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To determine the demographic pattern of juvenile-onset parkinsonism (JP, <20 years), young-onset (YOPD, 20–40 years), and early onset (EOPD, 40–50 years) Parkinson’s disease (PD) in India.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a 2-year, pan-India, multicenter collaborative study to analyze clinical patterns of JP, YOPD, and EOPD. All patients under follow-up of movement disorders specialists and meeting United Kingdom (UK) Brain Bank criteria for PD were included.
A total of 668 subjects (M:F 455:213) were recruited with a mean age at onset of 38.7 ± 8.1 years. The mean duration of symptoms at the time of study was 8 ± 6 years. Fifteen percent had a family history of PD and 13% had consanguinity. JP had the highest consanguinity rate (53%). YOPD and JP cases had a higher prevalence of consanguinity, dystonia, and gait and balance issues compared to those with EOPD. In relation to nonmotor symptoms, panic attacks and depression were more common in YOPD and sleep-related issues more common in EOPD subjects. Overall, dyskinesias were documented in 32.8%. YOPD subjects had a higher frequency of dyskinesia than EOPD subjects (39.9% vs. 25.5%), but they were first noted later in the disease course (5.7 vs. 4.4 years).
This large cohort shows differing clinical patterns in JP, YOPD, and EOPD cases. We propose that cutoffs of <20, <40, and <50 years should preferably be used to define JP, YOPD, and EOPD.
India is a de facto continent in the garb of a country. COVID-19 is an unprecedented global pandemic spanning continents. Being the second most populous country in the world, experts regard how India deals with the outbreak will have enormous impact on the world’s ability to deal with it. The country has been in lockdown since March 25, 2020 until the current time of early May 2020, and despite several challenges, there has been early success. The major conflict now is the health benefits weighed up against the deleterious social and economic consequences of prolonged lockdown, that is, life versus livelihood. This unprecedented calamity could potentially cause or exacerbate various psychiatric disorders. It is recognized that lifestyle changes and limited screen time may help reduce mental health difficulties. Considering the physical barriers to consultation, development of telemedicine services is needed. This pandemic, like other previous pandemics, will pass, and until this happens, we must remain extremely vigilant.
Perinatal depression (PND) has adverse effects on the well being of the mother-infant dyad. Women with PND often show different patterns of help seeking behaviour.
We aimed to examine the association between PND and the reporting of health events and healthcare use in a cohort of British women of Pakistani origin.
Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics in the North West of England and followed up 6 months postnatal. Sixty-seven women diagnosed with depression using the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) were compared with 156 non depressed controls in terms of reporting of health events elicited using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS). Health events included any condition that involved attending primary or secondary care.
Depressed mothers were 1.5 times more likely to report a health event within the perinatal period (p=0.005) and 1.8 times more likely to report a health event (0.031) outside the perinatal period. Depressed mothers were more likely to attend secondary care services for their children (p=0.001) but there was no significant difference in terms of attendance at primary care.
Depressed mothers were more likely to report personal health events and more likely to access secondary care rather than primary care services for health events affecting their children. This highlights the hidden costs of this condition and the need for adequate diagnosis and management of this treatable but under recognised illness.
Crystal structure analysis of a pyrazole carboxylic acid derivative, 5-(trifluoromethyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (1) has been carried out from laboratory powder X-ray diffraction data. The crystal packing in the pyrazole carboxylic acid derivative exhibits an interplay of strong O–H…O, C–H…N and C–H…F hydrogen bonds to generate a three-dimensional molecular packing via the formation of R22(8) and R22(9) rings. Molecular electrostatic potential calculations indicated that carbonyl oxygen, pyrazole nitrogen and fluorine atoms to be the strongest acceptors. The relative contribution of different interactions to the Hirshfeld surface of pyrazole carboxylic acid and a few related structures retrieved from CSD indicates that H…H, N…H and O…H interactions can account for almost 70% of the Hirsfeld surface area in these compounds.
