amphibolite and bimodal, mafic-felsic volcanic rocks (gabbro, amphibolite, rhyolite and dacite) and granitoids, but it occurs mostly in biotite-garnet-quartz±sillimanite±cordierite schists and gneisses, spatially related to nodular sillimanite rocks, and in some locations, exhalative rocks (iron formations, gahnite-rich rocks and quartz-garnetite). The major metallic minerals of the massive sulphides include chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and magnetite, with minor galena and gahnite. Altered rocks intimately associated with mineralization primarily consist of various amphiboles (gedrite, tremolite and hornblende), gahnite, biotite, garnet, cordierite, carbonate and rare högbomite. The Zn/Cd ratios of sphalerite (44 to 307) in deposits in the DGMT fall within the range of global volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposits but overlap with sphalerite from sedimentary exhalative (Sedex) deposits. Sulphur isotope values of sulphides (δ34S = −3.3 to +6.5) suggest sulphur was largely derived from magmatic sources, and that variations in isotopic values resulting from thermochemical sulphate reduction are due to small differences in physicochemical conditions. The preferred genetic model is for the deposits to be bimodal-mafic (Gunnison) to mafic-siliciclastic VMS deposits (Cotopaxi, Cinderella-Bon Ton, DGMT).
Understanding the dynamics of staircases in salt fingering convection presents a long-standing theoretical challenge to fluid dynamicists. Although there has been significant progress, particularly through numerical simulations, there are a number of conflicting theoretical explanations as to the driving mechanism underlying staircase formation. The Phillips effect proposes that layering in stirred stratified flow is due to an antidiffusive process, and it has been suggested that this mechanism may also be responsible for salt fingering staircases. However, the details of this process, as well as mathematical models to predict the evolution and merger dynamics of staircases, have yet to be established. We generalise the theory of the Phillips effect to a three-component system (e.g. temperature, salinity, energy) and demonstrate a regularised nonlinear model of layering based on mixing length parametrisations. The model predicts both the inception of layering and its long-term evolution through mergers, while generalising, and remaining consistent with, previous results for double-diffusive layering based on flux ratios. Our model of salt fingering is formulated using spatial averaging processes, and closed by a mixing length parametrised in terms of the kinetic energy and the ratio of the temperature and salt gradients. The model predicts a layering instability for a bounded range of parameter values in the salt fingering regime. Nonlinear solutions show that an initially unstable linear buoyancy gradient develops into layers, which proceed to merge through a process of stronger interfaces growing at the expense of weaker ones. Our results indicate that these mergers are responsible for the characteristic increase of buoyancy flux through thermohaline staircases.
New technologies and disruptions related to Coronavirus disease-2019 have led to expansion of decentralized approaches to clinical trials. Remote tools and methods hold promise for increasing trial efficiency and reducing burdens and barriers by facilitating participation outside of traditional clinical settings and taking studies directly to participants. The Trial Innovation Network, established in 2016 by the National Center for Advancing Clinical and Translational Science to address critical roadblocks in clinical research and accelerate the translational research process, has consulted on over 400 research study proposals to date. Its recommendations for decentralized approaches have included eConsent, participant-informed study design, remote intervention, study task reminders, social media recruitment, and return of results for participants. Some clinical trial elements have worked well when decentralized, while others, including remote recruitment and patient monitoring, need further refinement and assessment to determine their value. Partially decentralized, or “hybrid” trials, offer a first step to optimizing remote methods. Decentralized processes demonstrate potential to improve urban-rural diversity, but their impact on inclusion of racially and ethnically marginalized populations requires further study. To optimize inclusive participation in decentralized clinical trials, efforts must be made to build trust among marginalized communities, and to ensure access to remote technology.