A novel microfilarial sheath protein (MfP) of the human filarial parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and its proinflammatory activity on host macrophages were identified recently. MfP is a homolog of the nematode bestrophin-9 superfamily that acts as a ligand of macrophage Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to induce inflammation through NF-κB activation. Therefore, the presence and functional implication of this novel protein in adult-stage parasites were open questions to answer. In this study, the bovine filarial parasite Setaria cervi was used to simulate adult W. bancrofti. We detected the presence of MfP in adult-stage S. cervi through clear immunological cross-reactivity and immunolocalization employing an anti-MfP antibody developed in mice. Therefore, our findings put forward S. cervi as a cost-effective source of immunodominant filarial antigen MfP to simulate its future utilization in the immunotherapeutic intervention of lymphatic filariasis.
Hena Mukherjee, Education consultant and was previously Lead Education Specialist with the World Bank,
Jasbir S. Singh, Former Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,
Rozilini M. Fernandez-Chung, Currently Vice-President, HELP University College (Malaysia), and was formerly with the Malaysian Qualifications Agency,
T. Marimuthu, Adjunct Professor, School of Education and Cognitive Sciences, Asia e University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and formerly was Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Since independence in 1957, Malaysia has transformed itself from an agrarian to an increasingly industrial and globalized economy. Malaysia was formed in 1963 comprising Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, with the last leaving the group in 1965. In the country of 30-odd million, 62.1 per cent are Malays and other indigenous groups, 21.8 per cent Chinese, 6.5 per cent Indians and 9.6 per cent Others (includes 8.7 per cent non-citizens). Malaya and Singapore were served by the University of Malaya (UM), located in Singapore, until 1957 when a branch campus was established in Kuala Lumpur. In 1962, it split into two entities, University of Malaya and University of Singapore, as befits the two sovereign states.
Formal steps were taken post-independence to develop higher education institutions to provide the high-level skills that the industrializing nation required. These aspirations took particular shape after the civil disturbances of 1969. Higher education in Malaysia expanded exponentially over the last four decades with dramatic improvement in access to public and private higher education institutions (HEIs). The factors contributing to increased access were primarily high secondary enrolment and completion, building on democratization and universalization of the system; an increasingly diversified institutional pattern of universities, colleges, polytechnics and community colleges catering to various levels of achievement; a burgeoning private higher education sector as a result of liberalization policies; and a combination of public and private sources in the financing of HEIs.
This chapter examines current higher education policies and implementation in Malaysia, understanding their historical antecedents in relation to higher education access, equity and quality issues. The issues are analysed within the overall context of the need for well-qualified and highly skilled graduate participation in an increasingly globalized knowledge-based economy with the goal of reaching high income status as envisioned by Vision 2020 (Mohamad 1991). The key challenge is human capital growth. Underlying the discussion is the question: which policies and actions have worked, and which need to be reviewed and adjusted to ensure that the nation's talent pool will match the demands of a high income, knowledge economy?
METHODOLOGY AND DATA
The study draws heavily on government documentation issued by the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), and the Department of Statistics, particularly its Census Reports and Labour Force Surveys. Data provided by officials and politicians to the press have been included.
P. Mukherjee, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland,
R. Tandon, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona,
S. Ulukus, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland
In this chapter, we will discuss how the quality and availability of channel state information (CSI) affects secrecy in wireless networks. In particular, we study how the delay in the availability of CSI affects secrecy in the context of the two-user broadcast channel with confidential messages. We adopt a secure degrees of freedom perspective and investigate various CSI scenarios, including cases when the availability of CSI at the transmitter varies across users and with time. We discuss how to leverage such variabilities in CSI for secrecy and highlight the differences between the optimal degrees of freedom with or without secrecy constraints.
The availability of channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT) plays a crucial role in securing wireless communication at the physical layer. Various well-known physical-layer security techniques such as coding for the fading wiretap channel [1–4], coding for the multiple-antenna wiretap channel [5–8], artificial noise injection , cooperative jamming [10, 11], cooperation for secrecy [12–18], secure signal alignment [19–22], and other related techniques rely upon the assumption of timely availability of precise CSIT; see also a recent review article in . In most practical scenarios, the channel gains are measured by the receivers and then fed back to the transmitters. The measurement and feedback process necessarily introduces imprecision and delay into the CSI. Motivated by this fact, in this chapter we explore the fundamental limits of physical layer security when the CSIT is imperfect. For concreteness, we will focus on a particular wireless network model: the multiple-input single-output (MISO) broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCCM). This effectively models practical systems such as a cellular downlink network where each user wants not only reliability but also confidentiality of the information intended for it.