A novel lichen species occurring on rocks was collected from three different localities within Deosai National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses of the nrDNA ITS and nuLSU regions revealed that it clustered within the genus Anamylopsora. Further chemical and morpho-anatomical analyses confirmed its uniqueness, and it is described here as a new species under the name A. pakistanica. The distinguishing characters are: an irregularly squamulose appressed thallus on rocks without rhizines; an epinecral layer up to 25 μm thick; ascospores that are hyaline, simple, thick-walled with a smooth surface; septate paraphyses with a pigmented apical cell in a gel-like matrix; globose to subglobose pycnidia with hyaline and bacilliform pycnidiospores. In particular, the species is distinguished from other members of the genus by morpho-anatomical features including the coloration of the thalli, the presence of a thick lower cortex (up to 100 μm), and the presence of simple, thick-walled ascospores. Specimens were found at altitudes up to 4587 m, the highest elevation yet reported for Anamylopsora. A key and comparison to all existing species of the genus Anamylopsora is also given.
Several hypotheses may explain the association between substance use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. However, few studies have utilized a large multisite dataset to understand this complex relationship. Our study assessed the relationship between alcohol and cannabis use trajectories and PTSD and depression symptoms across 3 months in recently trauma-exposed civilians.
In total, 1618 (1037 female) participants provided self-report data on past 30-day alcohol and cannabis use and PTSD and depression symptoms during their emergency department (baseline) visit. We reassessed participant's substance use and clinical symptoms 2, 8, and 12 weeks posttrauma. Latent class mixture modeling determined alcohol and cannabis use trajectories in the sample. Changes in PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed across alcohol and cannabis use trajectories via a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance.
Three trajectory classes (low, high, increasing use) provided the best model fit for alcohol and cannabis use. The low alcohol use class exhibited lower PTSD symptoms at baseline than the high use class; the low cannabis use class exhibited lower PTSD and depression symptoms at baseline than the high and increasing use classes; these symptoms greatly increased at week 8 and declined at week 12. Participants who already use alcohol and cannabis exhibited greater PTSD and depression symptoms at baseline that increased at week 8 with a decrease in symptoms at week 12.
Our findings suggest that alcohol and cannabis use trajectories are associated with the intensity of posttrauma psychopathology. These findings could potentially inform the timing of therapeutic strategies.
The Cambrian (Miaolingian; Wuliuan) Spence Shale Lagerstätte of northern Utah and southern Idaho is one of the most diverse Burgess Shale-type deposits of Laurentia. It yields a diverse fauna consisting of abundant biomineralized and locally abundant soft-bodied fossils, along a range of environments from shallow-water carbonates to deep-shelf dark shales. Panarthropods are the dominant component throughout the deposit, both in time and space, but whereas the trilobites and agnostoids are abundant, most of the soft-bodied taxa are only known from very few specimens. Additionally, the knowledge of soft-bodied panarthropods is currently largely limited to locations in the Wellsville Mountains of northeastern Utah. This contribution describes 21 new soft-bodied panarthropods from six locations, including the first occurrences of soft-bodied panarthropods in the High-Creek, Smithfield Creek, Spence Gulch, and Two-Mile Canyon localities. Additionally, we report the presence of bradoriids— i.e., Branchiocaris pretiosa Resser, 1929, Perspicaris? dilatus Robison and Richards, 1981, Naraoia? sp. indet., Thelxiope cf. T. palaeothalassia Simonetta and Delle Cave, 1975, and Tuzoia guntheri Robison and Richards, 1981—for the first time from the Spence Shale Lagerstätte; the first reported occurrence outside of the Burgess Shale for Thelxiope cf. T. palaeothalassia; and the first Wuliuan occurrence of Tuzoia guntheri. We also report on a new hurdiid carapace element and additional specimens of Buccaspinea cooperi? Pates et al., 2021, Dioxycaris argenta Walcott, 1886, Hurdia sp. indet., and Tuzoia retifera Walcott, 1912. This new material improves our understanding of the panarthropod fauna of the Spence Shale Lagerstätte and substantially increases our understanding of the distribution of the described taxa in time and space.