The focus of this chapter is on the secure degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) region of the fading two-user MISO BCCM, in which the transmitter with two antennas has two confidential messages, one for each of the single antenna users (see Fig. 8.1). The secrecy capacity region of the MISO broadcast channel (BC) for the case of perfect and instantaneous CSI at all terminals (transmitter and the receivers) has been characterized in [24, 25]. Using these results, it follows that for the two-user MISO BCCM, the sum s.d.o.f. is 2 with perfect and instantaneous CSIT.
The occurrence of pesticidal pollution in the environment and the resistance in the mosquito species makes an urge for the safer and an effective pesticide. Permethrin, a poorly water-soluble pyrethroid pesticide, was formulated into a hydrodispersible nanopowder through rapid solvent evaporation of pesticide-loaded oil in water microemulsion. Stability studies confirmed that the nanopermethrin dispersion was stable in paddy field water for 5 days with the mean particle sizes of 175.3 ± 0.75 nm and zeta potential of −30.6 ± 0.62 mV. The instability rate of the nanopermethrin particles was greater in alkaline (pH 10) medium when compared with the neutral (pH 7) and acidic (pH 4) dispersion medium. The colloidal dispersion at 45°C was found to be less stable compared with the dispersions at 25 and 5°C. The 12- and 24-h lethal indices (LC50) for nanopermethrin were found to be 0.057 and 0.014 mg l−1, respectively. These results were corroborative with the severity of damages observed in the mosquito larvae manifested in epithelial cells and the evacuation of the midgut contents. Further, the results were substantiated by the decrease in cellular biomolecules and biomarker enzyme activity in nanopermethrin treated larvae when compared to bulk and control treatment.
We consider a system of N parallel queues with identical exponential service rates and a single dispatcher where tasks arrive as a Poisson process. When a task arrives, the dispatcher always assigns it to an idle server, if there is any, and to a server with the shortest queue among d randomly selected servers otherwise (1≤d≤N). This load balancing scheme subsumes the so-called join-the-idle queue policy (d=1) and the celebrated join-the-shortest queue policy (d=N) as two crucial special cases. We develop a stochastic coupling construction to obtain the diffusion limit of the queue process in the Halfin‒Whitt heavy-traffic regime, and establish that it does not depend on the value of d, implying that assigning tasks to idle servers is sufficient for diffusion level optimality.
The study characterizes a collection of 67 neonatal septicaemic Escherichia coli isolates on the basis of phylogroup, serotype, virulence, antibiotic resistance and also the association of CTX-M-producing E. coli and the ST131 clone in a developing country. Phylogroups B2 and D were predominant (33% and 19%, respectively). The most prevalent virulence factors (VFs) were traT (69%) and iucC (68%) and most VFs were concentrated in the B2 isolates. High levels of resistance (⩾70%) to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was recorded but meropenem remained the most active antimicrobial. Six (9%) of the study isolates belonged to the ST131 clone, five of which were from the same hospital, and were either indistinguishable or closely related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although the prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing isolates was high (81%), the ST131 clone was relatively infrequent (11%) in extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers. The ST131 clone was characterized by the presence of blaCTX-M-15, qnrS, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, IncF plasmids and virulence determinants such as iucC, papC, traT, usp, hlyA, iroNE.coli, cnf, and sat. We conclude that clonal spread of ST131 did not contribute directly to the high prevalence of CTX-M-15 in our settings.
The physical mechanisms responsible for electrically-induced parametric degradation in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors are examined using a combination of experiments, device simulation, and first-principles defect analysis. A relatively simple formulation is developed under the assumption that the hot-electron scattering cross-section is independent of the electron energy. In this case, one can relate the change in defect concentration to the operational characteristics of a device, such as the spatial and energy distribution of electrons (electron temperature), electric field distribution, and electron energy loss to the lattice.