Large gatherings of people on cruise ships and warships are often at high risk of COVID-19 infections. To assess the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 on warships and cruise ships and to quantify the effectiveness of the containment measures, the transmission coefficient (β), basic reproductive number (R0), and time to deploy containment measures were estimated by the Bayesian Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered model. A meta-analysis was conducted to predict vaccine protection with or without non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). The analysis showed that implementing NPIs during voyages could reduce the transmission coefficients of SARS-CoV-2 by 50%. Two weeks into the voyage of a cruise that begins with 1 infected passenger out of a total of 3,711 passengers, we estimate there would be 45 (95% CI:25-71), 33 (95% CI:20-52), 18 (95% CI:11-26), 9 (95% CI:6-12), 4 (95% CI:3-5), and 2 (95% CI:2-2) final cases under 0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% vaccine protection, respectively, without NPIs. The timeliness of strict NPIs along with implementing strict quarantine and isolation measures is imperative to contain COVID-19 cases in cruise ships. The spread of COVID-19 on ships was predicted to be limited in scenarios corresponding to at least 70% protection from prior vaccination, across all passengers and crew.
One challenge for multisite clinical trials is ensuring that the conditions of an informative trial are incorporated into all aspects of trial planning and execution. The multicenter model can provide the potential for a more informative environment, but it can also place a trial at risk of becoming uninformative due to lack of rigor, quality control, or effective recruitment, resulting in premature discontinuation and/or non-publication. Key factors that support informativeness are having the right team and resources during study planning and implementation and adequate funding to support performance activities. This communication draws on the experience of the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) Trial Innovation Network (TIN) to develop approaches for enhancing the informativeness of clinical trials. We distilled this information into three principles: (1) assemble a diverse team, (2) leverage existing processes and systems, and (3) carefully consider budgets and contracts. The TIN, comprised of NCATS, three Trial Innovation Centers, a Recruitment Innovation Center, and 60+ CTSA Program hubs, provides resources to investigators who are proposing multicenter collaborations. In addition to sharing principles that support the informativeness of clinical trials, we highlight TIN-developed resources relevant for multicenter trial initiation and conduct.
Urolithiasis prevalence is approximately 15-20%, the third most common urological presentation to emergency departments (ED). In the ED, renal stones are usually diagnosed by clinical presentation, but imaging modalities play a role in confirmation and exclusion of hydronephrosis. 85% of stones are calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate, which are radio opaque, and 15% are radiolucent uric acid or cysteine stones. Non-contrast CT scans have 95% and 97% sensitivity and specificity rates, while x-rays have 57% and 76% respectively. In Wexford General Hospital, radiology prefers plain film x-rays prior to CT scans in assessing kidney stones.
The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of x-rays in patients undergoing low dose non-contrast CT for kidney stones and to apply this information to clinical practice. A retrospective audit was conducted using NIMIS/PACS from December 1, 2021-March 31,2022. All patients who underwent CT KUBS for evaluation of renal stones were included, and CT KUB findings were compared with initial x-ray findings.
A CT KUB was performed on 56 patients to assess renal stones, and 29 patients had renal stones. Among 29 patients, 21 had x-rays and CT scans performed, and 12 had x-ray findings that indicated renal stones, indicating 57% sensitivity. The study found 36 patients had x-rays for renal stones, but no CT scan was scheduled for 15 patients who might have undiagnosed radiolucent stones.
Radiological imaging plays a central role in the management of suspected renal stones. CT KUB is a useful tool for evaluating patients with radio-opaque kidney stones as well as detecting radiolucent stones and renal pathologies that can be missed with plain radiographs. Low-dose CT KUB is recommended as a first-line investigation for renal stone patients to reduce radiation risks and unnecessary abdominal x-rays while assisting clinicians in accurately diagnosing patients and excluding other possible causes.