Filariasis is a mosquito-borne disease that causes lymphedema and the main vector is Culex quinquefasciatus. A simple measure was taken to eradicate the vector using nanoemulsion. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was formulated in various ratios comprising of eucalyptus oil, tween 80 and water by ultrasonication. The stability of nanoemulsion was observed over a period of time and 1:2 ratios of eucalyptus oil (6%) and surfactant (12%) was found to be stable. The formulated eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 9.4 nm and were spherical in shape. The larvicidal activity of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion and bulk emulsion was tested and compared. Our nanoemulsion showed higher activity when compared to bulk emulsion. The histopathology of larvae-treated and untreated nanoemulsion was analyzed. Furthermore, biochemical assays were carried out to examine the effect of nanoemulsion on biochemical characteristics of larvae. The treated larval homogenate showed decrease in total protein content and a significant reduction in the levels of acetylcholinesterase. The levels of acid and alkaline phosphatase also showed reduction as compared to control larval homogenate.
Different surface patterns with nanometer length-scales were obtained by electrochemical processing of metallic glasses. The wetting behaviour of these surface patterns was studied using sessile drop technique with distilled water droplet. It is demonstrated that the hydrophilic-hydrophobic nature of the metallic glass surface can be controlled through nano topography. The contact angle was found to increase from 70° for the flat metallic glass surface to 112° for the nano-dendritic structure. Atomic force microscopy was utilized to explain the difference in contact angle in term of the surface roughness for different nano-textures.
We have fabricated by pulse laser deposition very thin (∼5-7 nm) and thick (∼27-408 nm) films of composition Fe66B24Nb4Ni6 on silicon and quartz substrates respectively, and studied their magnetic and magneto-optic properties at room temperature. We find that the thicker films on silicon can be tuned by appropriate thermal annealing to exploit soft magnetic characteristics with low HC, and high MS values. The magnetic hysteretic loops of the as-deposited thicker films on silicon substrates show two interesting characteristics: 1) increase in the coercivity with the film thickness and 2) the onset of a two stage process during the approach to magnetic saturation. The initial in-plane characteristic of the hysteresis loop is followed by a linear anisotropic behavior between remanence and saturation- that changes into square soft-magnetic loops on decreasing the film thickness. By suitable annealing the intrinsic strain disappears at relatively low temperatures (≤200 oC); the thicker films can be tailored to exhibit a simple soft-magnetic square loop with low HC. The ∼5-7 nm films deposited on glass are transparent and have been investigated for their magneto-optic properties using Faraday rotation (FR) measurement technique. Very high values of FR in the range 4-20 deg/µm almost linearly dependent on the wavelength of light in the range 405-611 nm are observed. The observed high values of Faraday rotation over a wide range of wavelength of light are useful for the applications as magneto-optic sensors in the UV to visible range.
We have previously reported, based on fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) data, that Zr50Cu45Al5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) contains significant icosahedral and crystal-like medium-range order. Here, we report similar finding for Zr54Cu38Al8 BMG, which is a poorer glass former. Like Zr50Cu45Al5, Zr54Cu38Al8 contains icosahedral and crystal-like structures. In the as-cast state, the crystal-like peak in the FEM data is stronger than icosahedral-like peak. After annealing at 0.83Tg (573 K), the icosahedral-like peak increases, but, unlike Zr50Cu45Al5, the crystal-like peak does not decrease. This tendency toward stronger, more thermally stable crystal-like order may be associated with the poorer glass forming ability of Zr54Cu38Al8.
The effect of compositional changes on the glass forming ability of Mg alloys containing Y was studied. Four rapidly-solidified Mg-alloys were investigated: Mg91Y7.5La1.5, Mg85Y12La3, Mg86Y9.5Cu2.5La2 and Mg82Y11La4Eu3. XRD and DSC spectra revealed that the Mg86Y9.5Cu2.5La2 was the most amorphous out of the investigated alloys. A model based on a spinodal-like decomposition of a supercooled liquid alloy was developed. The model provides qualitative and quantitative explanation for the variation in glass forming ability.